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Great Britain, Glasgow
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|statistic2= 2.3 million
|statistic_title2 = Metro
|population_density= }}
|os_grid_reference= NS590655
|edinburgh_distance_mi=42
|london_distance_mi=403
|language= English, Scots (see Patter)
|area_footnotes =
|area_total_sq_mi =67.76
|latitude= 55.858
|longitude= -4.259
|post_town= GLASGOW
|postcode_area= G
|postcode_district= G1–G80
|dial_code= 0141
|constituency_westminster= Central
|constituency_westminster1= East
|constituency_westminster2= North
|constituency_westminster3= North East
|constituency_westminster4= North West
|constituency_westminster5= South
|constituency_westminster6= South West
|unitary_scotland= City Council
|lieutenancy_scotland=
|constituency_scottish_parliament=
|constituency_scottish_parliament1= Anniesland
|constituency_scottish_parliament2= Baillieston
|constituency_scottish_parliament3= Cathcart
|constituency_scottish_parliament4= Govan
|constituency_scottish_parliament5= Kelvin
|constituency_scottish_parliament6= Maryhill
|constituency_scottish_parliament7= Pollok
|constituency_scottish_parliament8= Rutherglen
|constituency_scottish_parliament9= Shettleston
|constituency_scottish_parliament10= Springburn
|website= }}

"" ( ) is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country"s west central lowlands. A person from is known as a Glaswegian, which is also the name of the local dialect.

grew from the medieval Bishopric of and the later establishment of the University of , which became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. From the 18th century the city grew as one of Europe"s main hubs of transatlantic trade with the Americas. With the Industrial Revolution, the city and surrounding region shifted to become one of the world"s pre-eminent centres of engineering and shipbuilding, constructing many innovative and famous vessels. was known as the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period. Today it is one of Europe"s top twenty financial centres and is home to many of Scotland"s leading businesses.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries grew to a population of over one million, and was the fourth-largest city in Europe, after London, Paris and Berlin. In the 1960s, large-scale relocation to new towns and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes, have reduced the current population of the City of unitary authority area to 580,690, with 1,199,629 people living in the Greater urban area. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers approximately 2.3 million people, 41% of Scotland"s population.

istor

seal or signet of Jocelin, Bishop of , founder of the burgh of
The present site of has been used since prehistoric times for settlement due to it being the forded point of the River Clyde furthest downstream, which also provided a natural area for salmon fishing. The origins of as an established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as Scotland"s second largest bishopric. increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland and John, Bishop of . There had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo in the 6th century. The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland, bringing wealth and status to the town. Between 1175 and 1178 this position was strengthened even further when Bishop Jocelin obtained for the episcopal settlement the status of burgh from King William I of Scotland, allowing the settlement to expand with the benefits of trading monopolies and other legal guarantees. Sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives to this day as the Fair.

grew over the following centuries, and the founding of the University of in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to an archbishopric in 1492 increased the town"s religious and educational status.

Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book "A tour thro" the Whole Island of Great Britain", that was "the cleanest and beautifullest, and best built city in Britain, London excepted." from "A tour thro" the whole island of Great Britain" by Daniel Defoe. At that time, the city"s population numbered approximately 12,000, and was yet to undergo the massive changes to the city"s economy and urban fabric, brought about by the influences of the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution.

After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained trading access to the vast markets of the British Empire and became prominent in international commerce as a hub of trade to the Americas, especially in the movement of tobacco, cotton and sugar into the deep water port that had been created by city merchants at Port on the Firth of Clyde, due to the shallowness of the River within the city itself at that time.. Learning and Teaching Scotland Online. Retrieved on September 26, 2007 By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on "s River Clyde, with over 47 million lbs. weight of tobacco being imported at its peak.

"Shipping on the Clyde", Grimshaw 1881
In its subsequent industrial era, produced textiles, engineered goods and steel, which were exported. The opening of the Monkland Canal and basin at Port Dundas in 1795, facilitated access to the iron-ore and coal mines in Lanarkshire. After extensive River engineering projects to dredge and deepen the River Clyde as far as , shipbuilding became a major industry on the upper stretches of the river, building many famous ships (although many were actually built in Clydebank). The River Clyde then became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as John Atkinson Grimshaw, willing to depict the new industrial era and the moden world. "s population had surpassed that of Edinburgh by 1821. By the end of the 19th century the city was known as the "Second City of the Empire" and by 1870 was producing more than half Britain"s tonnage of shipping and a quarter of all locomotives in the world. During this period, the construction of many of the city"s greatest architectural masterpieces and most ambitious civil engineering projects, such as the Loch Katrine aqueduct, Subway, Tramway system, City Chambers, Mitchell Library and Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum were being funded by its wealth. The city also held a series of International Exhibitions at Kelvingrove Park, in 1888, 1901 and 1911, with the Empire Exhibition subsequently held in 1938.

