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Turkey, Kayseri
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"Kayseri" (Ottoman Turkish: قیصریه; Greek: "Καισάρεια"/"Kaisareia"; Latin: "Caesarea Mazaca"), named in classical antiquity as "Mazaka" or "Mazaca", "Eusebia", "Caesarea Cappadociae", and later as "Kaisariyah", is a large and industrialized city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is the seat of Kayseri Province. The city of Kayseri, as defined by the boundaries of Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, is structurally composed of five metropolitan districts, the two core districts of Kocasinan and Melikgazi, and since 2004, also Hacılar, İncesu and Talas. In conjunction with the addition of new districts and first stage municipalities into the metropolitan area, the city"s population, which was 690,000 in 2000, is currently 895,253.

Kayseri is marked by the Mount Erciyes that towers in the horizon south of the city. Its inhabitants ("Kayserili") are renowned for their alertness, entrepreneurial spirit and a strict understanding regarding the management of economies, the last point having been the subject of more than a few legends in Turkey. The city itself is a blend of wealth, modernity and provincial conservatism and is often cited in the first ranks among Turkey"s cities that fit the definition of Anatolian Tigers.

Renowned for its culinary specialties such as mantı, pastirma and sucuk, the city is also rich in historical monuments (dating especially from the Seljuk period). While it is generally visited en-route to the international tourist attractions of Cappadocia, Kayseri has many visitor"s attractions by its own right; Seljuk monuments in and around the center, Mount Erciyes as trekking and alpinism center, Zamantı River as rafting center, the historic sites of Ağırnas (Sinan the Architect"s village), Talas (home to the former Talas American College), Germir (Elia Kazan"s village) and Develi to name a few. Kayseri is served by Erkilet International Airport and is home to Erciyes University.

Kayseri has been a continuous settlement since 3000 BC. The city has always been a vital trade center since it is located on major trade routes, particularly along what was called the Great Silk Road. Kültepe, one of the oldest cities in Asia Minor, lies nearby.

As "Mazaca", the city served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. In ancient times, it was on the crossroads of the trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and from the Persian Royal Road that extended from Sardis to Susa. In Roman times, a similar route from Ephesus to the East also crossed the city.

The city"s name was changed to "Eusebia" in honor of the Cappadocian king Ariathes V (163–130 BC). The name was changed again to "Caesarea" by the last Cappadocian King Archelaus or perhaps by Tiberius.

Caesarea stood on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes ("Mons Argaeus" in ancient times). The site, now called the old town, diplays only a few traces from the old town. It was destroyed by the Sassanid king Shapur I of Persia after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in AD 260. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. In the 4th century, bishop Basil established an ecclesiastical centre on the plain, about one mile to the northeast, which gradually supplanted the old town. A portion of Basil"s new city was surrounded with strong walls and turned into a fortress by Justinian.

The Arab general Muawija invaded Cappadocia and took Caesarea from the Byzantines temporarily in AD 647.Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1969. Pg 116. The city was called "Kaisariyah" by the Arabs and later "Kayseri" when it was captured shortly by the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan in 1064. It became one of the most prominent centers of at first the Danishmendids (1074-1178) , and afterwards the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate (1178-1243), until it fell to the Mongols in 1243. Within the walls lies the greater part of Kayseri rebuilt between the 13th and 16th centuries. The city became Ottoman in the 15th century.

Thus, there were three golden-age periods for Kayseri. The first, dating back to 2000BC, was when the city was a trade post between the Assyrians and the Hittites. The second golden age came during the Roman rule (200 - 300 AD). The third golden age was during the reign of Seljuks(1178-1243), when the city was the second capital of the state.
Kayseri 1897
Kayseri 2007, the City Museum in Kültürpark amusement park
The 1500-year-old castle, built initially by the Byzantines, is still standing in good shape at the central square of the city. The short-lived Seljuk rule left large number of historical landmarks; historical buildings such as the Hunad Hatun complex, Kilij Arslan Mosque, The Grand Mosque and Gevher Nesibe asylum. The Grand Bazaar dates from the latter part of the 1800s, but the adjacent caravanserai (where merchant traders gathered before forming a caravan) dates from around 1500. An Armenian church from the 19th century still operates as a church; another from the same period is used as a gymnasium. However, apart from these few, large, religious and secular constructions, most of Kayseri is modern. The town"s older districts (which were filled with ornate mansion-houses mostly dating from the 18th and 19th centuries) were subjected to wholesale demolitions starting in the 1970s. Traditional houses in Kayseri
The city is famous for its carpet sellers, and a range of carpets and rugs can be purchased reasonably ranging from new to 50 or more years old.

