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"" is a market town situated on the River Arun in the centre of the Weald, in the county of , England with a population of 55,657 (2008). It lies south southwest from London, northwest from Brighton and northeast from the county town of Chichester. Nearby towns include Crawley to the northeast and Haywards Heath and Burgess Hill to the southeast. It is the administrative and market centre of District Council area.


The " Point" - a Mesolithic arrowhead - is sometimes claimed as the birth of distinctly British culture since it is the earliest known artefact that postdates the separation (due to glacial meltwater filling the Channel) of Britain from the continent

iddle Age
The first mention of was in King Eadred"s land charter of AD 947. The town had connections to the sale of horses and the name is believed to be derived from "Horse Ham", a settlement where horses were kept.

An alternative explanation is that "" is a contraction of "Horsa"s Ham" named after the Saxon warrior who was said to have been given lands in the area.

Despite having been in existence for some 140 years at the time of the survey, is not mentioned in the Domesday BookAlbery, W. (1947) "A Millennium of Facts in the History of and Sussex. 947-1947.", , Museum Society either because it was never visited by inspectors, or was simply "left out" of the final version. It lies within the ancient Norman administrative division of the Rape of Bramber.

In ancient times was controlled by the powerful de Braose family. Later the Eversfield family, which had risen from Surrey County obscurity into a powerhouse of ironmasters and landowners, built Denne Park House, their seat. The family later represented in Parliament, and controlled the Eversfield Estate in St. Leonards-on-Sea, where the seaside promenade is named for the family.

had two weekly markets in the Middle AgesInterview with Miss M. Page, resident 1933-2006, for many years Auctioneer"s Clerk at the weekly livestock market: Museum Society Archive, and was noted locally for its annual fairs.

odern er
Despite a local iron industry which stayed until the 17th century and a prosperous brewing industry, remained primarily a market town serving the many farms in the area until the early 20th century, when other industry and residential development began to proliferate. One of the most important of these was the manufacture of bricks from the Wealden clay on which sits. Warnham and Wealden Brickworks still operate two miles north of and there are disused workings throughout the area, notably at Southwater which is now developed as an education centre and leisure park.

prospered during the Victorian era and early 20th century. The town, along with others, has been well documented photographically by Francis Frith. The pictures record many of the landmarks that are still in place today, although some, such the war memorial, Jubilee Fountain and Carfax Bandstand, have been moved.

remained a prominent brewery town until 2000, when the King and Barnes Brewery was closed on merger with Hall & Woodhouse, brewers of Dorset. King & Barnes was formed in 1906 from the merger of King & Sons, maltsters existing from 1850 and G H Barnes & Co., brewers whose origins date back to 1800. The brewery remained in the King family hands until the merger in 2000 when production ceased permanently. Their most famous brews included: Sussex Ale, Wealden Ale, Broadwood, Festive and the seasonal Old and Christmas Ales. The last member of the King family involved in the company still brews in as W J King & Co (Brewers) and supplies real ales to local pubs. There are two other small brewers currently operating in : Hepworth"s is run by a former head brewer at King & Barnes, and Welton"s, a company who were formed in Capel, Surrey, about fifteen years ago, and have been in since 2004 (?).

The town has grown steadily over recent years to a population of over 50,000. This has been facilitated by the completion of both an inner and outer town bypass. The location of any new growth is the subject of intense debate. Certainly, the town will fight hard to retain the "strategic housing gap" between itself and its large neighbour Crawley. However, the latest plans by the District Council include a large neighbourhood directly adjacent to Crawley, potentially eating into that gap.

egal histor
The last man to die of pressing in the whole of England was John Weekes of . He was charged with robbery and murder of a woman along with three accomplices, one of whom was a small boy used to sneak inside the woman"s house and open access for the other three. When police found stolen property in the possession of the men, they easily persuaded the boy into turning King"s evidence. Two of the other accomplices were convicted, but when John Weekes had his turn to plead, he refused to say anything. Once the judges brought in eight witnesses who swore Weekes could talk and was not dumb, they gave him time in the cells. When he refused further to say a single word, the judges were forced to find him not guilty of murder. Instead, he was convicted of "standing mute through malice". Weekes was placed under three hundredweight boards, and the sixteen stone gaoler jumped on top of him. Local folklore continues the story, extending it to include the death of his executioner days later, sometimes in the same spot where the execution was carried out. Some think that he was a mute.