The regeneration of has focused on the River Clyde and has created iconic structures such as the Armadillo.

The 20th century witnessed both decline and renewal in the city. After World War I, the city suffered from the impact of the Post-World War I recession and from the later Great Depression, this also led to a rise of radical socialism and the "Red Clydeside" movement. The city had recovered by the outbreak of World War II and grew through the post-war boom that lasted through the 1950s. However by the 1960s, a lack of investment and innovation led to growing overseas competition in countries like Japan and Germany which weakened the once pre-eminent position of many of the city"s industries. As a result of this, entered a lengthy period of relative economic decline and rapid deindustrialisation, leading to high unemployment, urban decay, population decline, welfare dependency and poor health for the city"s inhabitants. There were active attempts at regeneration of the city, when the Corporation published its controversial "Bruce Report", which set out a comprehensive series of initiatives aimed at turning round the decline of the city. There are also accusations that the Scottish Office had deliberately attempted to undermine "s economic and political influence in post-war Scotland by diverting inward investment in new industries to other regions during the Silicon Glen boom and creating the new towns of Cumbernauld, Glenrothes, Irvine, Livingston and East Kilbride, dispersed across the Scottish Lowlands, in order to halve the city"s population base.

However, by the late 1980s, there had been a significant resurgence in "s economic fortunes. The "s miles better" campaign, launched in 1983, and opening of the Burrell Collection in 1983 and Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre in 1985 facilitated "s new role as a European centre for business services and finance and promoted an increase in tourism and inward investment. The latter continues to be bolstered by the legacy of the city"s Garden Festival in 1988, its status as European City of Culture in 1990, and concerted attempts to diversify the city"s economy. This economic revival has persisted and the ongoing regeneration of inner-city areas, including the largescale Clyde Waterfront Regeneration, has led to more affluent people moving back to live in the centre of , fuelling allegations of gentrification. The city now resides in the Mercer index of top 50 safest cities in the world and is considered by Lonely Planet to be one of the world"s top 10 tourist cities. Despite "s economic renaissance, the East End of the city remains the focus of severe social deprivation. A Economic Audit report published in 2007 stated that the gap between prosperous and deprived areas of the city is widening. In 2006, 47% of "s population lived in the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland, while the Centre for Social Justice reported 29.4% of the city"s working-age residents to be "economically inactive". Although marginally behind the UK average, still has a higher employment rate than Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester.



oponym
It is common to derive the name " from the older Cumbric "glas cau" or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant "green hollow". The settlement probably had an earlier Cumbric name, "Cathures"; the modern name appears for the first time in the Gaelic period (1116), as "Glasgu". However, it is also recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern (also known as Saint Mungo), and procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn, and making many converts. A large community developed around him and became known as "Glasgu" (often glossed as "the dear Green" or "dear green place").

eraldr
The coat of arms of the City of as granted in 1866.

The coat of arms of the City of was granted to the royal burgh by the Lord Lyon on 25 October 1866.Urquhart, R.M. (1973) "Scottish Burgh and County Heraldry". London. Heraldry Today. ISBN 978-0900455247. It incorporates a number of symbols and emblems associated with the life of "s patron saint, Mungo, which had been used on official seals prior to that date. The emblems represent miracles supposed to have been performed by Mungo and are listed in the traditional rhyme:
::::"Here"s the bird that never flew"
::::"Here"s the tree that never grew"
::::"Here"s the bell that never rang"
::::"Here"s the fish that never swam"

St Mungo"s Bell
St Mungo is also said to have preached a sermon containing the words "Lord, Let flourish by the preaching of the word and the praising of thy name". This was abbreviated to "Let Flourish" and adopted as the city"s motto. The motto was more recently commemorated in a song called "Mother ", which was written by Dundonian singer/songwriter Michael Marra, but popularised by Hue and Cry.

In 1450, John Stewart, the first Lord Provost of , left an endowment so that a "St Mungo"s Bell" could be made and tolled throughout the city so that the citizens would pray for his soul. A new bell was purchased by the magistrates in 1641 and that bell is still on display in the People"s Palace Museum, near Green.

The supporters are two salmon bearing rings, and the crest is a half length figure of Saint Mungo. He wears a bishop"s mitre and liturgical vestments and has his hand raised in "the act of benediction". The original 1866 grant placed the crest atop a helm, but this was removed in subsequent grants. The current version (1996) has a gold mural crown between the shield and the crest. This form of coronet, resembling an embattled city wall, was allowed to the four area councils with city status.

