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"" (, Macedonian and , "Kukuš") is an industrial city in Central Macedonia, Greece. As of 2001 there were 17,430 people living in the city proper and a total of 24,812 people living in the administrative area of the municipality of . It is also the capital city of the prefecture (or "nomos") of and the capital of one of the two local provinces (or "eparchia") of its prefecture.

ncient Time
There have been important findings excavated at various regions of the prefecture of with elements dating back to as early as the Bronze and Iron Age. Their remains as well as ancient tombs of the 2nd millennium BC provide invaluable information about lifestyle at that time.
The town of Paeonia, near the Axios River, is cited for the first time in the Homer’s Epics. As early as the 8th century BC, the wider region of was established as a Greek region and ruled as part of the Macedonian kingdom. was in the centre of an area, called Krestonia. When Phillip the 2nd of Macedon, visited Krestonia, the locals offered to him, olives from Krestonia valley, something that he had never eaten before . At that time, many towns flourished, such as "Idomeni", "Atalanti" (Axioupoli nowadays), "Gortynia" (Gorgopi nowadays), "Fyska", "Terpillos", "Klitae" (Xylokeratia nowadays), "Vragylos" (Metalliko nowadays), "Ioron" (Palatiano nowadays), "Chaetae" (Tsaousitsa nowadays), "Carabia" (Limnotopos nowadays), "Bairos" (Kastro nowadays), "Morrylos" (Ano Apostoli nowadays), "Doveros" (Doirani nowadays), "Evropos" and "Kallindria".

oman and Byzantine Time
In 148 BC, the Romans take over for two and a half centuries and eventually gave way to invasions of different tribes, such as the Goths, the Huns, the Avars and the Slavs who gradually settled in the Balkan Peninsula. The name of the city had different variants, depended on the accent of the different languages, the invaders spoke. "Kallikon" in early Byzantine times, Kalkis or by the Greeks, "Kilkitsi" or "Kılkış" by the Ottomans and Кукуш ("Kukuš, Kukush") by Slavs.

changed hands several times over the years between the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires. In the Byzantine era it finally flourished, despite an almost complete destruction by the Bulgarians at the end of 10th century. During the reign of the Palaeologus dynasty in particular, the prefecture saw the completion of a number of important infrastructure works.

ttoman Rul
The period of prosperity ended in 1430, when Thessalonica and the entire region came under the Ottomans. After 1850, there was one Greek church, "Panagia tou ", (Madonna of ), at the foot of Saint George hill and one Greek school. In the Macedonian Struggle, several inhabitants of participated with their efforts. The leaders of Greek efforts were Georgios Samaras, Ioannis Doiranlis and Petros Koukidis with their armed corps. Evangelia Traianou Tzoukou and Ekaterini Stampouli were also the leaders for the Greek education and hospitalization of Macedonian fighters, although the Bulgarians had the city under control. Great support to the Greek efforts was given by the "Chatziapostolou" family. Chatziapostolou family owned a great farm in Metalliko, the field crop of which, was almost completely given to fund the Greek efforts. The farm was also a shelter for the Macedonian fighters.

By the mid 1800s had become a town primarily populated with Bulgarians, , , British Diplomatic Documents concerning Bulgarian National Question, 1878-1893, Sofia 1993 (bilingual edition), p. 286
(Slav speaking Christians with Bulgarain consciousnessVacalopoulos, Apostolos. Modern history of Macedonia (1830-1912), Thessaloniki 1988, p. 61-62). According to a neutral estimation, there were about 500 Greeks, 500 Turks and 4.500 BulgariansIn Greek "Macedonia: 4.000 years of Greek Civilization" Sakellariou, 1990 at that era. A 1873 Ottoman study concluded that the population of consisted of 1,170 households of which there were 5,235 Bulgarian inhabitants, 155 Muslims and 40 Romani people.„Македония и Одринско. Статистика на населението от 1873 г.“ Macedonian Scientific Institute, Sofiya, 1995, pages.160-161. A Vasil Kanchov study of 1900 counted 7,000 Bulgarian and 750 Turkish inhabitants in the town. Another survey in 1905 established the presence of 9,712 Exarchists, 40 Patriachists, 592 Uniate Christians and 16 Protestants. Brancoff, D.M. "La Macédoine et sa Population Chrétienne". Paris, 1905, р.98-99.

