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"Hungary" ( ), officially the "Republic of Hungary" (Hungarian:"Magyar Köztársaság" , literally "Hungarian Republic"), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Pannonian Basin and it is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The capital and largest city is Budapest. Hungary is a member of the European Union, , the OECD, the , and is a Schengen state. On 1 January 2011, Hungary became the seat for the Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is part of the FinnoUgric family and is the most widely spoken nonIndoEuropean language in Europe.

Following a Celtic (after c. 450 BC) and a Roman (9 AD – c. 430 AD) period, the foundation of Hungary was laid in the late 9th century by the Hungarian ruler Árpád, whose greatgrandson Saint Stephen I was crowned with a crown sent from Rome by the pope in 1000. The Kingdom of Hungary lasted for 946 years,The form of government was at times changed or ambiguous, causing short interruptions. and at various points was regarded as one of the cultural centers of the Western world. After about 150 years of partial Ottoman occupation (1541–1699), Hungary was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy, and later constituted half of the AustroHungarian dual monarchy (1867–1918). A great power until the end of World War I, Hungary lost over 70% of its territory, along with one third of its population of Hungarian ethnicity, under the Treaty of Trianon, the terms of which have been considered excessively harsh by many in Hungary. The kingdom was succeeded by a Communist era (1947–1989) during which Hungary gained widespread international attention regarding the Revolution of 1956 and the seminal move of opening its border with Austria in 1989, thus accelerating the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. The present form of government is a parliamentary republic, which was established in 1989. Today, Hungary is a highincome economy, 2007 and a regional leader in some regards.

Hungary is one of the thirty most popular tourist destinations of the world, attracting 8.6 million tourists per year (2007). The country is home to the largest thermal water cave system and the second largest thermal lake in the world (Lake Hévíz), the largest lake in Central Europe (Lake Balaton), and the largest natural grasslands in Europe (Hortobágy).

Before 895
Ancient Hungarian pouch plate from Galgóc.

From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire on a part of later Hungary"s area. Later arrived the Huns, who built up a powerful empire. After the Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths, Lombards, Gepids and Avars had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the late 9th century the land was inhabited only by a sparse population of Slavs.

The freshly unified Magyars (Hungarians) led by Árpád settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguists, they have originated in an ancient FinnoUgricspeaking population that originally inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.. Source: "U.S. Library of Congress."
Medieval Hungary 895–1526
Hungarian raids in the 10th century

Hungary is one of the oldest countries in Europe, established in 895, some 60 years after the division of France and Germany at the Treaty of Verdun in 837, before the unification of the AngloSaxon kingdoms. Initially, the rising Principality of Hungary was a state consisting of a seminomadic people. However, it accomplished an enormous transformation; it transformed itself into a Christian realm during the 10th century. This state was wellfunctioning and the nation"s military power allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns and raids from Constantinople to as far as today"s Spain. A later defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 signaled a provisory end to most campaigns on foreign territories, at least towards West.
Age of Árpádian kings
King Saint Stephen I
Holy Crown, the key symbol of Hungary
Saint Ladislaus I

The ruling prince () Géza of the Árpád dynasty intended to integrate Hungary into Christian Western Europe. His firstborn son, Saint Stephen I became the first King of Hungary after defeating his uncle Koppány, who also claimed the throne. Under Stephen, Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom. Applying to Pope Sylvester II, Stephen received the insignia of royalty (including probably a part of the Holy Crown of Hungary, currently kept in the Hungarian Parliament) from the papacy.

By 1006, Stephen had consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a western feudal state. The country switched to Latin language, and until as late as 1844, Latin remained the official language of Hungary. What emerged was a strong kingdom that withstood and repelled attacks coming from various directions. Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary conquered Croatia in 1091.

The most powerful and wealthiest king of the Árpád dynasty was Béla III, who disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver per year. This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown.

Andrew II issued the Diploma Andreanum which secured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons and is considered the first Autonomy law in the world. He led the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1217, setting up the largest royal army in the history of Crusades. His Golden Bull of 1222 was the first constitution in Continental Europe. The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament ("parlamentum publicum"). The most important legal ideology and legislative guideline was the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, which held that the sovereignty belongs to the nation (the Holy Crown).

The Mongol invasion of Hungary, 124142. Up to half of Hungary"s population fell victim.
In 1241–1242, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol (Tatar) Invasion. Up to half of Hungary"s then population of 2,000,000 were victims of the invasion., Encyclopaedia Britannica King Béla IV let Cumans and Jassic people into the depopulated country, who were fleeing the Mongols.. (PDF). By Józsa Hévizi. Over the centuries they were fully assimilated into the Hungarian population.

After the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, which stopped the smaller later Mongol invasions and proved to be very important in the long struggle with the Ottoman Empire.
Age of elected kings

Louis the Great.
The gothicrenaissance Hunyad Castle in Transylvania.
Western conquests of Matthias Corvinus
Matthias Corvinus, the Renaissance king

The Kingdom of Hungary reached one of its greatest extent during the Árpádian kings, yet royal power was weakened at the end of their rule in 1301. After a destructive period of interregnum (1301–1308), the first Angevin king, Charles I of Hungary a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty successfully restored royal power, and defeated oligarch rivals, the so called "little kings". The second Angevin Hungarian king, Louis the Great (1342–1382) led many successful military campaigns to various areas, and was also King of Poland from 1370. After King Louis died without a male heir, the country was stabilized only when Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387–1437) succeeded to the throne, who in 1433 also became Holy Roman Emperor.

The first Hungarian Bible translation was completed in 1439. For half a year in 1437, there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvania, the Budai Nagy Antal Revolt, which was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas.

From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country"s most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander. He was elected governor then regent. He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the Siege of Belgrade in 1456.

The last strong king of medieval Hungary was the Renaissance king Matthias Corvinus (1458–1490), son of John Hunyadi. His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background. He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning. His library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe"s greatest collection of historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century, and second only in size to the Vatican Library. The library is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The serfs and common people considered him a just ruler because he protected them from excessive demands from and other abuses by the magnates. Under his rule, in 1479, the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the Battle of Breadfield. Abroad he defeated the Polish and German imperial armies of Frederick at Breslau (Wrocław). Matthias" mercenary standing army, the Black Army of Hungary was an unusually large army for its time, and it conquered parts of Austria, Vienna (1485) and parts of Bohemia.
Decline of Hungary (14901526) ===Matthias died without lawful sons, and the Hungarian magnates procured the accession of the Pole Vladislaus II (1490–1516), because of his notorious weakness. Hungary"s international role declined, its political stability shaken, and social progress was deadloc
In 1514, the weakened old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, which was ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by János Szapolyai. The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman preeminence. In 1521, the strongest Hungarian fortress in the South, Nándorfehérvár (the Hungarian name of Belgrade, Serbia) fell to the Turks. The early appearance of protestantism further worsened internal relations in the anarchical country.
Ottoman wars 1526–1699
Women of Eger. Hungarians successfully defended the town from the Ottomans.

