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Heilbronn

Germany, Heilbronn
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"Heilbronn" () is a city in northern Ban-Württemberg, Germany. It is completely surround by Heilbronn County and with approximately 121.989 (Statistisches Lansamt 30.06.2008) resints, it is the sixth-largest city in the state.

The city on the Neckar is a former Imperial Free City and currt inpnt city ("i.e." not part of any county) and seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is also the "major economic ctre" of the Heilbronn-Frank region that inclus almost the tire northeast of Ban-Württemberg.

Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed "Käthchstadt" after Heinrich von Kleist"s play "Das Käthch von Heilbronn.

eograph
Heilbronn is located in the northern corner of the Neckar basin at the bottom of the Wartberg (308 m). It is spread out on both banks of the Neckar on a fertile terrace and the highest spot insi city limits is the Schweinsberg with a height of 372 m. Heilbronn is located adjact to the Schwäbisch-Fränkischer Wald State Park and is famous for the vineyards that surround it.
Neckar River, in southwest Germany.

Heilbronn and its surroundings are located in the northern part of the larger Stuttgart metropolitan area. The city acts as the economic ctre of the Heilbronn-Frank region and is one of 14 cities referred to in the Ban-Württemberg master plan of 2002 as major economic cters. In addition, it serves the cities and towns of Abstatt, Bad Rappau, Bad Wimpf, Beilstein, Brackheim, Cleebronn, Eberstatt, Ellhof, Epping, Flein, Gemming, Gügling, Ilsfeld, Ittling, Kirchardt, Lauff am Neckar, Lehrsteinsfeld, Leingart, Löwstein, Massbachhaus, Neckarwestheim, Nordheim, Obersulm, Pfaffhof, Schwaigern, Siegelsbach, Talheim, Untergruppbach, Weinsberg, Wüstrot and Zaberfeld as an intermediate economic ctre.

eighbouring communitie
Heilbronn shares a borr with the following cities and towns, all part of Heilbronn County and listed here clockwise from the North: Bad Wimpf, Neckarsulm, Erlbach, Weinsberg, Lehrsteinsfeld, Untergruppbach, Flein, Talheim, Lauff am Neckar, Nordheim, Leingart, Schwaigern, Massbachhaus and Bad Rappau.

orough
Heilbronn is ma up of t boroughs. They are:


istor
p to AD 120
The olst traces of humans in and around Heilbronn date back to the Old Stone Age (30,000 BC). The fertile Neckar floodplains in the Heilbronn basin aid early settlemt by farmers and ranchers. The city limits of prest-day Heilbronn contain many sites of Bronze Age finds. Later on, but still before AD, the Celts already mined here for salt from brine.

Unr Roman Emperor Domitian (AD 81–96) the Romans pushed east away from the Rhine and the outer boundary of the Roman Empire was set at the Neckar-Onwald-Limes. A castle in today"s borough of Böcking was part of that limes, and nearby numerous Roman villas and plantations were built. Around AD 150, the Neckar-Onwald-Limes became obsolete wh the boundary of the Roman Empire was moved approximately 30 km to the east, where it was subsequtly fortified with the construction of the Upper Germanic Limes complete with parapet and trches.

Around 260, the Romans surrred the limes, and the Alamanni became rulers of the Neckar basin. Betwe the 4th and 7th cturies, the area became part of the Frankish Empire, and the first settlemt was built in the geral vicinity of the prest cter of town.

In 741 Heilbronn is first mtioned in an official documt of the Diocese of Würzburg as "villa Helibrunna" (together with a "Michaelsbasilica"), and in 841, King Louis the German set up court here for a period of time. The name "Heilbrunna" ("healing well") hints to a well that is located not far from the basilica. In 1050 a significant settlemt of Jews is noted in official documts, and the Cox of the monastery in Hirsau documted Heilbronn"s right to hold market days and mint coins, mtioning its harbor and vineyards as well.

200–150
The "Deutschhof".
In 1225 Heilbronn was incorporated into the Hohstauf Empire as "oppidum Heilecbrunn". "Oppidum" signified a city fortified by parapet and trches. Later during the 13th ctury, the Teutonic Knights obtained ownership of a large area south of Heilbronn which would remain owned by that orr until German Mediatisation in 1805. Starting in 1268, the orr built the "Deutschhof" there as one of its resinces. The church building of the orr that was located on the premises was modified and expand several times: First in 1350 it was expand (Gothic), th it was remoled in 1719 (Baroque), and in 1977, it was consecrated as a cathedral.