The arms were rematriculated by the City of District Council on 6 February 1975, and by the present area council on 25 March 1996. The only change made on each occasion was in the type of coronet over the arms.Urquhart, R.M. (1979). "Scottish Civic Heraldry". London. Heraldry Today. ISBN 978-0900455261.


overnanc
City Chambers is the headquarters of City Council and the seat of Local Government in the city

Since the Representation of the People Act 1918, has increasingly supported Left-wing ideas and politics. The city council has been controlled by the Labour Party for 30 years, since the decline of the Progressives. The left-wing support emanates from the city"s legacy as an industrial powerhouse, and the relative poverty of many Glaswegian constituencies and wards. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and German Revolution, the city"s frequent strikes and Militant organisations caused serious alarm at Westminster, with one uprising in January 1919 prompting the Prime Minister, David Lloyd George to deploy 10,000 troops and tanks onto the city"s streets. A huge demonstration in the city"s George Square on 31 January ended in violence after the Riot Act was read.

Industrial action at the shipyards gave rise to the "Red Clydeside" epithet. During the 1930s, was the main base of the Independent Labour Party. Towards the end of the 20th century it became a centre of the struggle against the poll tax, and then the main base of the Scottish Socialist Party, a left unity party in Scotland. The city has not had a Conservative MP since the 1982 Hillhead by-election, when the SDP took the seat, in "s wealthiest area: admittedly, the constituency boundaries make it difficult to elect one as the West End is split between two constituencies where its votes are cancelled out by large council estates.

cottish Parliament regio

The electoral region of the Scottish Parliament covers the City council area, the Rutherglen area of the South Lanarkshire and a small eastern portion of Renfrewshire. It elects ten of the parliament"s 73 first past the post constituency members and seven of the 56 additional members. Both kinds of member are known as Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs). The system of election is designed to produce a form of proportional representation.

The first past the post seats were created in 1999 with the names and boundaries of then existing Westminster (House of Commons) constituencies. In 2005, however, the number of Westminster Members of Parliament (MPs) representing Scotland was cut to 59, with new constituencies being formed, while the existing number of MSPs was retained at Holyrood.

The ten Scottish Parliament constituencies in the electoral region are:-
* Anniesland
* Baillieston
* Cathcart
* Govan
* Kelvin
* Maryhill
* Pollok
* Rutherglen
* Shettleston
* Springburn

nited Kingdom Parliament constituencie


Following reform of constituencies of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster) in 2005, which reduced the number of Scottish Members of Parliament (MPs), the current Westminster constituencies representing are:-
* Central
* East
* North
* North East
* North West
* South
* South West

rim
Despite the city"s reputation for violence, the situation has improved since the 1980s, and it is generally no more dangerous than most other Western European cities; there are areas of Britain with higher murder rates. In the 2002 census ’s homicide rate of 58.7 people per million was the highest in any city in Western Europe, only some Baltic cities had higher murder rates.www.independent.co.uk/.../crime/glasgow-is-britains-murder-capital-as-knife-crime-spirals-737329.html Problems with crime still persist in areas (Possilpark, Drumchapel, Govan, Easterhouse, Pollok). Street gangs are prevalent in the problem areas of . In a 2008/09 report from the Crime & Disorder Reduction Partnerships, ’s rate of crime compared to the Scottish average was higher on all counts, the only exceptions being speeding and vehicle defect offences.

The Calton area of the east end (East of the "Barras") especially around the Tennents brewery, the eastern end of Green from the Peoples Palace to Bridgeton Cross area is a red-light district. There is also such a district in the financial area of the city (Anderston: West of Central Station).

Shipbank Lane area around the southern end of Saltmarket has become a hot spot for muggings and other violent crime in recent years.

eograph

is located on the banks of the River Clyde, in West Central Scotland. Its second most important river is the Kelvin whose name was used for creating the title of Baron Kelvin and thereby ended up as the scientific unit of temperature.

limat
Rain at Necropolis

In spite of its northerly latitude, "s climate is classified as Oceanic (Köppen climate classification "Cfb"). Owing to its westerly position, is one of Scotland"s milder areas. Temperatures are usually higher than most places of equal latitude away from the UK, due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream Drift.

The spring months (March to May) are generally mild. Many of "s trees and plants begin to flower at this time of the year and parks and gardens are filled with spring colours. The summer months (May to September) can vary considerably between mild and wet weather or warm and sunny. The winds are generally westerly, due to the warm Gulf Stream. The warmest month is usually July, the daily high averaging . (Highest recorded temperature 4 August 1975.) Despite some infrequent or dry days, winters in are normally damp and cold. Snow is common but rarely lies in the city centre. (Lowest recorded temperature ).


