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Kikinda

Serbia, Kikinda
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"Kikinda" (Serbian Cyrillic: Кикинда) is a town and a municipality located in Serbia, in the autonomous province of Vojvodina. It is situated at 45.84° N, 20.45° E. Kikinda municipality has approximately 67,000 inhabitants. It is the administrative centre of the of the Republic of Serbia.

am
Blackthorn ("Prunus spinosa")
In Serbian, the city is known as "Kikinda" (Кикинда), in Hungarian as "Nagykikinda", in German as "Gross Kikinda" or "Großkikinda", in Latin as "Magna Kikinda", in Romanian as "Chichinda Mare", in Slovak as "Kikinda", in Rusyn as Кикинда, and in Croatian as "Kikinda". Until 1947 it was known in Serbian as "Velika Kikinda" (Велика Кикинда).

The name of Kikinda is first found recorded at the beginning of the 15th century as "Kokenyd", and most probably denoted, together with the name "Ecehida", a number of small settlements, i.e. estates, firstly belonging to Hungarian and later to Serb local rulers.

The name of the town first appears on a map of 1718 as "Gross Kikinda", indicating an uninhabited area or a waste land and not a settlement. The adjective "Gross", "Nagy" or "Velika" () in German, Hungarian and Serbian versions respectively, was in official use as the name of the town until the end of 1947.

The etymological origin of the name "Kikinda" has not quite been agreed upon. The two most widespread theories argue that the name comes from "kökeny", the Hungarian word for blackthorn, a plant native to the region, and "kik", an old Slavic word for "head".

oat of arm

The official Coat of Arms of Kikinda was issued by Maria Theresa of Austria on November 12, 1774. The Coat of Arms of Kikinda represents impaled head of a Ottoman on a sabre, due to military contribution of population of Kikinda during a Austro-Turkish Wars.

nhabited place
Map of Kikinda municipality
The municipality of Kikinda comprises the city of Kikinda, nine villages and two hamlets.

The nine villages are:
*Sajan ()
*Banatska Topola ()
*Rusko Selo ()
*Mokrin
*Bašaid
*Iđoš
*Novi Kozarci
*Banatsko Veliko Selo
*Nakovo

The two hamlets are:
*Bikač, officially part of Bašaid
*Vincaid, officially part of Banatska Topola

emographics (2002 census
thnic groups in the Kikinda municipalit
*Serbs = 51,212 (76.43%)
*Hungarians = 8,607 (12.84%)
*Yugoslavs = 1,670 (2.49%)
*Roma = 1,564 (2.33%)
*Others = 3,747 (5.91%)

ettlements by ethnic majorit
Most of the settlements in the municipality have an ethnic Serb majority, while one settlement has a Hungarian ethnic majority: Sajan (Hungarian: Szaján). Two others have over 20% Hungarians: Banatska Topola and Rusko Selo.

thnic groups in the city of Kikind
*Serbs = 31,317 (74.68%)
*Hungarians = 5,290 (12.62%)
*Yugoslavs = 1,355 (3.23%)
*Others.

istor
rigin
The city of Kikinda is located on a territory rich in remains of old and disappeared cultures. Numerous archeological findings are the testimony of people who lived here more than seven thousand years ago. However, the continuity of that duration was often broken. People arrived and departed, lived and disappeared, depending on various historical circumstances.

edieva

The name of Kokenyd is first found recorded in 1423 as a property of the Hungarian king Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor.

Settlement was deserted after Banat Uprising in 1594.

odern histor

Cross at the main square in Kikinda, at the beginning of 20th century
The City Square and the Catholic church
The history of modern Kikinda can be traced in continuation for 250 years, from 1751, when the area where the city is presently located was settled. The first settlers were Serbs, a Habsburg border military corps who protected the border against the Ottomans on the Moriš and the Tisa rivers. After the Požarevac peace treaty, where an agreement between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire was reached, the Ottomans lost Banat and the Serbs lost their job. A newly founded settlement was soon organized, and the former border military corps started a new, land farming lifestyle. Several decades later, along with the Serbs, Germans, Hungarians, and Jews settled the area.

About twenty years after the establishment of the settlement, on November 12, 1774, the Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, by way of a special charter, formed the Velikokikindski privileged district - Regio-privilegiatus Districtus Magnokikindiensis, as a distinct feudal governmental administrative unit with headquarters in Kikinda. Besides Kikinda, the district included another nine settlements of the Serb border military establishments in North and Central Banat: Srpski Krstur, Jozefovo (today part of Novi Kneževac), Mokrin, Karlovo (today part of Novo Miloševo), Bašaid, Vranjevo (today part of Novi Bečej), Melenci, Kumane and Taraš. During that period, the inhabitants of these places had substantial economic, and even political privileges within the Habsburg Monarchy. The District functioned, with some interruptions, until 1876 when it was abolished, and Kikinda was allocated both organizationally and administratively to the direct authority of the Torontal County with headquarters in Veliki Bečkerek (today Zrenjanin), which covered most of the territory of present day Serbian Banat.