After the mise of the Stauf King Rudolf I returned city status to Heilbronn in 1281 and installed a regal advocate to rule the city. In addition to the advocate he put a council in place that was head up by a mayor. Around 1300, the first city hall was erected in the market place and the Kilianskirche (built on the foundation of the Michaelsbasilica) was expand. The Neckar privilege gave the city the right to modify the flow of the river in 1333, which meant it now had the right to construct dams, harbours and mills. Because of the infrastructure thus created, Heilbronn became increasingly attractive to merchants and craftspeople during the 14th ctury whose influce had be growing and who were now manding the right to termine their own fate.

In 1371 Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, issued a new charter to the city. Now Heilbronn need to answer only to the Emperor and as such was an Imperial Free City. Craftspeople and merchants were now represted in its council and the villages of Böcking, Flein, Frankbach and Neckargartach became part of Heilbronn"s territory.

As an Imperial Free City Heilbronn kept seeing itself threated by the ambitious house of Württemberg. A very close relationship with the Holy Roman Emperor and a treaty with the Electoral Palatinate that was in effect from 1417 through 1622 strgthed Heilbronn"s position and kept Württemberg at bay. The political stability joyed by the city during the 15th ctury caused it to bloom and many of its historic structures trace their roots back to that time as, for instance, the expansion of the Kilianskirche from 1455 through 1460.

500–170
"Bollwerksturm"

Götz von Berliching spt three years in "knightly custody" in Heilbronn starting in 1519 and ev spt a night in the tower of the bastion. That same year people first took note of the pub owner Jäcklein Rohrbach who with accomplices would later kill the executor of Böcking. After he had spt some time in the Hohlohe Plains and collected similarly mind characters around him, he returned to Heilbronn in April 1525 just as the Peasants" War was getting into full swing. On April 16 the peasants killed many of the nobles in Weinsberg and on April 18 the Heilbronn cloister of the Orr of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel was attacked and ransacked. The city oped its gates in response to mands of the peasants and consequtly more churches and municipal institutions were robbed the next day. For about a month Heilbronn remained unr the control of revolting peasants. And ev though Johann Lachmann, later a church reformer, had attempted to mediate, the peasants didn"t leave the city until one of their armies was feated on May 12, 1525 in Böbling. Their lear Rohrbach was executed on May 21, 1525 in Neckargartach and his home town of Böcking was partially burnt to the ground in punishmt.

In 1528, the replacemt of the mayor by Hans Riesser, a Protestant, brought on the previously layed Reformation and through the efforts of Reformer Lachmann schools and healthcare were also reorganized. In 1529 the Kilianskirche (church tower of the Kilianskirche) was completed. It was the first important religious building of the Raissance in Germany. The year 1528 brought about the acceptance of the Augsburg Confession by city council and resints and the "Heilbronn Catechism" of 1536 is the second olst catechism in the Protestant Church. In 1538 Heilbronn joined the Schmalkaldic League but by 1564 squabbles betwe troops of the Schmalkaldic League and those of the Emperor Charles V escalated into battles that were won by the Emperor. As a result, Charles V spt Christmas 1546 in Heilbronn to attd the suing criminal proceedings. It is also Charles V who in 1522 changed the charter of the city and this charter survived almost unscathed until 1803.

Heilbronn in 1643. Engraving by Matthäus Merian
During the Thirty Years" War the city and surrounding villages suffered badly. After the battle of Wimpf in 1622, Neckargartach was burnt to the ground. In 1631 Heilbronn was occupied by imperial troops but the same year the Swes succeed in conquering the city. From 1644 through 1647, Heilbronn was again part of the Holy Roman Empire, but th Frch troops moved in and later those of the Palatinate. The city wasn"t free of occupying forces until four years after the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. But already in the 1670s the city again became the stage for armed manoeuvres, until it was occupied by Frch troops in 1688. But while that occupation of the city only lasted several months, the Frch were only persuad to leave the surrounding areas in 1693, after a large fsive army had be put into the field and fortifications had be erected.