Public executions generally took place at a place called North Heath, now a suburb of . The road to the execution site was known for many years as Gibbet"s Road but was later renamed Giblet"s Road with an extension now called Giblet"s Way. The last man to be put to death for homosexuality in England was in in 1834

is the largest town in the District Council area. The second tier of local government is by County Council, based in Chichester. In addition there are various Parish Councils.

The town is the centre of the parliamentary constituency of , recreated in 1983.
Francis Maude has served as Member of Parliament for since 1997.
Maude is also Shadow Minister for the Cabinet Office and Shadow Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.

has an elevation of 50 metres above sea level, it is situated in the centre of the Weald in the Low Weald, at the very western edge of the High Weald, with the Surrey Hills of the North Downs to the north and the Sussex Downs of the South Downs to the south The River Arun rises from ghylls (streams) in the St Leonard"s Forest area, to the east of , cuts through the south of the town then makes its way through Broadbridge Heath.It is joined by a number of streams flowing down from the northern rising around Rusper.

Town centre
has grown up around the Carfax, which is a meeting area place of five roads. To the south of the Carfax is the Causeway. This tranquil, little altered street is lined with ancient houses, and leads to the Norman parish church of St. Mary (Anglican). Beyond the church is the River Arun, Prewett"s Mill and the town"s cricket field. A short walk along the banks of the Arun in a south easterly direction is Chesworth Farm, an area of open public access.

To the north of the Carfax is a large park, known locally as Park, the remnant of what was formerly the Hurst Park Estate. The park has numerous football pitches, a wildlife pond and tennis courts. Various leisure facilities, including a modern swimming complex, have been built on land around the park.

To the east along Brighton Road is Iron Bridge named after the railway bridge that carries the railway from London to the South Coast. The area consists of mainly Victorian and Edwardian houses to the north of Brighton Road, whilst to the south there are areas of inter- and post-war housing. This area is known as New Town.

has developed beyond the original boundaries to incorporate some of the smaller hamlets which now form part of the outer neighbourhoods.

An area of named after a feeder stream of the River Arun. It consists of residential housing, the majority of which is of late twentieth century origin. The suburb is substantial enough for two council wards. The hamlet around Old Holbrook House is immediately to the north of the A264 which abuts Holbrook. Holbrook House was previously the home of Sir William Vesey-Fitzgerald, Governor of Bombay and M.P. for (1852–1875) The Tithe Barn at Fivens Green is the most notable building in the district.

This hamlet dates back to the late 18th Century, when a small number of houses were in existence, with an inn opening in the early part of the 19th Century. A station opened in the area in 1907, originally known as Rusper Road Crossing halt, but later as Littlehaven Halt.

eedles estat

South-west of the town the Needles estate was laid out from c. 1955, with a mixture of privately owned and council-built houses and bungalows. Land around Hills Farm nearby was sold for development in 1972 and further development took place in the 1980sFrom: ": General History of the Town", A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 6 Part 2: Bramber Rape (North-Western Part) including (1986), pp. 131-156. The Needles estate took its name from timbers taken from ships wrecked on the Isle of Wight"s famous geological phenomenon of the same name and used to build a now destroyed local farmhouse. County Times (, England) | March 26, 2008

ew Tow
In keeping with many other towns, new developments to the east of the town centre were rapid in the early Victorian era, and that area of town became known, as it is today, as New Town. The area contains the Iron Bridge, a steel structure that carries the railway to the south of .

orth Heat
Originally used as a label to describe the northern part of the parish of (compared to Southwater to describe that part south of the River Arun), this area was developed as a neighbourhood in the latter part of the 20th Century.

This area was originally known as Grub Street, and developed south of Depot Road in the 19th century.