After some 150 years of wars with the Hungarians and other states, the Ottomans gained a decisive victory over the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, where King Louis II died while fleeing. Amid political chaos, the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, János Szapolyai and Ferdinand I of the Habsburg dynasty.

With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in 1541, Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. The northwestern part, termed as Royal Hungary, was annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. The eastern part of the kingdom became independent as the Principality of Transylvania, under Ottoman (and later Habsburg) suzerainty. The remaining central area, including the capital Buda, was known as the Pashalik of Buda.

Hungary around 1550, divided to three parts

In 1686, the Holy League"s army, containing over 74,000 men from various nations, reconquered Buda from the Turks. After some more crushing defeats for the Ottomans in the next few years, the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule by 1718. The constrained Habsburg CounterReformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism.

The ethnic composition of Hungary was fundamentally changed as a consequence of the prolonged warfare with the Turks. A large part of the country became devastated, population growth was stunted, and many smaller settlements perished. The main inhabitants of the Ottoman ruled area were ethnically Hungarians, hence their number was substantially diminished. The AustrianHabsburg government settled large groups of Serbs and other Slavs in the depopulated south, allowed mass Vlach (Romanian) immigration into Transylvania and settled Germans in various areas, but Hungarians were not allowed to settle or resettle in the south of the Great Plain.
From the 18th century to World War I
Francis II Rákóczi, leader of the uprising against Habsburg rule.

Between 1703 and 1711 there was a largescale uprising led by Francis II Rákóczi, who after the dethronement of the Habsburgs in 1707 at the Diet of Ónod, took power provisionally as the Ruling Prince of Hungary for the wartime period, but refused the Hungarian Crown and the title "King". After 8 years of war with the Habsburg Empire, the Hungarian Kuruc army lost the last main battle at Trencsén (1708).Paul Lendvai, The Hungarians: a thousand years of victory in defeat, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2003
The Period of Reforms ===István Széchenyi (the "greatest Hungarian") had an important role in the Reform
During the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades.Peter N Stearns, The Oxford encyclopedia of the modern world, Volume 4, Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 64 In the 1820s, the Emperor was forced to convene the Diet, which marked the beginning of a Reform Period (1825–1848, ).

Count István Széchenyi, one of the most prominent statesmen of the country recognized the urgent need of modernization and his message got through. The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in 1825 to handle financial needs. A liberal party emerged and focused on providing for the peasantry. Lajos Kossuth — a famous journalist at that time — emerged as leader of the lower gentry in the Parliament. A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernization even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws about the human civil and political rights and economic reforms. Many reformers (Lajos Kossuth, Mihály Táncsics) were imprisoned by the authorities.
Revolution and War of Independence
Sándor Petőfi reciting his Nemzeti dal ("National Song") to a crowd on 15 March 1848.
Lajos Kossuth

On 15 March 1848, mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. Under governor and president Lajos Kossuth and the first Prime Minister, Lajos Batthyány, the House of Habsburg was dethroned.

The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government. The Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers., address at Duquesne History Forum, 17 November 2000, The author is former Ambassador of Hungary to the United States and was Foreign Minister in 19901994. In July 1849 the Hungarian Parliament proclaimed and enacted the first laws of ethnic and minority rights in the world. Many members of the nationalities gained the coveted highest positions within the Hungarian Army, like General János Damjanich, an ethnic Serb who became a Hungarian national hero through his command of the 3rd Hungarian Army Corps.

Initially, the Hungarian forces ("Honvédség") defeated Austrian armies. To counter the successes of the Hungarian revolutionary army, Habsburg Emperor Franz Joseph I asked for help from the "Gendarme of Europe", Czar Nicholas I, whose Russian armies invaded Hungary. This made Artúr Görgey surrender in August 1849. The leader of the Austrian army, Julius Jacob von Haynau, became governor of Hungary for a few months, and ordered the execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad, leaders of the Hungarian army, as well as Prime Minister Batthyány in October 1849. Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile.

Following the war of 18481849, the whole country was in "passive resistance". Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen was appointed governor of the Kingdom of Hungary, and this time was remembered for Germanization pursued with the help of Czech officers.
Austria–Hungary 1867–1918
Zita and Crown Prince Otto.

Because of external and internal problems, reforms seemed inevitable and major military defeats of Austria forced the Habsburgs to negotiate the AustroHungarian Compromise of 1867, by which the dual Monarchy of Austria–Hungary was formed. This Empire had the second largest area in Europe (after the Russian Empire), and it was the third most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). The two realms were governed separately by two parliaments from two capital cities, with a common monarch and common external and military policies. Economically, the empire was a customs union. The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph I was crowned as King of Hungary.

The era witnessed an impressive economic development. The formerly backward Hungarian economy became relatively modern and industrialized by the turn to the 20th century, although agriculture remained dominant until 1890. In 1873, the old capital Buda and Óbuda were officially united with Pest,Kinga Frojimovics, Géza Komoróczy, Jewish Budapest: monuments, rites, history, Central European University Press, 1999 p.67 thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest.

Technological change accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The GNP per capita grew roughly 1.45% per year from 1870 to 1913. That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1.00%), France (1.06%), and Germany (1.51%). Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period.
World War I 1914–1918

Hungarian built dreadnought class battleship SMS "Szent István" at Pula (military dock)

After the Assassination in Sarajevo, the Hungarian prime minister, István Tisza, and his cabinet (sole in Europe) tried to avoid the breaking out and escalating of a war in Europe, but his diplomatic attempts remained unsuccessful.

Austria–Hungary drafted 9 million (fighting forces: 7,8 million) soldiers in World War I (over 4 million from the Kingdom of Hungary) on the side of Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. The Central Powers conquered Serbia. Romania declared war. The Central Powers conquered Southern Romania and the Romanian capital Bucharest. In 1916 Emperor Franz Joseph died, and the new monarch Charles IV sympathized with the pacifists. With great difficulty, the Central powers stopped and repelled the attacks of the Russian Empire.

The Eastern front of the Allied (Entente) Powers completely collapsed. The AustroHungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. On the Italian front, the AustroHungarian army could not make more successful progress against Italy after January 1918.
Despite great Eastern successes, Germany suffered complete defeat in the more determinant Western front.