700–190
"Käthchhaus"
During the 18th ctury the citizs of Heilbronn witnessed a boom. The archives tell that during that time almost all members of the city council had joyed some sort of formal education, Schiller and Goethe came to visit the city, and gorgeous buildings were being constructed in Rococo style.

On September 9, 1802 the city of Heilbronn lost its status as Imperial Free City wh the troops of Duke Frerick I of Württemberg marched into town. The duke had lost his holdings on the left bank of the Rhine to France during the Frch Revolutionary Wars but had be compsated with areas on the right bank. This is how Heilbronn together with other formerly Imperial Free Cities became part of Württemberg in 1803. Heilbronn became the seat of an "Oberamt" (district), and the four Imperial Free villages became separate communities within the district. In 1806 the Duchy of Württemberg became the Kingdom of Württemberg.

In 1815, Heilbronn again became a staging area for major armies ahead of the campaign against Napoleon, and 10,000 troops parad in front of Emperor Franz of Austria and 126 German princes and gerals in the "Theresiwiese". Tsar Alexanr I of Russia met in Heilbronn with the Baltic Baroness Juliane von Krüner who talked him into founding the "Holy Alliance".

Industrialization arrived in 1820. Wh the first train lines were placed in service in Württemberg, Heilbronn was at the d of the line of the northern branch that connected Heilbronn with Stuttgart and further fueled industrialization.
Plan of Heilbronn, 1858
For a while Heilbronn suffered from the upheavals of the Ban Revolution that its civil guard participated in. During that time the 8th infantry regimt switched sis and joined the revolutionaries until it was subsequtly disarmed and force-transferred out of the area.

Heilbronn became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany.

In the 1860s the train tracks were extd from Heilbronn to Heilberg via Bad Wimpf, to Würzburg via Osterburk, and to Crailsheim (and later on to Nuremberg) via Schwäbisch Hall. In 1880, the Kraichgau line was completed and created an important connection towards the Karlsruhe area and by the d of the 19th ctury Heilbronn had become an important hub and second only to Stuttgart as one of Württemberg"s largest industrial cities.

The year 1892 brought electricity via a connection to the power plant in Lauff and thus Heilbronn became the first city in the world to joy long distance supply of power.

900–194
Heilbronn, 1945

With the dissolution of monarchy in the German Reich as a result of World War I, Heilbronn became part of the Free People"s State of Württemberg in 1918.

After almost a ctury of economic boom and growth of the local industry Heilbronn"s citizry includ many labourers. The city came to be known as a "red hot spot" and numerous worker and sports clubs were found. Already prior to World War I the SPD cornered the majority of the vote and stayed that course during the period of the Weimar Republic. At his visit to the city on May 15, 1926, Hitler was clearly not welcome by everyone and several people were injured wh a man was mistak for Hitler and attacked. Hitler himself was able to give his speech in the city"s community cter "Harmonie" but the SPD had the majority in Heilbronn over the NSDAP as late as the elections on March 5, 1933.

Heilbronn"s district lear of the NSDAP had be Richard Drauz since 1932 who had be born into a respected Heilbronn family. He was also elected to the Reichstag from 1933 on and pushed hard for the "Gleichschaltung" of the Heilbronn clubs and press in Nazi Germany.

On July 28, 1935, the port was oped in a canal off the Neckar and 1936 saw the Autobahn betwe Heilbronn and Stuttgart completed. Economy and infrastructure were booming in Württemberg and Heilbronn was at the logistic ctre of it all. As the result of a district reform on October 1, 1938, Heilbronn became seat of the newly created Heilbronn County and regained inpnt city status. At the same time the previously inpnt communities of Böcking, Sontheim and Neckargartach were annexed and with 72,000 resints Heilbronn now was the second largest city in Württemberg. The port turned into an important transfer station on the Neckar and one of the t largest interior ports in the country.

On November 10, 1938, the Heilbronn synagogue was stroyed and during 1939 the Jewish community was all but eliminated.