In 1848/1849, the famous uprising of the Serbs in Vojvodina took place. At the beginning, Kikinda"s citizens expressed, almost unanimously, social revolt, while later the riot turned into a national one, and Kikinda became part of the Serbian Voivodship, a Serb autonomous region within the Austrian Empire. During the war, Serbian and Hungarian governments came into power over the city one after the other, accompanied by great conflicts, suffering and destruction. It was one of the most difficult and most complex periods in the history of Kikinda.

Between 1849 and 1860 Kikinda was part of the Voivodship of Serbia and Tamiš Banat, a separate Austrian crown land. In 1860, this crown land was abolished, and Kikinda was included into Torontal county. It is an interesting piece of information that at the end of the 19th century Kikinda was the most densely inhabited place in the Torontal County, with 22,000 inhabitants. A railroad connecting Szeged, Kikinda and Timişoara was built in 1857 and is the oldest railroad on the territory of present-day Serbia. The period from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the First World War was a peaceful and fruitful period in the history of Kikinda and was marked by a strong economic and urban development of the city. Moreover, the picturesque core of the city, which was and still stands as a beautiful component of Kikinda even today, was formed, and the city received a defined local government in 1895 (statute, senate, town representative, mayor, etc.). According to the 1910 census, the population of Kikinda numbered 26,795 inhabitants, of whom 14,148 spoke Serbian, 5,968 Hungarian, and 5,855 German.

Synagogue in Kikinda destroyed in 1953
A date around the end of the First World War (November 20, 1918) denotes one of the most crucial moments in the history of Kikinda. The entry of the Serbian army into the city represented the achievement of the Serbs of Kikinda in striving to unite with Serbia. From December 1, 1918, the city was part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929). However, the city suffered greatly in the economic realm, as it was located in the hinterland, between two borders, with communication lines disconnected. The period between the two world wars was not a period of economic prosperity. In 1921, the population of Kikinda included 58% Serbs and Croats, 21% Germans, 16% Hungarians, and 5% Romanians. Between 1918 and 1922, Kikinda was part of Banat county, Between 1922 and 1929 it was part of Belgrade oblast, and between 1929 and 1941 it was part of Danube Banovina.

After only twenty years of peace, in 1941 Kikinda entered the stormy period of the Second World War, during which it was occupied by German troops. It was included into the autonomous Banat region, which was part of German-occupied Serbia. The city was liberated on October 6, 1944, and since 1945, it has been part of the autonomous province of Vojvodina within the new Socialist Yugoslavia.

The city"s economic and political organization and structure changed significantly. There were significant changes in the ethnic structure of the city during and after the war. The German (about 22%) and Jewish (about 2%) populations were lost. In 1940, there were about 500 Jews in the town. In August, 1941, they were deported to the Sajmište death camp near Belgrade and murdered.

In 1948, just after the end of World War II, Kikinda had a population of 28,070.Columbia-Lippincott Gazeteer (1951) p. 944 The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s was, like the period from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, characterized by a dynamic development of the city: new factories and production plants, new blocks of flats and residential settlements, various objects of general social interest, and paved streets definitely stressed and formed the urban dimension of Kikinda. In 1971 the city had a population of 37,487.Brittanica, 15th Ed. (1984) Vol. 5, p. 805.

ity Plannin
Panorama of Kikinda
With regard to planning, the city belongs to the group of so-called planned organized settlements. Plans of streets and crossroads were completed in the second half of the 18th century according to the standard city plans of the time used for the construction of new settlements in Banat. Those plans defined settlements with regularly lined and wide streets cutting at the right angle, with a central town square, market place, church, city hall, school, pub, etc.

conom
The principal branch of the city"s economy is agriculture, with its 598.17 km² of arable land. The annual production of wheat is about 60,000 tons, 114,670 tons of sunflower seeds. Soya, sugar beet and other fruits and vegetables are also produced.

Industrial production includes the production of oil derivatives by the "Naftagas" branch in Kikinda, metal processing, machine tools, special tools, car parts and flexible technologies by the former "Livnica Kikinda" (Metal foundry) and IDA-Opel (now owned by Slovenian Cimos Koper), roof tile and brick production by "Toza Marković", the production of chemicals by "MCK" and "Hemik" and the processing of agricultural products by a number of factories.