By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated (strikes in factories were organized by leftist and pacifist movements), and uprisings in the army had become commonplace. In the capital cities, the Austrian and the Hungarian leftist liberal movements (the maverick parties) and their leader politicians supported and strengthened the separatism of ethnic minorities. AustriaHungary signed general armistice in Padua on 3 November 1918.François Bugnion, International Committee of the Red Cross, The International Committee of the Red Cross and the protection of war victims, Macmillan Education, 2003 In October 1918, Hungary"s union with Austria was dissolved.
Between the World Wars 1918–1941
Miklós Horthy, Regent of Hungary (19201944)
With the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost 72% of its territory, its sea ports in Croatia, and 3,425,000 ethnic Hungarians found themselves separated from their motherland.Molnar, A Concise History of Hungary, p. 262 Richard C. Frucht, Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture p. 359360

The success of the 1918 Aster Revolution in Budapest brought Mihály Károlyi to power as prime minister and later the president of the first republic of Hungary.Library of Congress country study on Hungary a devotee of Entente. Károlyi ordered the full disarmament of Hungarian Army, thus Hungary remained without national defense.

Romania took control over Transylvania and other parts of eastern Hungary, Czechoslovakia took control over the northern parts (also known as Upper Hungary), and a joint Serbian and French army took control over the southern parts. These territories had a majority population of the respective occupying nations, however territories were occupied further than the ethnical borderlines, so each had significant Hungarian population as well. The postWar Entente backed the subsequent annexations of these territories.

In March 1919, the Communists took power in Hungary. In April, Béla Kun proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Kun"s government, like its immediate predecessor, proved to be shortlived. This was despite some initial military successes against the Czechoslovakian Army.

On June 4, 1920, the Treaty of Trianon was signed, which established new borders for Hungary. Hungary lost 71% of its territory and 66% of its population. About onethird of the ethnically Hungarian population (3,4 of 10 million Hungarians) became minorities in neighbouring countries. The new borders separated Hungary"s industrial base from its sources of raw materials, and Hungary also lost its only sea port at Fiume (today Rijeka). The revision of the Treaty of Trianon rose to the top of Hungary"s political agenda. Some wanted to restore the full preTrianon area, others only the ethnically Hungarian majority territories.

Rightist Hungarian military forces, led by the former AustroHungarian Admiral Miklós Horthy, entered Budapest in the wake of the Romanian army"s departure and filled the vacuum of state power. In January 1920, elections were held for a unicameral assembly. Admiral Horthy was elected Regent, thereby formally restoring the monarchy to Hungary. However, there would be no more kings of Hungary despite attempts by the former Habsburg ruler Charles IV to return to his former seat of power. Horthy ruled as Regent until 16 October 1944. Hungary remained a parliamentary democracy. But after 1932, autocratic tendencies gradually returned as a result of Nazi influence and the Great Depression.
World War II 1941–1945
Hungary 194144

The Germans and Italians granted back to Hungary a part of southern Czechoslovakia and Subcarpathia in the First Vienna Award of 1938, and then northern Transylvania in the Second Vienna Award of 1940. In 1941, the Hungarian army took part in the invasion of Yugoslavia, regaining some more territories. On 22 June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa; Hungary joined the German effort and declared war on the Soviet Union, and formally entered World War II on the side of the Axis Powers. In late 1941, the Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front experienced success at the Battle of Uman. By 1943, after the Hungarian Second Army suffered extremely heavy losses at the River Don, the Hungarian government sought to negotiate a surrender with the Allies.In 1944, as a result of this duplicity, German troops occupied Hungary in what was known as Operation Margarethe. Miklós Horthy made a token effort to disengage Hungary from the war, but he was replaced by a puppet government under the proGerman Prime Minister Ferenc Szálasi of the Arrow Cross Party.J.Lee Ready (1995), "World War Two. Nation by Nation", London, Cassell, page 130. ISBN 1854092901

The Széchenyi Chain Bridge ("foreground") and the Buda Castle ("background") in ruins during the Siege of Budapest

In late 1944, Hungarian troops on the Eastern Front again experienced success at the Battle of Debrecen, but this was followed immediately by the Soviet invasion of Hungary and the Battle of Budapest. During the German occupation in May–June 1944, the Arrow Cross Party and Hungarian police deported nearly 440,000 Jews, mostly to Auschwitz. The Swedish Diplomat Raoul Wallenberg managed to save a considerable number of Hungarian Jews by giving them Swedish passports, but when the Soviets arrived, he was arrested as a spy and disappeared.Alfred de Zayas "Raoul Wallenberg" in Dinah Shelton Encyclopedia of Genocide (Macmillan Reference 2005, vol. 3) Other diplomats also organized false papers and safe houses for Jews in Budapest and hundreds of Hungarian people were executed by the Arrow Cross Party for sheltering Jews.

The war left Hungary devastated destroying over 60% of the economy and causing huge loss of life. Many Hungarians, including women and children, were brutally raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labour by Czechoslovaks,University of Chicago. Division of the Social Sciences, Human Relations Area Files, inc, A study of contemporary Czechoslovakia, University of Chicago for the Human Relations Area Files, inc., 1955, Citation "In January 1947 the Hungarians complained that Magyars were being carried off from Slovakia to Czech lands for forced labor."Istvan S. Pogany, Righting wrongs in Eastern Europe, Manchester University Press ND, 1997, p.202 Alfred J. Rieber, Forced migration in Central and Eastern Europe, 19391950, Routledge, 2000, p. 50 Canadian Association of Slavists, Revue canadienne des slavistes, Volume 25, Canadian Association of Slavists., 1983S. J. Magyarody, The Eastcentral European Syndrome: Unsolved conflict in the Carpathian Basin, Matthias Corvinus Pub., 2002Anna Fenyvesi, Hungarian language contact outside Hungary: studies on Hungarian as a minority language, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2005, p. 50 Russian Red Army troops,Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: a history of the Soviet Zone of occupation, 19451949, Harvard University Press, 1995, p. 70 László Borhi, Hungary in the Cold War, 19451956: between the United States and the Soviet Union, Central European University Press, 2004, p. 57 Richard Bessel, Dirk Schumann, Life after death: approaches to a cultural and social history of Europe during the 1940s and 1950s, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 142 YugoslavsTibor Cseres, Titoist atrocities in Vojvodina, 19441945: Serbian vendetta in Bácska, Hunyadi Pub., 1993 (mostly Serbian partisans and regular units)— by the end of the war approximately 500,000650,000 people.

On 13 February 1945, the Hungarian capital city surrendered unconditionally. By the agreement between the Czechoslovakian president Edvard Beneš and Joseph Stalin, wild expulsions of Hungarians from Czechoslovakia and Slovaks from Hungary started. 250,000 ethnic Germans were also transferred to Germany pursuant to article XIII of the Potsdam Protocol of 2 August 1945.Alfred de Zayas "A Terrible Revenge" (Palgrave/Macmillan 2006)

The territories regained with the Vienna Awards and during World War II, were again lost by Hungary with the Paris Peace Treaty in 1947.
Communist era 1947–1989
Vandalised fallen head of a statue of Joseph Stalin during the Revolution of 1956]

Following the fall of Nazi Germany, Soviet troops occupied all of the country and through their influence Hungary gradually became a communist satellite state of the Soviet Union.