Starting in 1942 during World War II, the salt mines in and around Heilbronn were used to store art and artifacts from Germany, France and Italy. Similarly, important producers of the war industry were moved into the mine shafts. The expansion of the shafts was unrtak by labour brigas of the conctration camp branches in Kochdorf and Neckargartach. From Heilbronn all the way to Neckarelz numerous subterraneous complexes, some of them gigantic, were constructed and as of November 20, 1942 the Heilbronn Bureau of Labour had 8,000 forced labourers registered in its district.

In 1940 allied air raids started and the city and its surrounding area were hit about 20 times with minor damage. On September 10, 1944, a raid by the allies targeted the city and, specifically, the Böcking train transfer station. 281 resints died as a result of 1,168 bombs dropped that day. The city was carpet-bombed from the southern quarter all the way to the Kilianskirche in the ctre of town. The church burnt out.

The catastrophe for Heilbronn was the bombing raid on December 4, 1944. During that raid the ctre of town was completely stroyed and the surrounding boroughs were heavily damaged. Within one half hour 6,500 resints perished. Of those, 5,000 were later buried in mass graves in the "Ehrfriedhof" (cemetery of honor) in the valley of the Köpfer creek close to the city. To this day, a memorial is held annually in memory of those that died that day. As a result of the war Heilbronn"s population shrank to 46,350 "(see Bombings of Heilbronn in World War II)".

After a t-day battle with the advancing allies over the strategically important Neckar crossings World War II d for the stroyed city on April 12, 1945 with occupation by US troops. Local NSDAP lear Drauz took time for numerous courts-martial while on the run from the allies and was hanged on December 4, 1946 in Landsberg because of executions of American prisoners of war he had orred in March 1945.

ince World War I
"Stadttheater" Heilbronn.
After the war Emil Beutinger, mayor until 1933, returned to office and began the formidable task of reconstruction that was subsequtly continued by his successors Paul Metz and Paul Meyle. Milestones were the redication of historic city hall in 1953 and the reoping of the community ctre "Harmonie". Heilbronn was part of Württemberg-Ban until 1952, after which it became part of Ban-Württemberg.

From 1951 forward, US troops were permantly stationed in Heilbronn. They used barracks built prior to World War II and also add some structures of their own.

The oping of the Autobahn A 6 from Heilbronn to Mannheim in 1968 was an important economic evt for Heilbronn. Wh the A 81 to Würzburg and the A 6 to Nuremberg was completed in 1974 and 1979 respectively, Heilbronn became an important logistical ctre in southern Germany. As a result, many of the larger companies oped locations in Heilbronn.

Wh Klingberg became part of Heilbronn on January 1, 1970, the city"s population passed the 100,000 mark and thus attained "major city" ("Großstadt") status. During the last district reform in the 1970s, Kirchhaus, Biberach, Frankbach and Horkheim were incorporated into Heilbronn and the city was reconfirmed as inpnt city and seat of Heilbronn County. It was also clared seat of the newly formed region Frank, now Heilbronn-Frank.

Also during the 1970s, the ctre of the city was transformed into a pestrian zone and the redication of the city theatre in 1982 closed one of the largest holes left in the inner city from World War II.

Pursuant to the NATO Double-Track Decision of 1979, Pershing II intermediate-range nuclear missiles were stationed just uphill of the city in the Waldhei. This ma Heilbronn the only major city in Germany with atomic missiles stationed insi its city limits — a fact which became front-page news during the missile accint on January 11, 1985. After the INF Treaty was signed in 1987, the missiles were removed.

In the 1980s, Heilbronn hosted two major evts ("Heimatttage" and "Lansgartschau") staged by the State of Ban-Württemberg. In 1998 Heilbronn was connected to the S-Bahn net with Karlsruhe. This caused another transformation of the city ctre and the extsion of the S-Bahn towards Öhring was oped on December 10, 2005. It marked the completion of the East-West axis of the regional transportation system. The North-South axis is still in the planning stages (as of February 2006).

Heilbronn won the European competition "Entte Florale 2000" on September 9, 2000, in Broughshane, Northern Ireland and in 2005–06 the city became the first UNICEF childr"s city in Germany.