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emograph


The population of the City Council area peaked in the 1950s at 1,200,000 people and before that for 80 years was over 1 million. During this period, was one of the most densely populated cities in the world. After the 1960s, ings of poverty-stricken inner city areas like the Gorbals and relocation to "new towns" such as East Kilbride and Cumbernauld led to population decline. In addition, the boundaries of the city were changed twice during the late 20th century, making direct comparisons difficult. The city continues to expand beyond the official city council boundaries into surrounding suburban areas, encompassing around of all adjoining suburbs, if commuter towns and villages are included.

There are two distinct definitions for the population of : the " City Council Area" (which lost the districts of Rutherglen and Cambuslang to South Lanarkshire in 1996) and the "Greater Urban Area" (which includes the conurbation around the city).

Since the 1840s to present day, massive numbers of Irish immigrants have settled and contributed immensely in the city. At one point only New York City had a bigger Irish population than . Numerous Scottish Highlanders also migrated to the city as a result of the Highland Clearances. The Irish, and to a lesser extent Highlanders, contributed to the explosive growth of Roman Catholicism in the city.

In the early 20th century, many Lithuanian refugees began to settle in and at its height in the 1950s there were around 10,000 in the area. Many Italian Scots also settled in , originating from provinces like Frosinone between Rome and Naples and Lucca in north-west Tuscany at this time, many originally working as "Hokey Pokey" men. In the 1960s and "70s, many Asian-Scots also settled in , mainly in the Pollokshields area. These number 30,000 Pakistanis, 15,000 Indians and 3,000 Bangladeshis as well as Chinese immigrants, many of whom settled in the Garnethill area of the city. Since 2000, the UK government has pursued a policy of dispersal of asylum seekers to ease pressure on social housing in the London area.



Since the 2001 census the population decline has stabilised. The 2004 population of the city council area was 685,090 and the population of both the City of Council area and Greater are forecast to grow in the near future. Around 2,300,000 people live in the travel-to-work area. This area is defined as having 10% and over of residents travelling into to work, and has no fixed boundaries.

Compared to Inner London, which has ., Scotland"s largest city has less than half the current population density of the English capital— However, in 1931 the population density was , highlighting the subsequent "ances" to the suburbs and new towns that were built to empty one of Europe"s most densely populated cities.

has the lowest life expectancy of any UK city at 72.9 years. Much was made of this during the 2008 East by-election. In 2008, a World Health Organization report about health inequalities, revealing that male life expectancy varied from 54 in Calton to 82 in nearby Lenzie, East Dunbartonshire.

istricts and suburb
was historically based around Cathedral, the old High Street and down to the River Clyde via Cross. The boundaries of have changed on several occasions for political purposes, with many places that view themselves as part of falling outwith the City local authority created in 1996. For further information on what places are within the city council area and those that lie outwith but are included in other definitions of , see the List of places in page.

ity centr
The city centre is bounded by the High Street to the east, the River Clyde to the south and the M8 motorway to the west and north which was built through the Townhead, Charing Cross, Cowcaddens and Anderston areas in the 1960s.

etail and theatre distric
Looking down Buchanan Street towards St Enoch subway station
The city centre is based on a grid system of streets, similar to that of Barcelona or American cities, on the north bank of the River Clyde. The heart of the city is George Square, site of many of "s public statues and the elaborate Victorian City Chambers, headquarters of City Council. To the south and west are the shopping precincts of Argyle Street, Sauchiehall Street and Buchanan Street, the latter featuring more upmarket retailers and winner of the Academy of Urbanism "Great Street Award" 2008.The Academy of Urbanism : Awards http://web.archive.org/web/20080119212642/http://www.academyofurbanism.org.uk/awards.htm Retrieved 28-05-2008 The main shopping centres are Buchanan Galleries and the St. Enoch Centre, with the up-market Princes Square and the Italian Centre specialising in designer labels. The London-based department store Selfridges has purchased a potential development site in the city and another upmarket retail chain Harvey Nichols is also thought to be planning a store in the city, further strengthening "s retail portfolio, which forms the UK"s second largest and most economically important retail sector after Central London.