irst and Second Balkan War
In the First Balkan War of 1912 it was briefly taken over by Bulgaria. In the Second Balkan War of 1913, the Greek army captured the city after a three-day battle between June 19 and June 21 from the Bulgarians who were badly outnumbered. The battle was costly, with over 8,652 casualties on the Greek side and 7,000 on the Bulgarian,. was almost completely destroyed after the battle by the Greek army, and virtually all of its pre-war 7,000 Bulgarian inhabitants were expelled into Bulgaria. The new town was built closer to the railway to Thessaloniki, around the Greek church of Saint George, and was settled by Greeks transferred from Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Yugoslavia, especially from Strumica. The Patriachists from Strumica built the church of Pentekedeka Martyron (Fifteen Martyrs, which took its name from the main church of the Greek patriacharate in Strumica. The resettled Greeks were so many that was temporarily renamed Nea Stromnitsa (New Strumica).

In the mid-twenties, after the Asia Minor Catastrophe when Greece lost its Asia Minor territories to Turkey, waves of destitute refugees washed into , thus giving a new boost to the region and contributing to the increase of its population. Likewise, the Turks (a generic term for the Muslim population) of the region had to leave for the new Turkish state in the exchange of populations. By 1928 1,679 Refugee families comprising of 6,433 individuals had been resettled in . Barely two decades later, the Second World War broke out and devastated the region once again.

orld War I
The significance of the Battle of -Lahanas for the Greeks can be appreciated by the fact that Greece named a battleship after the city. However, " was sunk by a German Junkers Ju 87 (Stuka) dive-bomber on April 23, 1941, along with its sister-ship, in the third week of the invasion of Greece by Nazi Germany. The city of came under the Axis of Bulgarian occupation in 1943 when the Bulgarian zone of occupation was expanded to include the prefectures of and Halkidiki. The new authorities pursued a policy of "Bulgarianisation" to annex the region to Bulgaria, but were forbidden from doing so by their German allies, who feared destabilising Greece if the Bulgarians proceeded. The region became a major centre for Greek partisan resistance activity before being liberated and rejoint Greece in 1944. The local Bulgarian dialect, the Kukush-Voden dialect, is rarely spoken by " inhabitants.

unicipal district
**Aktopotamia (Ακροποταμιά)
**Ano Potamia (Άνω Ποταμιά)
**Kato Potamia (Κάτω Ποταμιά)
*Megali Vryssi
**Dafnochori (Δαφνοχώρι)
**Leventochori (Λεβεντοχώρι)
*Vaptisti (Βαπτιστής)
**Kyriakeika (Κυριακαίικα)
*Krousson (Κρουσσών)

*Argyroupolis (Αργυρούπολη)
*Xirovryssi (Ξηρόβρυση)
*Zacharaton (Ζαχαράτο)
*Metalliko (Μεταλλικό),
*Sevasto (Σεβαστό)

amous inhabitants of
*Alexander Stanishev, Bulgarian scientist and politician, ex minister
*Georgios Floridis, Greek politician, ex minister
*Theodoros Mouratidis,Swedish politician
*Savvas Tsitouridis, Greek politician, ex minister
*Dimitrios Bisbasis "Basis", Cherso, Greek singer
*Panteleimon Savvidis, Greek journalist, tv-presenter
*Konstantinos Kiltidis, Greek politician, sub-minister of Agriculture
*Gotse Delchev, Bulgarian revolutionary from IMRO (1872-1903)
*Petar Darvingov, Bulgarian officer and military historian
*Dimitar Vlahov, Bulgarian revolutionary (1878 - 1953)
*Hristo Smirnenski, Bulgarian poet (1898-1923)
*Lazaros Pavlidis, Greek author (1929 - 2004)
*Dimitrios Markos, Greek footballer
*Loukas Mavrokefalidis, Greek Professional Basketball Player (1984)
*Viki Chadjivassiliou, Greek journalist


Category:Cities, towns and villages in the Prefecture
Category:Greek prefectural capitals
Category: Prefecture

fr:Kilkís (municipalité)
nl: (stad)
ru:Килкис (город)
uk:Кілкіс (місто)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 28.01.2021 10:17 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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