Late in 2005, Heilbronn was chos to host the Bunsgartschau in 2019. If plans are realized, this could create an tire new borough along the S-Bahn line Böcking–Theresiwiese–Neckargartach.

eligio
Kilianskirche as se from the Kiliansplatz
Ever since the Franks unr Chlodwig settled in the Neckar region around 500 the area has be predominantly Christian and wh Heilbronn was first mtioned in an official documt in 741 Christian Michaelsbasilica, prest day"s Kilianskirche, was mtioned along with the city. The Teutonic Knights constructed its church from the 13th ctury and both churches were continually expand. They were joined later by other churches and cloisters in the city.

Around 1050 an important Jewish community was mtioned that had settled in the "Jungasse" ("Lohtorstraße"). In 1298, 143 Jews were killed during the Rintfleisch-Pogrom and in 1350 Jews suffered attacks again during a European epimic of the Bubonic plague. The city"s constitution required the council to inclu Jews, but already in the middle of the 15th ctury Jews were the target of vigilantes again until they were evicted from the city in 1490 with the blessings of Emperor Frerick III.

It is worth noting that the common Jewish name Halpern, and many variants such as Alpert, rive from the name of this city Heilbronn, and the early Jewish community there.

While Heilbronn was part of the Diocese of Würzburg, the inpnt villages of Böcking, Neckargartach and Frankbach were attached to the Diocese of Worms. From 1514 on the Heilbronn native Johann Lachmann was caretaker of the parish in St. Kilian, in 1521 he became its preacher, in 1524 he converted to Lutheranism and proceed to teach and lead the Reformation in Heilbronn against the wishes of both dioceses. After the Protestant reformation of Heilbronn was complete the city remained Lutheran for cturies and the council and citizs accepted the Augsburg Confession without disst. Catholics were no longer welcome, Jews were prohibited from settling in Heilbronn, and the city took part in the Protestation at Speyer on April 19, 1529 (the Protestation was the origin of the terms Protestant and Protestantism).

The Age of Enlightmt brought Heilbronn freedom of religion. As of 1803 Jews were again permitted to settle in the city, Catholics also began to move back in and by the 1860s Jews were granted equal rights as Heilbronn citizs.

After the city became part of Württemberg in 1803 it also became seat of a acony and the Prelate or regional bishop of the Protestant State Church in Württemberg. To this day Protestants are in the majority in Heilbronn. The Catholic parishes belong to the Deacony Heilbronn and are part of the Diocese of Rottburg-Stuttgart.

Around 1920 first groups of "Serious Bible Stunts" (now: Jehovah"s Witnesses) formed. Their small community suffered from oppression during the Third Reich and many of its members died in conctration camps. Similarly, the Jewish community had to watch as its colossal synagogue wt up in flames and its 350 members were subsequtly all but extinguished. Jehovah"s Witnesses built a first meeting room in Heilbronn in 1953 and many more have be add since th.

Astronomical clock at City Hall.

Since the 1970s, after guest workers and immigrants from Islamic or Russian-Orthodox countries settled here, these faiths are practiced to by a growing part of the population and numerous mosques have be created since the 1990s in the city and county of Heilbronn.

istrict refor
Over the years, the following, formerly inpnt towns or communities, have be annexed to Heilbronn:


emographic
Figures reflect city limits at the time and are estimates (until 1870) or Csus data (¹), or official extsions thereof, counting only primary resinces.

Population statistics of Heilbronn.

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City Hall
¹ Csus data

overnm
In connection with the district reform in the 1970s, municipal laws of Ban-Württemberg were amd to introduce borough councils for certain boroughs. Resints of such boroughs elect their borough council at each municipal election and the borough council must be consulted on all matters of significance to the respective borough. The Borough Presint also presis over the Borough Council. In Heilbronn the boroughs of Biberach, Frankbach, Horkheim, Kirchhaus and Klingberg have borough councils.

ity counci
After the municipal elections of June 7, 2009 the city council of Heilbronn was ma up of 40 seats. The members belong to political parties as follows:



ayo
At first Heilbronn was governed by a regal advocate and an executor. Later, the city had two mayors but ever since the city was ma part of Württemberg it has had just one mayor at a time.


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eprestatives from Heilbron
The city of Heilbronn together with the northern municipalities of Heilbronn County makes up the electoral District 268 for national elections of represtatives to the Bunstag.