The city centre is home to most of "s main cultural venues: The Theatre Royal (home of Scottish Opera and formerly Scottish Ballet (which now resides in the Tramway theatre), The Pavilion, The King"s Theatre, Royal Concert Hall, Film Theatre, Gallery of Modern Art (GoMA), Mitchell Library, the Centre for Contemporary Arts, McLellan Galleries and The Lighthouse Museum of Architecture, Design and the City. The world"s tallest cinema, the eighteen-screen Cineworld is situated on Renfrew Street. The city centre is also home to four of "s higher education institutions: The University of Strathclyde, The Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, School of Art and Caledonian University.

erchant Cit
The Tolbooth Steeple dominates Cross and marks the east side of the Merchant City.
To the east is the commercial and residential district of Merchant City. The Merchant City was formerly the residential district of the wealthy city merchants in the 18th and early 19th centuries, particularly the Tobacco Lords from whom many of the streets take their name. As the Industrial Revolution and the wealth it brought to the city resulted in the expansion of "s central area westward, the original medieval centre was left behind. Cross, situated at the junction of High Street, Gallowgate, Trongate and Saltmarket was the original centre of the city, symbolised by its Mercat cross. Cross encompasses the Tolbooth Clock Tower; all that remains of the original City Chambers, which was destroyed by fire in 1926. Moving northward up High Street towards Rottenrow and Townhead lies the 15th century Cathedral and the Provand"s Lordship. Due to growing industrial pollution levels in the mid to late 19th century, the area fell out of favour with residents.

From the late 1980s onwards, the Merchant City has been rejuvenated with luxury city centre apartments and warehouse conversions. This regeneration has supported an increasing number of cafés and restaurants. The area is also home to a number of high end boutique style shops and some of "s most upmarket stores.

Royal Exchange Square at night (Merchant City)
The Merchant City is the centre of "s growing "cultural quarter", based around King Street, the Saltmarket and Trongate, and at the heart of the annual Merchant City Festival. The area has supported a huge growth in art galleries, the origins of which can be found in the late 80s when it attracted artist-led organisations that could afford the cheap rents required to operate in vacant manufacturing or retail spaces. The artistic and cultural potential of the Merchant City as a "cultural quarter" was harnessed by independent arts organisations and City Council, and the recent development of Trongate 103, which houses galleries, workshops, artist studios and production spaces, is considered a major outcome of the continued partnership between both. The area also contains a number of theatres and concert venues, including the Tron Theatre, the Old Fruitmarket, the Trades Hall, St. Andrews in the Square, Merchant Square, and the City Halls.

A large part of "s LGBT scene is located within the Merchant City. This includes many clubs, and the UK gay chain store Clone Zone, along with a couple of saunas. Recently the city council defined (and perhaps expanded) the area known as Merchant City as far west as Buchanan Street, marking these boundaries with new, highly stylised metal signage.Merchant City http://www.merchantcityglasgow.com/

inancial distric
Clyde Arc, also known as "Squinty Bridge".
To the western edge of the city centre, occupying the areas of Blythswood Hill and Anderston, lies "s financial district, known officially as the International Financial Services District (IFSD), although often irreverently nicknamed by the contemporary press as the "square kilometre" or "Wall Street on Clyde". Since the late 1980s the construction of many modern office blocks, a trend which continues into the 21st century with a new wave of high rise developments currently on the drawing board, has enabled the IFSD to become the third largest financial quarter in the UK after the City of London and Edinburgh. With a reputation as an established financial services centre, coupled with comprehensive support services, continues to attract and grow new business. Of the 10 largest general insurance companies in the UK, 8 have a base or head office in - including Direct Line, Esure, AXA and Norwich Union. Key banking sector companies have also relocated some of their services to commercial property in - Resolution, JPMorgan Chase, Abbey, HBOS, Barclays Wealth, Morgan Stanley, Lloyds TSB, Clydesdale Bank, BNP Paribas and the Royal Bank of Scotland. The Ministry of Defence have several departments and Clydeport, the Stock Exchange, Student Loans Company, Scottish Executive Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department,BT, Scottish Qualifications Authority and Scottish Enterprise also have their headquarters based in the district.

est En
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is "s premier museum and art gallery, housing one of Europe"s best civic art collections.

"s West End refers to the bohemian district of cafés, tea rooms, bars, boutiques, upmarket hotels, clubs and restaurants in the hinterland of Kelvingrove Park, the University of , Botanic Gardens and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, especially on the area"s main thoroughfare, Byres Road, and on Ashton Lane. The area is popular with tourists, and contains many hotels, including the prestigious One Devonshire Gardens, which has accommodated a number of celebrity guests on visits to the city.

The West End includes residential areas of Hillhead, Dowanhill, Kelvingrove, Kelvinside, Hyndland, and, to an increasing extent, Partick. However, the name is increasingly being used to refer to any area to the west of Charing Cross. This includes areas such as Scotstoun, Jordanhill, Kelvindale and Anniesland.