An estimated 2,000 people were executed and over 100,000 were imprisoned. Approximately 350,000 officials and intellectuals were purged from 1948 to 1956. Many people, freethinkers and democrats, were secretly arrested and taken to inland or foreign concentration camps without any judicial sentence. This was the deportation of some 600,000 Hungarians to Soviet labour camps after the Second World War and the death of at least 200,000 in captivity. Hungary experienced one of the harshest dictatorships the world had ever seen.

Rákosi followed a militarist, industrialising and war compensation economic policy, the people of Hungary saw living standards fall. The rule of the Rákosi government was nearly unbearable for Hungary"s wartorn citizens. This led to the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Hungary"s temporary withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. The multiparty system was restored by Prime Minister Imre Nagy. Soviets and Hungarian political police (AVH) shot at peaceful demonstrators in which many demonstrators died throughout the country, by this they created a nationwide uprising.

Spontaneous revolutionary militias fought against the Soviet Army and the fearful communist secret police (AVH) in Budapest. The roughly 3,000strong Hungarian resistance fought Soviet tanks using Molotov cocktails, and machinepistols. The immense Soviet preponderance suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrisons in the Hungarian countryside.

On 4 November 1956, the Soviets retaliated massively with military force, sending in over 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks.Findley, Carter V., and John Rothney. Twentieth Century World. sixth ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. 278. During the Hungarian Uprising an estimated 20,000 people were killed, nearly all during the Soviet intervention. Nearly a quarter of a million people left the country during the brief time that the borders were open in 1956.. BBC News. 23 October 2006.
Kádár Era 19561988

János Kádár (a minister of the revolution who applied for the task while in Moscow in captivity) declared his and the newly founded Hungarian Socialist Worker"s Party"s government"s legitimacy during the invasion. During the takeover, Kádár led an attack against revolutionaries. 21,600 mavericks (democrats, liberals, reformist communists alike) were imprisoned, 13,000 interned, and 400 killed. Imre Nagy, the legal Prime Minister of the country, was condemned to death.
Kádár introduced new planning priorities, consumer goods and food were produced in greater volumes, military production was reduced to one tenth of the prerevolutionary level. This was followed by the NEM in 1968 introducing free market elements. From the 1960s through the late 1980s, Hungary was often satirically referred to as "the happiest barrack" within the Eastern bloc.

As a result of the relatively high standard of living, more liberalised economy, less oppressed press and less restricted travel rights than those in force elsewhere in the Eastern Bloc, Hungary was generally considered one of the better countries in which to live in Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The third Hungarian Republic 1989–present
Fidesz, depicting Leonid Brezhnev and Erich Honecker performing a traditional and widely known communiststyle kissgreeting and a kissing young couple.

In June 1988, 30,000 demonstrated against Romania"s communist Regime plans to demolish Transylvanian villages. In March 1989, for the first time in decades, the government declared the anniversary of the 1848 Revolution a national holiday. Opposition demonstrations filled the streets of Budapest with more than 75,000 marchers. Premier Károly Grósz met Mikhail Gorbachev in Moscow, who condoned Hungary"s moves toward a multiparty system and promised that the USSR would not interfere in Hungary"s internal affairs. The Opposition Round Table Consultations with the representatives of the government, which was founded for the stated goal of introducing multiparty democracy, market economy and change of power, and defining its characteristics, started its sessions. In May, Hungary began taking down its barbed wire fence along the Austrian border – the first tear in the Iron Curtain.

June brought the reburial of former Prime Minister Imre Nagy, executed after the 1956 Revolution, drawing a crowd of 250,000 at the Heroes" Square. The last speaker, 26yearold Viktor Orbán, publicly called for Soviet troops to leave Hungary. In September Foreign Minister Gyula Horn announced that East German refugees in Hungary would not be repatriated but would instead be allowed to go to the West. The resulting exodus shook East Germany and hastened the fall of the Berlin Wall. On 23 October, Mátyás Szűrös declared Hungary a republic.

The majorities in the decisive bodies of the state party agreed to give up their monopoly on power, paving the way for free elections in March 1990. The party"s name was changed from the Hungarian Socialist Workers" Party to simply the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and a new programme advocating social democracy and a freemarket economy was adopted. This was not enough to shake off the stigma of four decades of autocratic rule, however, and the 1990 election was won by the centreright Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF), which advocated a gradual transition towards capitalism. The liberal Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), which had called for much faster change, came second and the Socialist Party trailed far behind. As Gorbachev looked on, Hungary changed political systems with scarcely a murmur and the last Soviet troops left Hungary in June 1991. In coalition with two smaller parties, the MDF provided Hungary with sound government during its hard transition to a full market economy.

The economic changes of the early 1990s resulted in declining living standards for most people in Hungary. In 1991 most state subsidies were removed, leading to a severe recession exacerbated by the fiscal austerity necessary to reduce inflation and stimulate investment. This made life difficult for many Hungarians, and in the May 1994 elections the Hungarian Socialist Party led by former Communists won an absolute majority in parliament.

All three main political parties advocated economic liberalisation and closer ties with the West. In 1997 in a national referendum 85% voted in favour of Hungary joining the , which followed two years later. In 1998, the European Union began negotiations with Hungary on full membership. Hungary voted in favour of joining the EU, and became a member in 2004.
Topographic map of Hungary
Hills in Baranya county
Sunset by Lake Balaton
Valley of Zagyva River, Western Mátra Mounts

Slightly more than one half of Hungary"s landscape consists of flat to rolling plains of the Pannonian Basin: the most important plain regions include the Little Hungarian Plain in the west, and the Great Hungarian Plain in the southeast. The highest elevation above sea level on the latter is only .

Transdanubia is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains. These include the very eastern stretch of the Alps, Alpokalja, in the west of the country, the Transdanubian Medium Mountains, in the central region of Transdanubia, and the Mecsek Mountains and Villány Mountains in the south. The highest point of the area is the Írottkő in the Alps, at .

The highest mountains of the country are located in the Carpathians: these lie in the northern parts, in a wide band along the Slovakian border (highest point: the Kékes at ).

Hungary is divided in two by its main waterway, the Danube (Duna); other large rivers include the Tisza and Dráva, while Transdanubia contains Lake Balaton, a major body of water. The largest thermal lake in the world, Lake Hévíz (Hévíz Spa), is located in Hungary. The second largest lake in the Pannonian Basin is the artificial Lake Tisza ("Tiszató").

Phytogeographically, Hungary belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Hungary belongs to the ecoregion of Pannonian mixed forests.