Before the break-up of former Yugoslavia, hunting tourism was widespread in Kikinda. There are a number of hunting grounds in the municipality covering an area of 300 km², mostly around the banks of the Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal, where rabbits, pheasants and deer are hunted.

ranspor
Rail line Banatsko Aranđelovo - Kikinda - Romanian border at Jimbolia, part of the former Szeged - Timişoara railway is the second oldest railway in present-day Serbia. The city is also connected by rail to Subotica and to Belgrade through Zrenjanin.

Regional roads connect Kikinda with all the neighbouring cities and villages. Buses operate regularly to the surrounding villages and major domestic and some European cities.

The only transport waterway in the municipality is the Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal. There is a dock which is used for industrial transport.

There is also the Kikinda Airport, a sports plane airstrip close to the city. The local flying club organizes lessons in parachuting, aviation and space-modeling. Planes are also flown from this airstrip to spray agricultural fields.

ducatio
rimary school
There are eight primary schools in the city:
*"Đura Jakšić" Primary School (). Language of instruction: Serbian.
*"Feješ Klara" Primary School. Language of instruction: Hungarian.
*"Jovan Popović" Primary School. Language of instruction: Serbian.
*"Sveti Sava" Primary School (). Languages of instruction: Serbian and Hungarian.
*"Vuk Karadžić" Primary School. Language of instruction: Serbian.
*"Žarko Zrenjanin" Primary School. Language of instruction: Serbian.
*"6th October" Special Primary School. School for children with special needs. Language of instruction: Serbian.
*"Slobodan Malbaški" Primary Music School. Language of instruction: Serbian.

econdary school
All secondary schools in Kikinda use Serbian as the language of instruction:
*"Dušan Vasiljev" Gymnasium, founded in 1858 (). Students can choose between three main courses: socio-linguistic, mathematics and natural sciences, and general.
*"Mihajlo Pupin" Technical Secondary School
*Economics and Trade Secondary School,
*"Miloš Crnjanski" Secondary Vocational School. The school offers courses in food processing, building, and health sciences.
*Higher School for the Education of Teachers

laces of Special Interes


he horse-powered dry mill (Suvača
Kikinda has one of the two remaining horse-powered dry mills in Europe (the other being in Hungary). There were many mills like this in the city, the largest recorded number being 51 in 1847. The only remaining mill was built in 1899 and was operational until 1945.

he Church of St. Nikol
Located in the center of the square, this Serbian Orthodox church was built in 1769. Icons of the iconostasis were done by Jakov Orfelin (nephfew of Zacharius Orfelin) in 1773. Teodor Ilić Česljar is the author of the two large wall paintings "The Last Supper" and "Ascension of Jesus Christ" (1790). Both, the late baroque iconostasis and the wall paintings show significant influence of western European art of the period. New church bells were installed in 1899.

oly Trinity monaster
Serb Orthodox Holy Trinity monastery located in the south end of the city. It was built between 1885 and 1887 as a foundation of Melanija Nikolić-Gajčić.

he Roman Catholic Churc
The construction of the church was started in 1808 and completed in 1811.

ultural Institution
he National Museum of Kikind
Situated on the city square, the building of the National Museum was built in 1839. The building was at first the city curia and the seat of the Velikokindski privileged district until its abolishment in 1876. In 1946, the National Museum of Kikinda and the Kikinda Archive () were founded and housed in the building. The Museum boasts of numerous artifacts which are displayed in its four sections: archeological, historical, ethnological and naturalist. As of recently, it also possesses a mammoth skeleton () which was excavated on the premises of the brick factory in 1996.

he "Jovan Popović" National Librar

The library was founded in 1845 as "Čitaonica Srbska" (Serbian Reading Room). It was renamed in 1952 to "Jovan Popović" in honor of a prominent poet from Kikinda. Besides serving its primary function of loaning books, the library also organizes literary meetings, book promotions, seminars, lectures, exhibitions, and has published several works.

he National Theate
Although the National Theater in Kikinda was founded only 50 years ago, Kikinda has a long theatrical tradition. Kikinda witnessed its first theatrical play in 1796 in German. The first play in Serbian was acted out in 1834. The theater is very popular with the citizens of Kikinda and has a continuous program all year round, including the summer when the stage is moved outside to the garden of the theater.