Museum of Natural History

For State elections to the Landtag of Ban-Württemberg Heilbronn makes up an electoral district (District 18) together with Erlbach. Before the 2006 elections, it was an electoral district all by itself.

oat of arm
Heilbronn"s coat of arms features a black eagle with red tongue and claws on goln background. The eagle is protected by a red, silver and blue shield. The city flag is red, white and blue.

The olst seal of the city dates back to 1265. The eagle is the symbol for the imperial freedom joyed by Heilbronn until it was annexed by the Grand Duchy (and later Kingdom) of Württemberg. While it is established that it appeared for the first time with shield in 1556 to distinguish it from other versions of eagles, the origin of the colors of the shield has yet to be termined. The colors also appeared in reverse orr in 1556, 1581 and 1681 and there have be other variations of colour as well, such as white rather than goln background.

Interesting is the fact that Heilbronn sports three colours in its flag. Newly dicated municipal flags in Ban-Württemberg only use two colours. According to State municipal laws, Heilbronn"s flag was grandfathered as it had be in use prior to 1935.

eople, culture and architectur
Heilbronn is located near the borr betwe the Swabian-Alemannic and the Franconian dialects of the German language.

heater and musi
* "Stadttheater Heilbronn", built in 1982, mixed repertoire
* "Theaterschiff Heilbronn", mixed repertoire
* "Württembergisches Kammerorchester e.V. Heilbronn" — the chamber orchestra, found in 1960, plays mostly baroque and classical music.
* In a shut-down part of the Steam power plant "Block-E" has put on evts since 1998.

useum


uilding
Historic manual crane

* Churches:
** "Kilianskirche" (Protestant): The tower from the early Raissance is the logo of the city. The high altar by Hans Seyffer was completed in 1498.
** "Deutschornsmünster St.-Peter-und-Paul" (Catholic)
** "Nikolaikirche" (Protestant)

Siebröhrbrunn.

View of Heilbronn from Wartberg viewing tower.

ther sight


vt
In February the citizs of Heilbronn and the surrounding area have an opportunity to joy themselves at the Pfermarkt. In May the Trollinger marathon takes place. July brings the "Gaffberg Festival" and the "Unterlänr Volksfest" takes the city from July into August. It is the largest festival of its kind in Heilbronn and takes place on the "Theresiwiese". Each year it begins on the last Friday in July and ds on the second Monday in August. In September, patrons joy themselves at the "Heilbronner Weindorf", in October at the "Hafmarkt" and in November and December at the "Weihnachtsmarkt" by the Kilianskirche. Every other year the "Neckarfest" and "Traubblütfest" are add to this already full schedule.

port
FC Heilbronn is a football club based in Heilbronn, Ban-Württemberg formed only rectly – in 2003 – out of a merger betwe two former clubs with the elr dating back to 1896 and playing a five year stint in the Regionalliga Süd (II) / 2nd Bunsliga Süd from 1969 to 1975.

conomy and infrastructur
Vineyards east of Heilbronn

Viticulture has a long tradition in Heilbronn and is an important part of its economy to this day. Its 514 ha, two thirds of it growing red grapes, is the third largest vineyard in Württemberg"s vine-growing region after Brackheim and Lauff am Neckar. In 1888 the vintners of the Heilbronn area combined and formed the "Weingärtnergesellschaft Heilbronn ", a cooperative. In 1933 that cooperative th combined with the competing cooperative "Winzergossschaft Heilbronn" that had formed in 1919 and that cooperative again merged with the Vintner cooperatives of Erlbach and Weinsberg to form the "Gossschaftskellerei Heilbronn-Erlbach-Weinsberg" with seat just outsi the city limits in Erlbach. In addition to the cooperative, numerous inpnt vintners are also located here.