The West End is bisected by the River Kelvin which flows from the Kilsyth Hills in the North and empties into the River Clyde at Yorkhill Basin.

The spire of Sir George Gilbert Scott"s University main building (the second largest Gothic Revival building in Britain) is a major local landmark, and can be seen from miles around, sitting atop Gilmorehill. The university itself is the fourth oldest in the English-speaking world. Much of the city"s student population is based in the West End, adding to its cultural vibrancy.

The area is also home to the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, Kelvin Hall International Sports Arena, Henry Wood Hall (home of the Royal Scottish National Orchestra) and the Museum of Transport, which is to be rebuilt on a former dockland site at Harbour to a design by Zaha Hadid. The West End Festival, one of "s largest festivals, is held annually in June.

is the home of the SECC, the United Kingdom"s largest exhibition and conference centre. A major expansion of the SECC facilities at the former Queen"s Dock by Foster and Partners is currently planned, including a 12,000 seat arena, and a 5 star hotel and entertainments complex.

ast En
The People"s Palace in Green.

The East End extends from Cross in the City Centre to the boundary with North and South Lanarkshire. It is home to the famous Barrowland Market, popularly known as "The Barras", Barrowland Ballroom, Green, and Celtic Park, home of Celtic F.C.. Many of the original sandstone tenements remain in this district. The East End in contrast to the West End, includes some of the most deprived areas in the UK, although it was once a major industrial centre, home to Sir William Arrol & Co. and William Beardmore and Company. A notable local employer continues to be the Wellpark Brewery, home of Tennent"s Lager.

The Necropolis Cemetery was created on a hill above the Cathedral of Saint Mungo in 1831. Routes curve through the landscape uphill to the high statue of John Knox at the summit. There are two late 18th century tenements in Gallowgate. Dating from 1771 and 1780, both have been well restored. The construction of Charlotte Street was financed by David Dale, whose former pretensions can be gauged by the one remaining house, now run by the National Trust for Scotland. Further along Charlotte Street there stands a modern Gillespie, Kidd & Coia building of some note. Once a school, it has been converted into offices. Surrounding these buildings are a series of innovative housing developments conceived as "Homes for the Future", part of a project during the city"s year as UK City of Architecture and Design in 1999.

East of Cross is the Saint Andrew"s Church, the oldest post-Reformation church in Scotland, built in 1739-1757 and displaying a Presbyterian grandeur befitting the church of the city"s wealthy tobacco merchants. Also close by is the more modest Episcopalian St. Andrew"s-by-the-Green, the oldest Episcopal church in Scotland. The Episcopalian St Andrew"s was also known as the "Whistlin" Kirk" due to it being the first church after the reformation to own an organ.

The Doulton Fountain in Green.

Overlooking Green is the façade of Templeton On The Green, featuring vibrant polychromatic brickwork intended to evoke the Doge"s Palace in Venice.

The extensive Tollcross Park was originally developed from the estate of James Dunlop, the owner of a local steelworks. His large baronial mansion was built in 1848 by David Bryce, which later housed the city"s Children"s Museum until the 1980s. Today, the mansion is a sheltered housing complex.

The new Scottish National Indoor Sports Arena, a modern replacement for the Kelvin Hall, is planned for Dalmarnock. The area will also be the site of the Athletes" Village for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, located adjacent to the new indoor sports arena.

To the north of the East End lie the two massive gasometers of Provan Gas Works, which stand overlooking Alexandra Park and a major interchange between the M8 and M80 motorways. Often used for displaying large city advertising slogans, the towers have become an unofficial portal into the city for road users arriving from the north and east.

The East End Healthy Living Centre (EEHLC) was established in mid-2005 at Crownpoint Road with Lottery Funding and City grants to serve community needs in the area. The centre provides service such as sports facilities, health advice, stress management, leisure and vocational classes.

outh Sid
House for an Art Lover is situated in Bellahouston Park, .

"s South Side sprawls out south of the Clyde, covering areas including Gorbals, Govan, Ibrox, Shawlands, Simshill, Strathbungo, Cardonald, Mount Florida, Pollokshaws, Nitshill, Pollokshields, Battlefield, Langside, Govanhill, Crosshill, Cessnock, Mosspark, Kinning Park, Mansewood, Arden, Darnley, Newlands, Deaconsbank, Pollok, Croftfoot, Castlemilk, King"s Park, Cathcart, Muirend and Barrhead, Busby, Clarkston, Giffnock, Thornliebank, Netherlee, and Newton Mearns in the East Renfrewshire council area, as well as Cambuslang, East Kilbride, and Rutherglen in the
South Lanarkshire council area.