In the 4th century the city became central to early Christianity when St. Basil the Great established an ecclesiastical centre here.. It is a Roman Catholic titular see and was the seat of an Armenian diocese.

The building that hosts Kayseri Lisesi was arranged to host the Turkish Grand National Assembly during the Turkish War of Independence when the Greek army had advanced very close to Ankara, the capital.

olitical structur
The city of Kayseri consists of the following metropolitan districts:
Metropolitan districts of Kayseri.

Kayseri received notable public investments in the 1920s and 1930s. Sumer Textile and Kayseri Tayyare Fabrikasi (airplane builder) were set up here during the early Republican Era with the help of German and particularly Russian experts. The latter manufactured first aircraft "made in Turkey" in the 1940s. After the 1950s, the city suffered from a decrease in the amount of public investment. It was, however, during the same years that Kayseri businessmen and merchants became transformed into countrywide capitalists. Families such as Sabancı, Has, Dedeman and Ozilhan who started out as small-scale merchants in the city of Kayseri became prominent actors in the Turkish economy. However, these families set up their headquarters in cities such as Istanbul and Adana, nevertheless often coming back to Kayseri to invest.

Thanks to the economic liberalization policies introduced in the 1980s, a new wave of merchants and industrialists from Kayseri also joined their predecessors. Most of these new industrialists choose Kayseri as base of their operations. As a consequence of better infrastructures, the city achieved a remarkable industrial growth since 2000 and is one of the key cities that characterizes the class of Anatolian Tigers, with a favorable environment present especially for small and medium enterprises. Some social scientists trace this economic success to a modernist Islamic outlook referred to as "Islamic Calvinism" which they say is taking root in Kayseri.

Detail from Gevher Nesibe Medical Center built 1210
The city is served by Erkilet International Airport and the International Air Transport Association symbol for the airport is ASR. The airport is at a short distance from Kayseri center. There are several flights per day to Istanbul, Turkey"s premium air transportation hub. Since the air transportation industry in Turkey is presently registering a fast growth rate, new flights from Kayseri to several other localities in Turkey and outside Turkey are soon to be expected.

Kayseri is connected to the rest of country with railroad service. There are four trains per day to Ankara. To the east there are two branches: one to Kars and Doğukapi toward Armenia, and another to Tatvan on the west shore of Lake Van.

Since the city is located in central Turkey, transportation via cars and buses are highly efficient. It takes approximately 3 hours to reach Ankara, approximately 3 hours to Mediterranean shores and 45 minutes to Cappadocia. The symbol of the city, Mount Erciyes, which is a notable ski center in winters and a trekker"s paradise in summers, is at only 30 minutes" drive from the city centre.

The transportation within the city relies mainly on buses, dolmuş, and personal vehicles. A light rail transit system called Kayseray is under construction and is expected to open in one year.
Kayseri city center seen from Mimar Sinan Park

The city has one professional football team competing in the top-flight of Turkish football - Kayserispor, currently playing in the Turkcell Super League. Another team from the region, Kayseri Erciyesspor, was relegated to the second league last year.

Kayserispor is one of the most promising teams in Turkey, and has finished fifth in the league for two seasons in a row. It is also the only Turkish team to have won the UEFA Intertoto Cup, in 2007.

ports venue

"Football stadia"
*"Kayseri Atatürk Stadium"
"(See main article: Kayseri Atatürk Stadium)"

Opened in 1964, this is currently the main stadium in the region, and is shared by the two football clubs, Kayserispor and Kayseri Erciyesspor. It has a capacity of 25,918 (all-seater) and is mostly uncovered.