Roffey is north east of the centre of and as a hamlet dates back to at least the 13th Century, with taxation records of 1296 showing 18 liable people in the area. Kelley"s Post Office Directory for 1867 describes "Roughey" as consisting "of a few farmhouses and cottages. Here is an iron church, capable of accommodating 80 persons".Kelly"s Post Office Directory of Essex, Herts, Middlesex, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, 1867 Maps of the 1880s show Roffey Corner (still spelt Roughey), but appear to label the hamlet as Star Row, with Roffey in use again by the turn of the century. A railway station opened as Roffey Road Halt in 1907, closing in 1937. The station is shown as being in the location now at Wimland Road.

ower Hil
Tower Hill is a hamlet that lies one mile south of on a ridge of land containing a sandstone known as Stone land consisting of Horsharising above the town.A quarry existed here from 1830 to 1876A History of Sussex Volume 6 Part 2, T P Hudson (Editor), A P Baggs, C R J Currie, C R Elrington, S M Keeling, A M Rowland, 1986. Tower Hill consists of housing dating from mid Victorian to late 20th Century. It contains a pub called The Boar"s Head (formerly known as The Fox and Hounds)and little else of historical interest. The economic importance of quarrying Stone to in the 19th century has left a legacy of field names such as:Stone Pit Field, Stone Barn, Stonyhurst and Stone Pit Wood.

is market town formerly trading in cattle, sheep and corn. Its former industries include brewing, brickmaking, iron-smelting and printing. Nowadays the important industries are financial services, pharmaceuticals and technology. is also a commuter town serving London and Brighton.

St Mark"s Court registered office of the RSA Insurance Group
RSA Insurance Group, an insurance company, has its registered office in . The company first came to the town in 1965 as Sun Alliance, becoming the town"s biggest employer, at its peak it employed 2,500 people. Since the peak the company has steadily been reducing its workforce in the town. In 1992 Sun Alliance demolished its 1960s tower block, Stocklund House and built St Leonard"s House and St Mark"s Court. The latter requiring the demolition of St Mark"s Church except for the spire. Sun Alliance merged with Royal Insurance in 1996 to form Royal & Sun Alliance Insurance Group, then renamed RSA Insurance Group in 2008. Another employer in the town is Novartis a Swiss based multinational pharmaceutical company formerly called Ciba-Geigy before a 1996 merger.The site houses the firm"s gastro-intestinal research centre and respiratory research centre employing over 300 people. The RSPCA, an animal welfare charity, has a £16 million headquarters near , built to replace its former headquarters in the centre of the town.

"s town centre has many national chain stores, and is suffering the loss of small and independent retailers.
In 1992 the town centre was redesigned to greatly reduce the flow of traffic through the town"s main shopping streets. West Street was pedestrianised. Much of The Carfax was pedestrianised to create a town square. On the Northwest side of this square is Swan walk, a typical shopping centre. A further shopping area and public square, the Forum, opened in 2003 to the south of West Street. There is a partially covered shopping area Piries Place and a shopping street still open to traffic, East Street.

The Shelley fountain fenced off for repairs in April 2009
At the west end of the town centre stands a controversial water sculpture known as the "Rising Universe" fountain, more commonly known locally as "The Shelley Fountain". It was designed by Angela Connor, and erected to commemorate the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley who was born at Warnham Place near . The design is based on a fountain planned for the city of Cambridge which was rejected due to public protest. The County Times wrote "Its appearance and quality as a public work of art has attracted widespread derision and distress. Just how long it will survive is the burning question of the moment.". At its opening the mayor of Lerici, "s twin town where the poet drowned, described the memorial as "very brave". The fountain is designed to release a torrent of six and a half tons of water periodically, it is 45 ft across at its base, standing 28 ft high. It carries a plaque bearing one of his poems.
The Old Town Hall
The fountain was turned off in the spring of 2006 to save water. Despite recycling it used 180 gallons a day to cover evaporation and filtration losses. However, the council has made water saving efficiencies elsewhere and the fountain was turned on again on November 13, 2006, its tenth birthday but was turned off again after that Christmas. In May 2008 the fountain was turned off again due to the failure of its main hydraulic cylinder. On 19 January 2009 the fountain was fenced off for repairs.

