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Hamina

Finland, Hamina
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|image_caption = The Town Hall of Hamina
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|province = Southern Finland
|region = Kymenlaakso
|subregion = Kotka–Hamina subregion
|government_footnotes =
|leader_title = Town manager
|leader_name = Hannu Muhonen
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|established_title = Charter
|established_date = 1653
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"Hamina" (; , ) is a town and a municipality of Finland. It is located in the province of Southern Finland and is part of the Kymenlaakso region. The town has a population of }}
(
}}) and covers an area of |km2}} of
which |km2|abbr=on}}
is water. The population density is
|PD/km2}}. The population of the main town is approximately 5,000. Hamina is unilingually Finnish speaking. Hamina is also one of the most important harbours of Finland. The port specialises in forest products and transit cargo to Russia.

istor

Vehkalahti county was mentioned in the documents for the first time in 1336. At the proposal of Count Peter Brahe, the area surrounding the church of Vehkalahti was separated from rest of Vehkalahti in 1653 and it became a town called Vehkalahden Uusikaupunki (Veckelax Nystad in Swedish, "Newtown of Vehkalahti"). The town was destroyed during the Great Northern War in 1712.

As the important foreign trade town of Viipuri was surrendered to Russians in 1721, this town (newly renamed in honour of the King Frederick I of Sweden in 1723) was intended to replace it. The town, thus far a small domestic trade port with restricted trade, was granted extensive privileges including foreign trade. Finnish people soon shortened the name to Hamina. The rebuilding of the town took place in 1722–1724. The starshaped fortress and the circular town plan are based on an Italian renaissance fortress concept from the 16th century. . Fortress towns like this are quite rare, another example is Palmanova in Italy.

In 1743 Hamina was surrendered to Russians, after the Russo–Swedish War, 1741–1743, and the town of Loviisa was the next Swedish candidate for an EasternFinnish trade centre. Hamina became a Russian frontier town, for which a fortress was desirable.

The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (1809), by which Sweden ceded Finland, along with parts of the provinces of Lappland and Västerbotten and the Åland Islands, was signed in Hamina. Thus Sweden was split and the eastern half, along with previously conquered territories including Hamina ("Old Finland"), was formed into the Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous part of the Russian Empire.

Hamina Cadet School was founded in 1819 and it was in function until 1903. In 1920 the Reserve Officer School began in the same facilities.

Because the town was once founded next to the Vehkalahti Church, the municipal center had always been inside the town borders. Vehkalahti and Hamina were consolidated in 2003, and the old coat of arms was replaced with Vehkalahti"s coat of arms.

Main sights
* "St. Mary"s church". Originally medieval, damaged in fire in 1821 and renovated by Carl Ludvig Engel in 1828. It"s the oldest building in Kymenlaakso.
* "St. John"s Church", Carl Ludvig Engel, 1843.
* "Orthodox Church of St Peter and St Paul", 1837. The church is built on a site where two other churches (Ulrika Eleonora Church, built in 1732 and destroyed in 1742, and Elizabeth Church, built in 1750 and destroyed in 1821) were located. The belfry is built in 1862.
* "Town Hall". Originally built in 1798, renovated by Carl Ludvig Engel in 1840.
* "Reserve Officer School"
* "Town Museum". The museum is located in a building where King Gustav III of Sweden and Empress Catherine II of Russia met in 1783.
* "Shopkeeper"s Museum"
* "Fortress". The fortress was built in the 18th century. The corners of the fortress form six bastions, named after towns in Finland. The Central Bastion was added at the end of the 18th century, and is currently used for cultural events.


aller

Image:Hamina.vaakuna.svg|The old coat of arms, in use till 2003
Image:Marian kirkko talvella 2.JPG|St Mary"s church
Image:Johanneksenkirkko (Hamina) 1.jpg|St John"s church
Image:Hamina Ortho6 s.JPG|The orthodox church of Peter and Paul
Image:Main building of the reserve officers school.jpg|Reserve officer"s school
Image:Kaponieeri ja nuolilinnake.JPG|The old fortress
Image:Keskusbastioni jossa 58 varastokasemattia.jpg|Central bastion of the fortress
Image:Centrehamina.jpg|Tanelinkulma
Image:Rapsinkari.jpg|The yacht club"s pavilion
Image:Batiment militaire hamina.jpg|The flag tower, the only remaining part of the Helsinki bastion
Image:Pikkuympyräkatu Hamina.jpg|Pikkuympyräkatu
Image:Veturitalli Hamina.jpg|The old locomotive warehouse
Image:Aholaisenkulma.jpg|Aholaisenkulma ("The Aholainen"s corner"), a historical restaurant and hotel, before it was demolised in autum 2008
Image:Haminan kaupunginmuseo.JPG|The town museum
Image:Haminan kauppiaantalomuseo.JPG|The shopkeeper"s museum
Image:Vehkalahden kotiseutumuseo.JPG|The Vehkalahti local history museum


ote


External links

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Category:Cities and towns in Finland
Category:Coastal settlements in Finland
Category:Municipalities of Kymenlaakso Region
Category:Port cities and towns in Finland
Category:Settlements established in 1653

de:Hamina
et:Hamina
es:Hamina
eo:Hamina
fr:Hamina
it:Hamina
hu:Hamina
nl:Hamina
no:Fredrikshamn
nn:Fredrikshamn
pl:Hamina
pt:Hamina
ro:Hamina
ru:Хамина
se:Hamina
fi:Hamina
sv:Fredrikshamn
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 15.12.2017 14:56 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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