Hungary has 10 national parks, 145 minor nature reserves and 35 landscape protection areas.
Climate ===Hungary has a continental climate, with hot summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and mildly cold snowy winters. Average annual temperature is . Temperature extremes are about in the summer and in the winter. Average temperature in the summer is to and in the winter it is to . The average yearly rainfall is approximately . A small, southern region of the country near Pécs enjoys a reputation for a Mediterranean climate, but in reality it is only slightly warmer than the rest of the country and still receives snow during the win

! Denominations !! Population !! % of total
| style="textalign:left;"| "Christianity" || "7,584,115" || "74.4"
| style="textalign:left;"| Catholicism || 5,558,901 || 54.5
| style="textalign:right;"| "Roman Catholics" || "5,289,521" || "51.9"
| style="textalign:right;"| "Greek Catholics" || "268,935" || "2.6"
| style="textalign:left;"| Protestantism || 1,985,576 || 19.5
| style="textalign:right;"| "Calvinists" || "1,622,796" || "15.9"
| style="textalign:right;"| "Lutherans" || "304,705" || "3.0"
| style="textalign:right;"| "Baptists" || "17,705 " || "0.2"
| style="textalign:right;"| "Unitarians" || "6,541" || "0.1"
| style="textalign:right;"| "Other Protestants" || "33,829" || "0.3"
| style="textalign:left;"| Orthodox Christianity || 15,298 || 0.1
| style="textalign:left;"| Other Christians || 24,340 || 0.2
| style="textalign:left;"| "Judaism" || "12,871" || "0.1"
| style="textalign:left;"| "Other religions" || "13,567" || "0.1"
| style="textalign:left;"| "Total religions" || "7,610,553" || "74.6"
| style="textalign:left;"| No religion || 1,483,369 || 14.5
| style="textalign:left;"| Did not wish to answer || 1,034,767 || 10.1
| style="textalign:left;"| Unknown || 69,566 || 0.7
| style="textalign:left;"| "total" || "10,198,315" || "100.00"

The majority of Hungarians became Christian in the 11th century. Hungary"s first king, Saint Stephen I, took up Western Christianity, although his mother, "Sarolt", was baptized in the Eastern Rite. Hungary remained predominantly Catholic until the 16th century, when the Reformation took place and, as a result, first Lutheranism, then soon afterwards Calvinism, became the religion of almost the entire population.

In the second half of the 16th century, however, Jesuits led a successful campaign of counterreformation among the Hungarians. The Jesuits founded educational institutions, including Péter Pázmány Catholic University, the oldest university that still exists in Hungary, but organized socalled "missions" too in order to promote popular piety. By the 17th century, Hungary had once again become predominantly Catholic.

Some of the eastern parts of the country, however, especially around Debrecen ("the Calvinist Rome"), still have significant Protestant communities. Orthodox Christianity in Hungary has been the religion mainly of some national minorities in the country, notably, Romanians, Rusyns, Ukrainians, and Serbs.

Hungary has been the home of a sizable Armenian community as well. They still worship according to the Armenian Rite, but they have reunited with the Catholic Church (Armenian Catholics) under the primacy of the Pope. According to the same pattern, a significant number of Orthodox Christians became reunited with the rest of the Catholic world (Greek Catholics).

Faith Church, one of Europe"s largest Pentecostal churches, is also located in Hungary. Faith Church accepts the results and spiritual, moral values of both early Christianity and the Reformation, as well as other revival movements serving the progress of the Christian faith. Based on the 1% tax designation to churches, Faith Church is the fourth most supported church in Hungary. The weekly Sunday service of the Church is regularly broadcast in live television.

Hungary has historically been home to a significant Jewish community, especially since the 19th century when many Jews, persecuted in Russia, found refuge in the Kingdom of Hungary. Most Jewish people live in the centre of Budapest, especially in district VI. The largest synagogue in Europe is located in Budapest.

The census of January 1941 found that 6.2% of the population, i.e. 846,000 people, were considered Jewish according to the racial laws of that time. From this number, 725,000 were Jewish by religion.Volume 3, p.979, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, 1982 Some Hungarian Jews were able to escape the Holocaust during World War II, although many were either deported to concentration camps or murdered by the Hungarian Arrow Cross fascists.

Eszterháza, the "Hungarian Versailles"

Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (Great Synagogue), the largest medicinal bath in Europe (Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), one of the largest basilicas in Europe (Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world (Pannonhalma Archabbey), and the largest Early Christian Necropolis outside Italy (Pécs).

Notable architectural styles in Hungary include Historicism and Art Nouveau, or rather several variants of Art Nouveau. In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics. Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, Ödön Lechner (1845–1914), the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs. In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. By applying them to threedimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary.

Museum of Applied Art: This Art Nouveau building was built to the plans of Ödön Lechner.

Turning away from the style of Lechner, yet taking inspiration from his approach, the group of "Young People" ("Fiatalok"), which included Károly Kós and Dezsö Zrumeczky, were to use the characteristic structures and forms of traditional Hungarian architecture to achieve the same end.

Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries. The Sezession from Vienna, the German Jugendstil, Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the century. Béla Lajta initially adopted Lechner"s style, subsequently drawing his inspiration from English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the Egyptian style, he finally arrived at modern architecture. Aladár Árkay took almost the same route. István Medgyaszay developed his own style, which differed from Lechner"s, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in 1896.

Foreigners are often surprised, but a great portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings. In Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceiling and motives on the front wall.

Hungarian State Opera House

The music of Hungary consists mainly of traditional Hungarian folk music and music by prominent composers such as Liszt (widely considered the greatest classical pianist ever), Dohnányi, Bartók, Kodály, and Rózsa. Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word. Hungary also has a number of internationally renowned composers of contemporary classical music, György Ligeti, György Kurtág, Péter Eötvös, Zoltán Kodály and Zoltán Jeney among them.
One of the greatest Hungarian composers, Béla Bartók was also among the most significant musicians of the 20th century. His music was invigorated by the themes, modes, and rhythmic patterns of the Hungarian and neighboring folk music traditions he studied, which he synthesized with influences from his contemporaries into his own distinctive style.

Ferenc Liszt

Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music. Hungarian folk music has been significant in former country parts that belong since the 1920 Treaty of Trianon to neighboring countries such as Romania, Slovakia, southern Poland and especially in southern Slovakia and the Transylvania: both regions have significant numbers of Hungarians.