The Old Town Hall in the Market Square is a much adapted and restructured building dating from c 1648 when it was referred to as a "Market House". In 1721 a new construction of Portland Stone was built containing a poultry and butter market. The building fell into disrepair and was substantially rebuilt around 1812.It was only as late as 1888 that it became the property of Council.The building was again largely rebuilt and is essentially of late Victorian origin with a Norman facade preserving some aspects of the older buildings.It has been used as council offices and as a magistrates court in the proceeding years. The ground floor is still used as an occasional market place and the upper floors contain the Registry.

lies at the junction of three routes:
* the A24 north to south route from London and Dorking to Worthing
* the A264/A29 north east to south west route from Crawley to Chichester
* the A281 north west to south east route from Guildford to Brighton.

"s recently developed bus station.
The town has one main railway station, railway station, on the Arun Valley Line from Chichester to Crawley, Gatwick and London Victoria. Sutton & Mole Valley line services continue north to Dorking, Epsom, Sutton and London Bridge. There is also Littlehaven Station (previously named Littlehaven Halt), in the north east of the town on the Crawley line.

Cyclists, pedestrians and horseriders can reach Guildford and Shoreham via the Downs Link, a long distance bridleway and cycle route which follows the now disused -Guildford, and -Shoreham railway lines and passes through Southwater, just to the south of . Most bus services are run by Metrobus, with other routes operated by Arriva, Compass Bus and Stagecoach. is 20 km (12 miles) from Gatwick Airport.

The County Times is a paid-for newspaper that has served the town since 1869. It has a free newspaper the Advertiser. Another free newspaper, the Resident, was set up in 2008

The entrance to The Forest School.
The main secondary schools in are:
*Tanbridge House School (mixed comprehensive),
*Millais School (girls" comprehensive),
*Forest School (boys" comprehensive).

is also home to the well-known:
*College of Richard Collyer, (sixth form) founded in 1532, and known more commonly as "Collyer"s", on Hurst Road. This road also has on it the Arun House adult education centre (a constituent institution of the Central Sussex College).
*Christ"s Hospital, To the south of the town is the "Bluecoat School", a public school founded in 1552, with strong links to the City of London. It moved to the area in 1902.

* YMCA provides programmes of training for young people entering the workforce. This is supported by accommodation for up to 44 homeless young people

Cricket Club"s, play their home matches at Cricketfield which is used twice a season by Sussex CCC for matches. Although cricket was played in before 1768, the first recorded game of a town side was on 8 August 1771, which is when Cricket Club was created. The Club has played various locations over the years, before settling at the present ground in 1851. Cricket Club were national champions in 2005.

F.C. are the town"s senior football club and currently (2008–09) play in the Isthmian League Premier Division. This is currently the highest division the club have ever played in. They have had some success in recent seasons, reaching the final of the Sussex Senior Cup in 2007. They reached the 2nd round of the F A Cup in 07-08, losing in a replay to Swansea City. The team currently play in Worthing whilst they seek a new ground in . The dedicated followers of the team are known as the "Lardy Boys".

YMCA FC, founded in 1898, are playing their 2008/9 season in the Sussex County League Division One. They are nick-named "The YMs", and play their home games at Gorings Mead in the Iron Bridge part of .

RUFC who play at the Coolhurst Ground, are the town"s premier Rugby Union team. They were founded in 1928 with their first headquarters at the Station Hotel opposite Station. Initially the team played on farmland adjacent to the Warnham Park Estate but from 1930 until 1968 they were settled at Cricket Club. The club grew considerably after the war with further pitches rented in Park. In 1972 they moved to their present home. At present 1st XV are in London 4 South East. The club runs teams at every level starting with u7s

Holbrook RUFC are a smaller rugby club, based at The Holbrook Club in north . It was originally formed in 1971 as Sunallon RFC, which was the name of the then Sun Alliance Sports & Social Club. This then developed into Sun Alliance RFC and following a merger with the Liverpool based Royal Insurance in 1996 into Royal & Sun Alliance RFC (RSA). Holbrook RFC now have two teams as of the 2008/09 season, with the 1sts in Sussex League 1 following promotion, and 2nds in Sussex League 3.