On September 17, 1967, during a match played between Kayseri Erciyesspor and Sivasspor a disaster occurred with 40 dead and at least 300 injuries among the fans, which was the worst sporting-related event in Turkey. The violence spread out of the stadium, when some hooligans from Sivas vandalized in the city.

*"Kayseri Kadir Has Stadyumu"
"(See main article: Kayseri Kadir Has Stadyumu)"

The new stadium of Kayseri, as part of the Atatürk Spor Complex, is located in the outskirts of the city. It will hold at least 33,000 people (all-seater) and it is totally covered. It is shared by the two Kayserian football clubs, as before, and the Kadir Has Stadium is the new home for both teams. The stadium and surrounding sports complex are served by the Light-rail system, Kayseray, making access to the complex easier for travelling locals. The completion date was early 2009. The inauguration of stadium was made with Kayserispor - Fenerbahce league match.

"Indoor arenas"
*"Kayseri Arena" - (Under Construction)
This is an indoor arena complex, currently under construction and expected to be completed in late 2007. It will have an all-seater capacity of 7,200 people.

Kayseri Lisesi High School, established in 1893, is one of the oldest high-schools in Turkey. In 2000, the private Kılıçarslan High School in Kayseri and Anatoli College in Salonica became sister schools.

The city"s largest university, The Erciyes University that was founded in 1978 is a continuation of a number of schools founded in 1206 and 1956.

otable Kayserian
("alphabetical order")
* Abdullah Gül - Turkey"s current president
* Ahmet Shapiro-Erciyas- Turkish American chess star
* Aristotle Onassis - Greek shipping magnate born in İzmir to a family from Kayseri
* Basil of Caesarea - Byzantine theologian (one of the Cappadocian Fathers)
* Balyan family - is a dynasty of famous Ottoman imperial architects of Armenian ethnicity
* Dikran Kelekian - Armenian a notable collector and dealer of Islamic art
* Elia Kazan - Greek American movie director
* Fatih Solak - Turkish international basketball player
* Gevher Nesibe - Seljuk princess who endowed the city"s landmark 13th century medical center ("Darüşşifa, Dâr al-Shifâ")
* Gregory the Illuminator - founder of the Armenian Church
* Gregory of Nyssa - brother of Basil of Caesarea, also a Byzantine theologian, one of the Cappadocian Fathers
* Göksel Arsoy - Turkish movie star
* Hagop Kevorkian - Armenian connoisseur of art
* Hasan Sami Bolak - Turkish writer, poet
* İsmet Özel -Turkish poet
* Kadir Has - Turkish business tycoon
* Latife Tekin - Turkish author
* Metin Kaçan - Turkish writer
* Mimar Sinan - Ottoman-period architect
* Mustafa İslamoğlu - Turkish writer
* Nesrin Nas - Turkish politician
* Orhan Delibaş - Turkish Dutch boxer
* Reyhan Karaca - Turkish singer
* Romanos IV Diogenes - Byzantine General and later Emperor (1068-1071)
* Sinan Bolat - professional soccer goalkeeper, currently playing for Standard Liege
* Theodoros Alyatis - Byzantine General of the Cappadocian "Thema", fought alongside the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes at the Battle of Manzikert(1071).
* Vicdan Senler - Turkish psychiatrist (b. 1930)

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Kayseri is twinned with:
"(in alphabetical order)"

* Hims, Syria
* Krefeld, Germany
* Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Nalchik, Russia
* Saarbrücken, Germany
* Yongin, South Korea

ee als
A hotel building in Kayseri
* Anatolian Tigers


xternal link


Category:Archaeological sites in Turkey
Category:Cities in Turkey
Category:Roman sites in Turkey

be:Горад Кайсеры
ca:Cesarea de Capadòcia
el:Καισάρεια (Καππαδοκία)
it:Cesarea in Cappadocia
ka:კაისერი (ქალაქი)
la:Caesarea in Cappadocia
lmo:Cesarea de Capadocia
nl:Kayseri (stad)
tr:Kayseri (merkez)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 01.06.2020 09:50 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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