Béla Bartók, another prominent Hungarian composer

Broughton claims that Hungary"s "infectious sound has been surprisingly influential on neighboring countries (thanks perhaps to the common AustroHungarian history) and it"s not uncommon to hear Hungariansounding tunes in Romania, Slovakia and southern Poland".Szalipszki, p. 12Refers to the country as "widely considered" to be a "home of music". It is also strong in the SzabolcsSzatmár area and in the southwest part of Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, formerly featuring the longestablished and wellregarded Bogyiszló orchestra.Broughton, pp. 159167

Hungarian classical music has long been an "experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture musical world of the folk song".Szabolcsi, "The Specific Conditions of Hungarian Musical Development"Every experiment, made from Hungarian antedecents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture (music written by composers, as different from folk music), had instinctively or consciously striven to develop widely and universally the musical world of the folk song. Folk poetry and folk music were deeply embedded in the collective Hungarian people’s culture, and this unity did not cease to be effective even when it was given from and expression by individual creative artists, performers and poets." Although the Hungarian upper class has long had cultural and political connections with the rest of Europe, leading to an influx of European musical ideas, the rural peasants maintained their own traditions such that by the end of the 19th century Hungarian composers could draw on rural peasant music to (re)create a Hungarian classical style. For example, Béla Bartók and Zoltán Kodály, two of Hungary"s best known composers, used folk themes in their music. Bartók collected folk songs from across Eastern Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, whilst Kodály was more interested in creating a distinctively Hungarian musical style.

During the era of Communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989) a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. Since then, however, the Hungarian music industry has begun to recover, producing successful performers in the fields of jazz such as trumpeter Rudolf Tomsits, pianistcomposer Károly Binder and, in a modernized form of Hungarian folk, Ferenc Sebő and Márta Sebestyén. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain very popular, especially Omega, which has followings in Germany and beyond as well as in Hungary. Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice from the 1980s also remain popular.
Old Hungarian Laments of Mary

In the earliest times Hungarian language was written in a runiclike script (although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation). The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary (1000–1038).

The oldest remained written record in Hungarian language is a fragment in the founding document of the Abbey of Tihany (1055) which contains several Hungarian terms, among them the words "feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea", "up the military road to Fehérvár" The rest of the document was written in Latin.
The oldest remained complete text in Hungarian language is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer "(Halotti beszéd és könyörgés)" (1192–1195), a translation of a Latin sermon.
The oldest remained poem in Hungarian is the Old Hungarian Laments of Mary "(Ómagyar Máriasiralom)", also a (not very strict) translation from Latin, from the 13th century. It is also the oldest surviving FinnoUgric poem.
Among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were Gesta Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Hungarians") by the unknown author usually called "Anonymus", and Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Huns and the Hungarians") by Simon Kézai. Both are in Latin. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic. Another chronicle is the "Képes krónika" (Illustrated Chronicle), which was written for Louis the Great.

Chronicon Pictum

Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias (1458–1490). Janus Pannonius, although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian Humanist poet of the period. The first printing house was also founded during Matthias" reign, by András Hess, in Buda. The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum.
The most important poets of the period was Bálint Balassi (1554–1594) and Miklós Zrínyi (1620–1664). Balassi"s poetry shows Mediaeval influences, his poems can be divided into three sections: love poems, war poems and religious poems. Zrínyi"s most significant work, the epic "Szigeti veszedelem" ("Peril of Sziget", written in 1648/49) is written in a fashion similar to the "Iliad", and recounts the heroic Battle of Szigetvár, where his greatgrandfather died while defending the castle of Szigetvár.
Among the religious literary works the most important is the Bible translation by Gáspár Károli (The second Hungarian Bible translation in the history), the Protestant pastor of Gönc, in 1590. The translation is called the "Bible of Vizsoly", after the town where it was first published. (See Hungarian Bible translations for more details.)

The Hungarian enlightenment took place about fifty years after the French enlightenment. The first enlightened writers were Maria Theresia"s bodyguards (György Bessenyei, János Batsányi and others). The greatest poets of the time were Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Dániel Berzsenyi.
The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. The Hungarian language became feasible for all type of scientific explanations from this time, and furthermore many new words were coined for describing new inventions.

Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary (mostly through translations into German, French and English). Some modern Hungarian authors have become increasingly popular in Germany and Italy especially Sándor Márai, Péter Esterházy, Péter Nádas and Imre Kertész. The latter is a contemporary Jewish writer who survived the Holocaust and won the Nobel Prize for literature in 2002.
The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry have remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary. János Arany, a famous 19th century Hungarian poet is still much loved in Hungary (especially his collection of Ballads), among several other "true classics" like Sándor Petőfi, the poet of the Revolution of 1848, Endre Ady, Mihály Babits, Dezső Kosztolányi, Attila József and János Pilinszky. Other wellknown Hungarian authors are Ferenc Móra, Géza Gárdonyi, Zsigmond Móricz, Gyula Illyés, Albert Wass and Magda Szabó.

Dobos Cake

The Hungarian cuisine is a prominent feature of the Hungarian culture, just like the art of hospitality. Traditional dishes such as the world famous Goulash ("gulyás" stew or "gulyás" soup) feature prominently. Dishes are often flavoured with paprika (ground red peppers), a Hungarian innovation. Thick, heavy Hungarian sour cream called "tejföl" is often used to soften the dishes flavour. The famous Hungarian hot river fish soup called Fisherman"s soup or "halászlé" is usually a rich mixture of several kinds of poached fish.
Other dishes are Chicken Paprikash, Foie gras made of goose liver, "pörkölt" stew, "vadas", (game stew with vegetable gravy and dumplings), trout with almonds and salty and sweet dumplings, like "túrós csusza", (dumplings with fresh quark cheese and thick sour cream). Desserts include the iconic Dobos Cake, Strudels ("rétes"), filled with apple, cherry, poppy seed or cheese, Gundel pancake, plum dumplings ("szilvás gombóc"), "somlói dumplings", dessert soups like chilled Sour cherry soup and sweet chestnut puree, "gesztenyepüré" (cooked chestnuts mashed with sugar and rum and split into crumbs, topped with whipped cream). "Perec" and "kifli" are widely popular pastries.

A nicely prepared "Hortobágyi palacsinta" served in Sopron

The "csárda" is the most distinctive type of Hungarian inn, an oldstyle tavern offering traditional cuisine and beverages. "Borozó" usually denotes a cozy oldfashioned wine tavern, "pince" is a beer or wine cellar and a "söröző" is a pub offering draught beer and sometimes meals. The "bisztró" is an inexpensive restaurant often with selfservice. The "büfé" is the cheapest place, although one may have to eat standing at a counter. Pastries, cakes and coffee are served at the confectionery called "cukrászda", while an "eszpresszó" is a cafeteria.

Pálinka: is a fruit brandy, distilled from fruit grown in the orchards situated on the Great Hungarian Plain. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot ("barack") and cherry ("cseresznye"). However, plum ("szilva") is the most popular flavour. Beer: Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes. The five main Hungarian brands are: Borsodi, Soproni, Arany Ászok, Kõbányai, and Dreher.