Chess Club is one of the oldest chess clubs in the country and was first mentioned in the local press in 1879. Continuing to field several teams in the Mid-Sussex League, it continues to win this tough league periodically.

Gymnastic Club have a national reputation for producing top female gymnasts, a number of whom have progressed to the England and Great Britain national squads.

ublic service
Community Hospital, is open weekdays, and is located on Hurst Road.
The town also has its own law courts, ambulance station, fire station and police station also located on Hurst Road. The Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the Fire and Rescue Service. Home Office policing in is provided by the Sussex Police.

The Registry of births, deaths and marriages is located in the Old Town Hall in central .

Community facilities
Pavilions In The Park
Park immediately to the north of central is 24 hectares of open space for the use of the people of . It contains an 18th century country house used in part by the District Council and contains formal gardens and a maze. At the eastern side is The Pavilions In The Park leisure centre with a gym and a 25m swimming pool run by a private company for District Council.. A BMX and Skate park is located on the Hurst Road side of Park. The remaining space is used extensively for leisure pursuits such as tennis, football and rugby.

Museum is located on the picturesque Causeway in a half timbered medieval house. It has local history objects displayed in twenty-six galleries. Situated on North Street is "The Capitol", the venue (formally Arts Centre) features a theatre, 2 full-time cinema screens, a studio and gallery. On Lower Tanbridge Way is two storey modernised library run by Libraries.

Cultural references
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had the fictitious Openshaw family, in the Sherlock Holmes story, The Five Orange Pips residing in the town.

Douglas Maddon"s book "The English Department"s Whores",The English Department’s Whores by Douglas Maddon , (2001), ISBN 0595205941 is a thinly-veiled satire of life in .

The first illustrated history of was written in 1836 by Howard Dudley at the age of 16. It includes descriptions of St Mary"s Church and other buildings along with lithographs and wood-cut images of the town. The book entitled has been reproduced in full to enable research on line.

otable deceased resident
* John Roland Abbey (1894–1969), book collector.
* George Bax Holmes (1803–1887),palaeontologist
* Robert Blatchford (1851–1943), author and socialist.
* Wilfred Brown (1922–1971) singer
* Henry Burstow (1826–1916), singer and bell-ringer, important to the early twentieth-century folk-song revival, and for his "Reminiscences of ", published in 1911.
* Edward Bainbridge Copnall (1903–1973), artist and president of the Royal Society of British Sculptors. He was born and lived in . One of his works, a sculpture titled "The Astronomer" was presented to the College of Richard Collyer in the town, by his sister Phyllis Millar and is on display in the upper quadrangle. Other examples of his work are kept by Museum.
* John Copnall (1928–2007) artist and teacher, a leading English abstract painter and teacher at the London Central School of Art and Design.
* Walter Dendy Sadler (1854–1923) artist and painter, was brought up in .
* Frederick Gough MC TD (1901–1977), an army major at the Battle of Arnhem, served as "s Member of Parliament from 1951 to 1964.
* Catherine Howard (c.1520-1542), one of King Henry VIII"s wives, lived in .
* Howard Vincent (1849–1908),Conservative Party Member of Parliament, barrister and police official who was born at Slinfold.
* Hammond Innes (1913–1998), author, was born in Clarence Road.
* Thomas Medwin (1788–1869), poet and biographer of Lord Byron and his cousin Percy Bysshe Shelley
* John Guille Millais (1865–1931), painter, naturalist and author, son of the Pre-Raphaelite painter John Everett Millais,
* Raoul Millais (1901–1999), artist, son of John Guille Millais.
* Edward Mote (1797–1874), Writer of the hymn "My hope is built on nothing less" and was minister of Rehoboth Baptist Church in New Street for 26 years where he is buried.
* John Pilford(1769–1834) Royal Navy officer most noted for his command of the HMS Ajax at the battle of Trafalgar.
* Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822) was born at Field Place,Warnham two miles from ,
* Lt.-Col. George Styles GC (1928–2006), army bomb-disposal expert, was educated at Collyer"s School.
* Eric Thompson (1929–1982), narrator of the British version of The Magic Roundabout, was educated at Collyer"s School.
* William Vesey-Fitzgerald (1818–1885), Governor of Bombay, M.P.for lived at Holbrook.