Although predominantly residential, the area does have several notable public buildings including, Charles Rennie Mackintosh"s Scotland Street School Museum and House for an Art Lover; the world famous Burrell Collection in Pollok Country Park; Alexander "Greek" Thomson"s Holmwood House villa; the National Football Stadium Hampden Park in Mount Florida, (home of Queen"s Park F.C.) and Ibrox Stadium, (home of Rangers F.C.).

The former docklands site at Pacific Quay on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite the SECC, is the site of the Science Centre and the new headquarters for BBC Scotland and STV Group plc (owner of STV) which have relocated there to a new purpose built digital media campus.

Queen"s Park Baptist Church in winter.
In addition, several new bridges spanning the River Clyde have been built or are currently planned, including the Clyde Arc at Pacific Quay and others at Tradeston and Springfield Quay.

The South Side also includes many great parks, including Linn Park, Queen"s Park, Bellahouston Park and Rouken Glen Park, and several golf clubs, including the championship course at Haggs Castle. The South Side is also home to Pollok Country Park, which was awarded the accolade of Europe"s Best Park 2008. Pollok Park is ’s largest park and the only country park within the city boundaries. It is also home to Poloc Cricket Club. The name was taken from one of the early spellings of the area, to differentiate it from Pollok Juniors Football Club.

Govan is a district and former burgh in the south-western part of the city. It is situated on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite Partick. It was an administratively independent Police Burgh from 1864 until it was incorporated into the expanding city of in 1912. Govan has a legacy as an engineering and shipbuilding centre of international repute and is home to one of two BVT Surface Fleet shipyards on the River Clyde and the precision engineering firm, Thales Optronics. It is also home to the Southern General Hospital, one of the largest teaching hospitals in the country, and the maintenance depot for the Subway system.

orth
Ruchill Church, seen from the Forth and Clyde Canal.
North extends out from the north of the city centre towards the affluent suburbs of Bearsden, Milngavie and Bishopbriggs in East Dunbartonshire and Clydebank in West Dunbartonshire. However, the area also contains some of the city"s poorest residential areas. Possilpark is one such area, where levels of unemployment and drug abuse continue to be above the national average. Much of the housing in areas such as Possilpark and Hamiltonhill had fallen into a state of disrepair in recent years. This has led to large scale redevelopment of much of the poorer housing stock in north , and the wider regeneration of many areas, such as Ruchill, which have been transformed; many run-down tenements have now been refurbished or replaced by modern housing estates. Much of the housing stock in north is rented social housing, with a high proportion of high-rise tower blocks, managed by the Housing Association.

Not all areas of north are of this nature however. Maryhill for example, consists of well maintained traditional sandstone tenements. Although historically a working class area, its borders with the upmarket West End of the city mean that it is relatively wealthy compared to the rest of the north of the city, containing affluent areas such as Maryhill Park and North Kelvinside. Maryhill is also home to Firhill Stadium, home of Partick Thistle F.C. since 1909, and briefly the professional Rugby Union team, Warriors. The junior team, Maryhill F.C. are also located in this part of north .

The Forth and Clyde Canal passes through this part of the city, and at one stage formed a vital part of the local economy. It was for many years polluted and largely unused after the decline of heavy industry, but recent efforts to regenerate and re-open the canal to navigation have seen it rejuvenated.

Sighthill is home to Scotland’s largest asylum seeker community.

A huge part of the economic life of was once located in Springburn, where the Saracen Foundry, engineering works of firms like Charles Tennant and locomotive workshops employed many Glaswegians. Indeed, dominated this type of manufacturing, with 25% of all the world’s locomotives being built in the area at one stage. It was home to the headquarters of the North British Locomotive Company. Today part of the St. Rollox railway works continues in use as a railway maintenance facility, all that is left of the industry in Springburn.

ultur

Established by wealthy tobacco merchant Stephen Mitchell, the Mitchell Library is now one of the largest public reference libraries in Europe

The city has many amenities for a wide range of cultural activities, from curling to opera, ballet and from football to art appreciation; it also has a large selection of museums that include those devoted to transport, religion, and modern art. Many of the city"s cultural sites were celebrated in 1990 when was designated European City of Culture.

The city"s principal library, the Mitchell Library, has grown into one of the largest public reference libraries in Europe, currently housing some 1.3 million books, a extensive collection of newspapers and thousands of photographs and maps.