A cold bottle of Unicum

Wine: As Hugh Johnson says in "The History of Wine", the territory of Hungary is ideal for winemaking. Since the fall of communism there has been a renaissance of Hungarian winemaking. The choice of good wine is widening from year to year. The country can be divided to six wine regions: NorthTransdanubia, Lake Balaton, SouthPannónia, Dunaregion or Alföld, UpperHungary and TokajHegyalja. Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of style: the main products of the country are elegant and fullbodied dry whites with good acidity, although complex sweet whites (Tokaj), elegant (Eger) and fullbodied robust reds (Villány and Szekszárd). The main varieties are: Olaszrizling, Hárslevelű, Furmint, Pinot gris or Szürkebarát, Chardonnay (whites), Kékfrankos (or Blaufrankisch in German), Kadarka, Portugieser, Zweigelt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot. The most famous wines from Hungary are Tokaji Aszú and Egri Bikavér.

Tokaji: Tokaji, meaning "of Tokaj", or "from Tokaj" in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of TokajHegyalja in Hungary. Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including Beethoven, Liszt, Schubert and Goethe; Joseph Haydn"s favorite wine was a Tokaji. Louis XV and Frederick the Great tried to outdo one another in the excellence of the vintages they stocked when they treated guests like Voltaire to some Tokaji. Napoleon III, the last Emperor of the French, ordered 30–40 barrels of Tokaji for the Court every year. Gustav III, King of Sweden, never had any other wine to drink. In Russia, customers included Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth of Russia.

Zwack Unicum: For over 150 years, a blend of 40 Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur Unicum. Unicum is a bitter, darkcoloured liqueur that can be drunk as an apéritif or after a meal, thus helping the digestion. The recipe is held secret by the Zwack family.
Recreation ===Lake Hévíz, It is the largest thermal lake in Eur
Hungary is a land of thermal water. A passion for spa culture and Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. Hungarian spas feature Roman, Greek, Turkish, and northern country architectural elements.

Because of an advantageous geographical location thermal water can be found with good quality and in great quantities on over 80% of Hungary"s territory. Approximately 1,500 thermal springs can be found in Hungary. There are approximately 450 public baths in Hungary.

The Romans heralded the first age of spa in Hungary, the remains of their bath complexes are still to be seen in Óbuda, to this day. The spa culture was revived during the Turkish Invasion who used the thermal springs of Buda for the construction of a number of bathhouses, some of which are still functioning (Király Baths, Rudas Baths).

In the 19th century the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture. Grand spas such as Gellért Baths, Lukács Baths, Margaret Island, and Széchenyi Medicinal Bath are a reflection of this resurgence in popularity.
Folk art ===Romanesque Church in village �

Ugrós (Jumping dances): Old style dances dating back to the Middle Ages.
Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man"s dances from Transylvania, and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group.

Karikázó: a circle dance performed by women only accompanied by singing of folksongs.

Csárdás: New style dances developed in the 1819th centuries is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music. From the men"s intricate bootslapping dances to the ancient women"s circle dances, Csárdás demonstrates the infectious exuberance of the Hungarian folk dancing still celebrated in the villages.

Verbunkos: a solo man"s dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the AustroHungarian army.

The Legényes: is a men"s solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the Kalotaszeg region of Transylvania. Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. The dance is performed freestyle usually by one dancer at a time in front of the band. Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side and sing/shout verses while the men dance. Each lad does a number of points (dance phrases) typically 4 to 8 without repetition. Each point consists of 4 parts, each lasting 4 counts. The first part is usually the same for everyone (there are only a few variations).

Woman"s folk Costume

It was in the beginning of the 18th century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences. Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. The most frequent ornament is a flower with a centerpiece resembling the eye of a peacock"s feather.
Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all.
The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Those of Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single color red, blue, or black. Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow cases and sheets.
In Hungary proper Sárköz in Transdanubia and the Matyóföld in the Great Hungarian Plain produce the finest embroideries. In the Sárköz region the women"s caps show black and white designs as delicate as lace and give evidence of the people"s wonderfully subtle artistic feeling. The embroidery motifs applied to women"s wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations.

These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes. No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating. The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece.

Herend Porcelain"s "kinai" pattern

Founded in 1826, Herend Porcelain is one of the world"s largest ceramic factories, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain. In the mid19th century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. Many of its classic patterns are still in production. After the fall of communism in Hungary the factory was privatised and is now 75% owned by its management and workers, exporting to over 60 countries of the world.

Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles, and stoneware. The company introduced the eosin glazing process and pyrogranite ceramics.
The Zsolnay factory was established by Miklós Zsolnay in Pécs, Hungary, to produce stoneware and ceramics in 1853. In 1863, his son, Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900) joined the company and became its manager and director after several years. He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the 1873 World Fair in Vienna, then at the 1878 World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix.
Puskás Ferenc Stadium

Only seven countries (USA, USSR, UK, France, Italy, China and Germany) have won more Summer Olympic gold medals than Hungary. At the all time total medal count for Olympic Games, Hungary reaches the 9th rank out of 211 participating nations, with a total of 465 medals. See Alltime Olympic Games medal table (2008 data)

Hungarians are also known for their prowess at water sports, mainly swimming, water polo (See: Water polo at the Summer Olympics) (in which they have defeated the Soviet team in 1956) and canoeing (they have won multiple medals). Two major rivers (the Danube and the Tisza) and Lake Balaton give excellent opportunities to practice these sports. Some of the world"s best sabre fencing athletes have historically hailed from Hungary.

In 2009 the Hungarian national ice hockey team has qualified for their first IIHF World Championship in more than seventy years.

The Hungarian national football team represents Hungary in international football and is controlled by the Hungarian Football Federation. It has a rich and proud pedigree in the game, as one of the first original footballing nations in continental Europe and an innovator in the sport in the 1950s. In recent times the team"s strength has diminished greatly, failing to qualify for any major tournament since 1986. However they hold the record for going the most number of consecutive games unbeaten, 32.

Hungarian football is known for one of the most formidable and influential sides in football history, which revolutionized the play of the game. Centered around the dynamic and potent quartet of strikers Ferenc Puskás, Sándor Kocsis, attacking halfback József Bozsik and withdrawn striker Nándor Hidegkuti, the "Aranycsapat" (Hung. lit Golden Team) of the "Magnificent Magyars", captivated the football world with an exciting brand of play drawn from new tactical nuances and amassed, barring the 1954 World Cup Final, a remarkable record of 43 victories, 7 ties, and no defeats from the 15th of June 1952 to the end of its historic unbeaten run on 18 February 1956. Hungary posted the highest ever Elo football rating of 2173 points in June (1954) along with the second highest with 2153 (1956); surpassing that of Brazil, England, Argentina and Germany in alltime competition.

The footballer Ferenc Puskás (1927–2006) scored 84 goals in 85 internationals for Hungary, and 511 goals in 533 matches in the Hungarian and Spanish leagues. With the Hungarian Golden Team, Puskás played the 1954 World Cup final against West Germany. In 1958, after the Hungarian Revolution, he emigrated to Spain where he played in the legendary Real Madrid team that also included Alfredo Di Stéfano, and Francisco Gento.