South of the steam power plant is located the conveyor tower of the "Südwestutsche Salzwerke AG" (SWS). The SWS runs a salt mine in the Heilbronn area. That mine was connected through an unrground tunnel with the now shut-down (since 1994) salt mine "Kochdorf" in Bad Friedrichshall. Extraction had extd the Heilbronn mine far to the west so that in 2004 a new shaft, "Konradsberg", was add — probably the last mining shaft that was constructed in all of Germany.

nfrastructur
S-Bahn pulling into the station outsi of Heilbronn "Hauptbahnhof"

The city of Heilbronn is readily accessible by car or truck courtesy of the Weinsberg Intersection just to the northeast of the city, the intersection of the Autobahn A 81 from Würzburg to Gottmading and the A 6 from Saarbrück to Waidhaus. In addition to the Autobahns the city is connected via the Bunsstraßen B 27 from Blankburg to Schaffhaus, B 39 from Frankstein (Palatine) to Mainhardt and B 293 from Karlsruhe to Heilbronn that both run through the city itself.

Heilbronn is also a forerunner of right-turn-on-red in Germany and 65 "Gre arrow" signs have be installed at appropriate intersections since 1996.

Although Heilbronn does not befit from the Deutsche Bahn long-distance service, the city is well connected by train. The "Frankbahn" connects Stuttgart and Würzburg, the "Neckarbahn" and "Elsztalbahn" run from Heilbronn to Heilberg and Mannheim, and the "Hohlohebahn" accommodates travel to Schwäbisch Hall via Öhring.

The S-Bahn provis a connection all the way to Karlsruhe on the "Kraichgaubahn"s tracks. Currtly the S 4 takes travellers from Karlsruhe through the ctral train station past the ctre of town all the way to the Öhring borough of Cappel (since December 11, 2005). Because of massive lays in the construction of the S-Bahn tracks through Heilbronn"s city limits and with the mornizationThe Heilbronn canal port and electrification of the existing tracks from Heilbronn to Öhring meant that the new section"s official oping need to be postponed several times. In the future, additional S-Bahn lines are planned to Neckarsulm, Lauff am Neckar and Zaberfeld. As well a these new lines, additional stops will also be built in the inner city of Heilbronn.

While the original "Straßbahn" of Heilbronn, nicknamed the "Spatzschaukel" (German for "sparrows" swing"), was discontinued on April 1, 1955, the city used electrically powered trolley buses until 1960. Today, public transportation is provid by the S-Bahn that runs through Heilbronn similar to the Karlsruhe mol and this is complemted by buses run by the "Stadtwerke Heilbronn (Verkehrsbetriebe)" and several other terprises. All now belong to the "Heilbronner Verkehrsverbund".

Thermal power plant
View of the Thermal Power Plant from Wartberg

The canal port on the Neckar is one of the t largest German interior ports.

ower plan
In the industrial part of Heilbronn EnBW AG runs a large powerplant that is powered by coal. Its two chimneys (250 m tall) and cooling tower (140 m tall) are visible from afar, see Heilbronn Power Station

edi
Heilbronn is home to one of the studios of Südwestrundfunk (SWR). From here regional programmes like "Frankradio" are broadcast on SWR4 Ban-Württemberg. The "Heilbronner Stimme" is a daily newspaper published in the city and the advertisers "Neckar Express", "echo am Mittwoch" and "echo am Sonntag" are available weekly free of charge. Heilbronners also peruse the monthly city magazines "Freizeit Journal" and "Moritz".

ublic servic
As a major economic ctre most major branches of governmt operate offices in Heilbronn. Examples are the Departmt of Labour, the Departmt of Finance and German Customs. It also is the seat of the regional chamber of commerce and several regional professional boards.

Several courts are located in Heilbronn, two belonging to the Stuttgart court district, a specialty court hearing labour issues, and a family court who"s district inclus the city of Heilbronn and the counties of Heilbronn, Ludwigsburg, Schwäbisch Hall, Hohlohe and Main-Tauber.

The City is also the seat of the Prelature of Heilbronn and of the church district of Heilbronn (of the Protestant State Church as well as of the Heilbronn Deacony of the Diocese of Rottburg-Stuttgart).

ducatio
Heilbronn is the seat of the main campus of the "Hochschule Heilbronn", found in 1962 as a public gineering school. Since 1972 the school was known as the "Fachhochschule Heilbronn" (Heilbronn University) and has operated a secondary campus in Künzelsau since 1988. Starting with the fall semester on September 1, 2005 the Fachhochschule was award the status of a Hochschule.

Trappseeschlössch
The private "Heilbronn Business School" oped at the "Neckarturm" in January 2005.