anifestation
he Pumpkin Days ("Dani ludaje"
The Mascot of Kikinda
The Pumpkin Days ("Дани лудаје/Dani ludaje" in Serbian) are an annual manifestation that takes place in mid-October. Every year people from all over the region gather in Kikinda to take part in a competition of who has the largest pumpkin and longest gourd. The term "ludaja" is specific to the Kikinda region, while the common Serbian word for pumpkin is "bundeva". Kikinda has a special relationship with this plant because throughout its history, the locals used to say that one can stand on a pumpkin while working in the fields and get a clear view of the whole city. This exaggeration was supposed to depict the flatness of the city"s territory. A local standing on a pumpkin, dressed in traditional attire, and with his hand blocking the sun so that he can see into the distance, thus became the symbol for the region. A group of local enthusiasts started the Pumpkin Days manifestation in 1986 and it quickly attracted pumpkin and gourd lovers from all over the country. The three-day event also includes lectures and seminars on the advancement of pumpkin and gourd cultivation, a culinary competition in preparing meals from pumpkins and gourds, children"s competitions in creating masks and sculptures, and various concerts and exhibitions. Over the past few years this event has gained prominence and has drawn visitors from Hungary, Romania and the former Yugoslav republics. The largest pumpkin measured at the event to date weighed 247 kilograms, while the longest gourd was 213 centimeters in length. In 2006 the event celebrated its 20th anniversary and had the largest number of visitors so far, as well as a richer program. A tamburitza festival was included in the event, contributing to the authentic Banat experience.

"Terra": An International Symposium of Sculptur

Every year, since 1982, 6 to 8 world renowned sculptors are invited to Kikinda at the premises of an old production plant of the "Toza Marković" brick factory for an international symposium of sculpture. The symposium lasts throughout the month of July. Over the years, "Terra" has hosted sculptors from all corners of the world who are drawn by the unique and peaceful ambience of the studio. All sculptures are done in terracotta and some have appeared at the Venice Biennale. Over 300 sculptors have so far participated in the symposium and have together produced more than 500 sculptures. Plans for the construction of a "Terra" museum are underway in which all the sculptures will be exhibited in a modern setting adjacent to the old studio.

edi
ewspaper
* "Kikindske Novine", weekly newspaper controlled by the local government. Printed in Serbian, using the Cyrillic alphabet, with a supplement in Hungarian.
* "Kikindske", weekly independent newspaper (). Printed in Serbian, using the Latin alphabet, with a supplement in Hungarian.

V Station
* "TV VK", independent TV station.
* "TV Rubin", TV station favoring the local government.

adio station
* "VK Radio" (frequency: 98.3 MHz), independent regional radio station ()
* "Radio Kikinda" (frequency: 93.3 МHz), state-owned local station, broadcasts programs in both Serbian and Hungarian ()
* "Radio Ami" (frequency: 89.4 МHz), former local commercial music radio station
* "Kum Radio" (frequency: 100.9 МHz), former local commercial music radio station, still available through Internet stream ()
* "Radio Točak" (frequency: 92.7 МHz), former local commercial music radio station.

nternet medi
*

rominent Citizen

* Miroslav Mika Antić — poet
* Jovan Ćirilov — dramaturge, poet, writer
* Vesna Čipčić — actress
* Đura Jakšić — poet and painter, lived in Kikinda for some time
* Mladen Krstajić — football player
* Maja Latinović — supermodel
* Raša Popov — journalist and TV reporter
* Jovan Popović — poet
* Srđan V. Tešin — writer and journalist
* Aleksandar Timofejev — journalist and TV reporter
* Goran Živkov — politician
* Predrag Bubalo — politician

win Cities and Village


iscellaneou
*Kikinda is home to the IGM DD "Toza Marković" company which is the oldest clay producer in Europe.
*In 2003, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Mission to Serbia awarded the Municipality of Kikinda with the Municipal Award for Tolerance.
*According to a popular belief, the treasure of Attila the Hun is buried somewhere on the territory of the municipality of Kikinda. Every so often, groups of local enthusiasts gather and go on a treasure hunt in hope of finding Attila"s lost gold.
*The only hill in the entire municipality is a small hill called Kinđa. Its height is only 5.3 metres relative to Kikinda and 83 metres above sea level. A mountain climbing association named "Kinđa" was formed and has since its founding conquered both Mont Blanc and Mt. Everest and many other high mountains.

eference
eneral reference
*Brane Marijanović "et al." "Kikinda: istorija, kultura, sela, privreda, sport, turizam", Novi Sad: Prometej, 2002.
*Jovan M. Pejin, "Iz prošlosti Kikinde", Kikinda: Istorijski arhiv & Komuna, 2000.

ootnote


xternal link

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Category:Places in Serbian Banat
Category:Cities, towns and villages in Vojvodina
Category:Municipalities of Vojvodina

bs:Kikinda
bg:Кикинда
cs:Kikinda
da:Kikinda
de:Kikinda
es:Kikinda
eo:Kikinda
fr:Kikinda
hr:Kikinda
id:Kikinda
it:Kikinda
hu:Nagykikinda
nl:Kikinda
pl:Kikinda
ro:Chichinda Mare
ru:Кикинда
sr:Кикинда
sh:Kikinda
sv:Kikinda
zh:基金达
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 25.06.2022 15:22 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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