Notable living resident

* William Beer - Sussex CCC cricketer
* Junior Campbell (William Campbell) ( lead guitarist, singer and songwriter with the sixties band The Marmalade), Also known for writing the music for the original Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends television series" and films.
* Harry Enfield - English comedian attended Collyer"s sixth form college. His famous Kevin the Teenager character made mention of living on Merryfield Drive in . He currently plays Jim Stonem in the E4 drama, Skins. Also Stavros the kebab shop owner is allegedly based upon the owner of the Greek Fish & Chip Shop near the station in the mid-1970s.
* Robin Goodridge - Drummer in rock band Bush attended Tanbridge House School.
* Jamie Hewlett - Artist/cartoonist and creator of the comic strip Tank Girl (made into a film in 1995) and co-creator of the band Gorillaz (nominated for five Grammy Awards in December 2005). He attended both Tanbridge House School and the former Northbrook Art College.
* Douglas Maddon - Novelist and former lecturer at Collyer"s Sixth Form College
* Chris Nash - Sussex CCC cricketer
* Paul Parker - England and Sussex CCC cricketer (captain); attended Collyer"s School
* Simon Nye - Writer of Men Behaving Badly, attended Collyer"s when it was still a Grammar School
* Jamie Taylor - Footballer for Dagenham and Redbridge FC in Football League Two
* Michael Thornely - Sussex CCC cricketer
* Faye White - Footballer captain of England and player for Ottawa Fury, formerly of Arsenal
* Roy Whiting - Convicted child killer of 7 year old Sarah Payne .
* Holly Willoughby - TV presenter and model attended Collyer"s Sixth Form College.
* Katie Price aka. "Jordan" - Business Woman and Model

*"The Feeling" - A pop band who recorded hit singles such as "Sewn", "Fill My Little World", "Never Be Lonely", "Love It When You Call" and "Rosé" (album "Twelve Stops and Home"). Three of the members attended St. John"s Catholic Primary School.
** Paul Stewart - Musician
** Ciaran Jeremiah - Musician
** Kevin Jeremiah - Musician

** Chris Simms (Author) - Crime thriller writers place of birth

Recent comments about
An emblem on the side of an Arriva bus celebrating "s win of the Britain in Bloom contest.
On the 26 October 2006 was pronounced the second best place to live in the UK, beating off the likes of Epsom and Tunbridge Wells and only beaten by Winchester. This was claimed by a Channel 4 show, "The 10 best and worst places to live in the UK".
The programme mentioned that:

* was in the top 15% for low crime;
*about 70% of students gained 5 A* _ C grades at GCSE;
*over 85% of the workforce is economically active;
* has a high life expectancy of 76 years for men and 83 for women;
*there are no official homeless people living in .

In 2007 a Reader"s Digest poll put as the 25th best place in mainland Britain to bring up a family.

On 27 September 2007 was awarded as the overall winner of Britain in Bloom in the Large town / small city category in the whole of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland with a Gold Award. It also has the honour of being presented with the Royal Horticultural Society’s ‘Bloomin’ Wild’ award which reflected the theme for year’s national judging.

is placed number 27 in the book "Crap Towns: The 50 Worst Places To Live In The UK". The humorous book describes as "a No Fun Zone run by old conservatives for old conservatives." Jordison S. & Kieran D.: "Crap Towns: The 50 Worst Places To Live In The UK" page 55. Boxtree, 2003. ISBN 0 7255 1582 5
This award was given because of the Council refused to build a Night Club in the town, then carried on to say said that "the weekly disco at the Roffey youth centre would be enough".

District twinnings:
* St Maixent L"Ecole, France
* Lage, Germany
Town twinnings:
* Lerici, Italy
* , Victoria, Australia


xternal link

* - Local Government website
* - Official Town Centre Guide
* - Local amenity society
* - A collection of photos and articles of current and historical interest

Category:Towns in
Category:Market towns in England

fr: (Angleterre)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 18.02.2019 04:12 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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