The Hungarians were runnersup twice in the World Cup, losing to Italy 4–2 in 1938 and 3–2 to West Germany in 1954, despite beating them 8–3 earlier in the competition. The team, built around the legendary Ferenc Puskás, led early 2–0 in that match, but ended up 3–2 losers in a game the Germans subsequently christened "The Miracle of Bern". Two highly controversial calls surround this final game: firstly when Puskas apparently equalized the match in the 89th minute only to have the goal disallowed for offside, the second being a blatant foul on Kocsis in the penalty area which would have given Hungary a penalty in the final minute.

Hungary has won gold at the Olympic three times, in 1952, 1964, and 1968. The under23 team, which was the age limit for Olympic teams, won the UEFA U23 Championship in 1974. Since the 1976 reshuffle by UEFA, the under23s are now classified with the under21s.

The match between Austria and Hungary in Vienna in 1902 was the first international match played between two nonBritish European countries.

Hungary was the first team from outside the United Kingdom and Ireland to beat England at home, famously winning 6–3 at Wembley on 25 November 1953. This victory had worldwide significance as it effectively ended England"s 90 year old mythical reign since the creation of association football in 1863 against all sides outside the United Kingdom and Ireland. They beat England 7–1, this time in Budapest a year later, in 1954. This still ranks as England"s record defeat.

Hungary holds the longest consecutive run of matches unbeaten with 33 international games between 14 May 1950 and 4 July 1954, when they lost the World Cup final to Germany. Argentina and Spain jointly hold the second longest string of 31 unbeaten matches (Argentina from 1991 to 1993 and Spain from 1994 to 1998).

Budapest Sports Arena
Hungary remained a force in European football for two to three decades after the era of the "Magnificent Magyars". Reaching the quarterfinals of both 1962 and 1966 World Cups, Hungary was blessed with a dazzling array of talent including Ferenc Sipos, Lajos Tichy, Ferenc Bene, Flórián Albert, János Farkas, Gyula Rákosi, Zoltán Varga, János Göröcs, Károly Sándor and Máté Fenyvesi. They also reached the semifinals of the European Championship in 1964 and 1972.

Returning to the World Cup in 1978 and 1982, Hungary did not reach the same heights but nonetheless performed respectably; indeed, the talents of László Fazekas, Tibor Nyilasi and László Kiss inspired Hungary to a 10–1 win over El Salvador in 1982, which remains a World Cup record.
The 1986 World Cup is seen by many fans as the final confirmation of Hungary"s decline. Expectations were very high, but poor performances in defeats to the Soviet Union and France were a bitter blow, despite the presence of talent like Lajos Détári. Since then, Hungary has continued to produce fine individual talent notably Béla Illés and Krisztián Lisztes – but further success as a team has eluded them.

Most recently, in Euro 2004 qualifiers, Hungary found themselves within sight of qualification with two games remaining, but was scuppered by defeats to Latvia and Poland.

Today, Hungary are a lesser force and haven"t qualified for a World Cup since 1986, or for the European Championship finals since 1972.
Holidays and domestic animals
See also
*Castles in Hungary
*Communications in Hungary
*Countrywide Blue Tour in Hungary
*Curse of Turan
*Education in Hungary
*Foreign relations of Hungary
*Healthcare in Hungary
*History of the Jews in Hungary
*Hungarian American
*Hungarian castles and mansions
*Hungarian cuisine
*Hungarian domestic animals
*Hungarian language
*Hungarian notation
*Hungarian people
*Hungarian Scout Association
*Hungarians in Romania (Transylvania)
*Hungarians in Slovakia
*Hungarians in Vojvodina
*Military of Hungary
*Music of Hungary
*Name days in Hungary
*Old Hungarian script
*Serbs in Hungary
*Transportation in Hungary
*Wendish question

*Common Hungarian surnames
*Eastern name order used in Hungarian personal names
*List of cities in Hungary
*List of Hungarians
*List of Hungarian rulers
*List of Hungarian writers
*List of colleges in Hungary
*List of universities in Hungary

References ===;N


External links
* at "UCB Libraries GovPubs"
* from "The Corvinus Library"
* a virtual exhibition
* database

Category:European countries
Category:Member states of the European Union
Category:Landlocked countries
Category:Liberal democracies
Category:Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean
Category:Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

myv:Мадьяронь Мастор
ga:An Ungáir
gv:Yn Ungaar
gd:An Ungair
gl:Hungría Magyarország
xal:Хунһармудин Орн
mdf:Венгеронь мастор
sah:Мадьаар Сирэ


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"Debrecen" , (approximate pronunciation, Deb-ret-sen, known by alternative names),Alternative spellings used in English include "Debreczen" and "Debrcczin". is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. Debrecen is the regional centre of the
"Miskolc" (, , ) is a city in northeastern Hungary, mainly with heavy industrial background. With a population close to 180,000 (2001) Miskolc is the third-largest city of Hungary (behind Budapest and Debrecen; second-largest with agglomeration.) It
"Miskolc" (, , ) is a city in northeastern Hungary, mainly with heavy industrial background. With a population close to 180,000 (2001) Miskolc is the third-largest city of Hungary (behind Budapest and Debrecen; second-largest with agglomeration.) It
"Miskolc" (, , ) is a city in northeastern Hungary, mainly with heavy industrial background. With a population close to 180,000 (2001) Miskolc is the third-largest city of Hungary (behind Budapest and Debrecen; second-largest with agglomeration.) It
Tipps der Redaktion aus dem Nachrichtenportal
There comes a time in everyone’s life when they have to address the age-old question: “What do you want to be when you grow up?” As a child, it’s easy to pick all the awesome jobs such as the president, an astronaut, or a rock star. However,
Jan Tombinski, Head of the EU delegation to Ukraine, expressed full support to the new Ukrainian government and stated that the country and the new government are facing a multiplied crisis which is why it is vital, among other things, to ensure
Hosts Brazil escaped Chile 3-2 on a penalty shoot-out to reach the World Cup quarter-finals Saturday, thanks to two saves from Julio Cesar, the goalpost and successful spot kicks from David Luiz, Marcelo and Neymar. Belo Horinzonte, Brazil (dpa) -
Germany became the first team in the history of the World Cup to reach four consecutive semi-finals with a 1-0 victory over France Friday and the media praised the men who achieved the feat. Berlin (dpa) - "Adieu, les Bleus!" screamed
Defenders Thiago Silva and David Luiz were both on target Friday in Fortaleza, where Brazil defeated Colombia 2-1 to book a place against Germany in the World Cup's semi-finals. Fortaleza, Brazil (dpa) - James Rodriguez pulled one back for Colombia
Germany dealt shell-shocked Brazil a remarkable 7-1 thrashing Tuesday to advance to the World Cup final, in a match that quickly turned into a nightmare for the host nation. Belo Horizonte, Brazil (dpa) - Thomas Mueller struck 11 minutes into the


(25.02.2021 20:19)

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