As far as geral education is concerned, Heilbronn operates five college-track highschools or gymnasiums ("Elly-Heuss-Knapp-Gymnasium", "Justinus-Kerner-Gymnasium", "Mönchsee-Gymnasium", "Robert-Mayer-Gymnasium" and "Theodor-Heuss-Gymnasium"), four non-college-track highschools or "Realschul" ("Dammrealschule", "Hele-Lange-Realschule", "Heinrich-von-Kleist-Realschule" in Böcking and "Mörike-Realschule"). There are also six special-education schools run by the city ("Wilhelm-Hofmann-Förrschule", "Pestalozzi-Förrschule", and "Paul-Meyle-Schule" for the mtally and physically impaired, two special-education schools run by Heilbronn County ("Gebrür-Grimm-Schule" for the speech impaired and "Hermann-Herzog-Schule" for the seeing impaired), and the "Linnparkschule", which is run by the state of Ban-Württemberg for the hearing and speech impaired. The latter also inclus a boarding school and consultation ctre.

City grammar schools are the "Damm-Grundschule", "Deutschorn-Grundschule Kirchhaus", "Grundschule Horkheim", "Grundschule Klingberg", "Grünewaldschule Grundschule Böcking", "Reinöhlschule Grundschule Böcking", "Silcherschule Grundschule" and "Uhlandschule Grundschule Sontheim". Grammar and middle schools (some inclu vocational training programs) are "Albrecht-Dürer-Schule Neckargartach", "Elly-Heuss-Knapp-Schule Böcking", "Fritz-Ulrich-Schule Böcking", "Gerhart-Hauptmann-Schule", "Grund- und Hauptschule mit Werkrealschule Biberach", "Grund- und Hauptschule mit Werkrealschule Frankbach", "Ludwig-Pfau-Schule", "Rosauschule", "Staufbergschule Sontheim", "Wartbergschule" and "Wilhelm-Hauff-Schule".

The "Gustav-von-Schmoller-Schule" and the "Technische Schulztrum Heilbronn" consisting of the "Johann-Jakob-Widmann-Schule" and the "Wilhelm-Maybach-Schule" are professional training schools run by the city. The county runs the "Andreas-Schneir-Schule" and "Christiane-Herzog-Schule", and in the fall of 2005 the "Peter-Bruckmann-Schule" was add to the already operating professional training schools.

Finally, the following private schools round out the education options offered in Heilbronn:
* The "Abdrealschule Heilbronn e.V." allows stunts with middle school diplomas to achieve the first in a series of steps to gain college trance prerequisites on a part-time basis after work. It is part of a structured program commonly referred to as the Alternate Path to Higher Education.
* "Alice-Salomon-Schule"
* "Berufskolleg für Grafik Heilbronn"
* "Altpflegeschule Heilbronn"
* "Freie Waldorfschule Heilbronn"
* "Internationaler Bund e. V. Bildungsztrum Heilbronn"
* "Katholisches Freies Bildungsztrum St. Kilian Heilbronn" with grammar, middle, and college-track as well as non-college-track highschools
* "Kolping-Bildungsztrum Heilbronn"
* Acamy for Communication scices

rim
A female police officer was in 2007 fatally shot in Heilbronn, an evt that gave its name to the so-called Phantom of Heilbronn an elusive serial killer hunted by German police for several years. The "Phantom " was in March 2009 revealed not be a serial killer, but the result of procedural errors by the German police.

amous peopl
A list of Honorary citizs of Heilbronn, Sons and daughters and other notable individuals with connection to the city are listed at List of Heilbronn Notable People.



nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Heilbronn is sister city to the following six cities in five countries:

* Béziers, France, since 1965
* Port Talbot, United Kingdom, since 1966
* Solothurn, Switzerland, since 1981
* Stockport, United Kingdom, since 1982
* Frankfurt on the Or, Germany, since 1988
* Słubice, Poland, since 1998

eferce



*
* (Publications from the archives of the city of Heilbronn; 36)
* Published so far are Vols. I–VII (741 to 1957) and X (1970 to 1974)
* Keyser, Erich (ed.) (1962). "Württembergisches Städtebuch". In: "Deutsches Städtebuch. Handbuch städtischer Geschichte". Vol. "4,2". Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.
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