Most of Scotland"s national arts organisations are based in , including Scottish Opera, Scottish Ballet, The National Theatre of Scotland, Royal Scottish National Orchestra, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and Scottish Youth Theatre.

has its own "Poet Laureate", a post created in 1999 for Edwin Morgan and as of 2007 occupied by Liz Lochhead.

ecreatio

is home to a variety of theatres including The King"s Theatre, Theatre Royal and the Citizens Theatre and is home to many municipal museums and art galleries, the most famous being the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, the Gallery of Modern Art (GoMA) and the Burrell Collection. Most of the museums in are publicly owned and free to enter.

The city has hosted many exhibitions over the years, including being the UK City of Architecture 1999, 1990, National City of Sport 1995–1999 and European Capital of Sport 2003.

In addition, unlike the older and larger Edinburgh Festival (where all Edinburgh"s main festivals occur in the last three weeks of August), "s festivals fill the calendar. Festivals include the International Comedy Festival, International Jazz Festival, Celtic Connections, Film Festival, West End Festival, Merchant City Festival, Glasgay, and the World Pipe Band Championships.

usic scen

Royal Concert Hall
has many live music pubs, clubs and venues. Some of the city"s main venues include the Royal Concert Hall, the SECC, King Tut"s Wah Wah Hut (where Oasis were spotted and signed by Glaswegian record mogul Alan McGee), the Queen Margaret Union (who have Kurt Cobain"s footprint locked in a safe) and the Barrowland, a ballroom converted into a live music venue. More recent mid-sized venues include ABC and the O2 Academy, which play host to a similar range of acts.

In recent years, the success of bands such as Belle & Sebastian, Camera Obscura, Biffy Clyro, Franz Ferdinand, Mogwai, Snow Patrol and Travis has significantly boosted the profile of the music scene, prompting Time Magazine to liken to Detroit during its 1960s Motown heyday. More recent successes include The Fratellis and Glasvegas. The city of was appointed a UNESCO City of Music on 20 August 2008 as part of the Creative Cities Network.

also has a thriving dance music scene spearheaded by Slam, and their record label Soma Quality Recordings. They"re also the people behind the very successful Pressure club nights at The Arches which have attracted DJ"s and clubbers from around the world.

The prestigious MOBO Awards were held at the SECC, on 30 September 2009, making the first out-of-London city to host the event since its launch in 1995.

edi

BBC Scotland HQ, Pacific Quay,

is home to the Scottish national media. It is home to BBC Scotland and STV.

The Scottish press publishes various newspapers in the city such as the "Evening Times", "The Herald", "The Sunday Herald", the "Sunday Mail" and the "Daily Record". Scottish editions of Trinity Mirror and News International titles are printed in the city. STV Group plc is a -based media conglomerate with interests in television, and publishing advertising. STV Group owns and operates both Scottish ITV franchises (Central Scotland and Grampian), both branded STV, and cinema advertiser Pearl & Dean.

Various radio stations are also located in . EMAP (formerly Scottish Radio Holdings) owns the principal commercial radio stations in ; Clyde 1 and Clyde 2, which can reach over 2.3 million listeners. In 2004, STV Group plc (then known as SMG plc) sold its 27.8% stake in Scottish Radio Holdings to the broadcasting group EMAP for £90.5 m. Other stations broadcasting from include 105.2 Smooth Radio, Real Radio and 96.3 Rock Radio, which are all owned by GMG Radio. Central Scotland radio station Galaxy Scotland also broadcast from studios in . The city has a strong community radio sector, including Celtic Music Radio, Sunny Govan Radio, AWAZ FM and Insight Radio.

eligio

Cathedral marks the site where Saint Mungo built his church and established

is a city of significant religious diversity. The Church of Scotland and the Roman Catholic Church are the two largest Christian denominations in the city. There are 147 congregations in the Church of Scotland"s Presbytery of (of which 104 are within the city boundaries, the other 43 being in adjacent areas such as Giffnock).Church of Scotland Yearbook 2008–09, ISBN 978 0 86153 384 8 The city boasts four Christian cathedrals: Cathedral, of the Church of Scotland; St Andrew"s Cathedral, of the Catholic Church; St Mary"s Cathedral, of the Scottish Episcopal Church, and St Luke"s Cathedral, of the Greek Orthodox Church.

The presence of large Protestant and Catholic communities has at times caused the city to experience sectarian tensions. In the past this was, perhaps, mostly visible in the rivalry between the supporters of the city"s two major professional football clubs, Celtic F.C. and Rangers F.C.. In the past, Rangers drew its support from the city"s Protestant community, while the Roman Catholic population historically supported Celtic.

Central Mosque in the Gorbals district is the largest mosque in Scotland and, along with twelve other mosques in the city, caters for the city"s estimated 33,000 Muslim population. also has a Hindu Mandir, and a planning permission for a new Sikh Temple was submitted in June 2007. This new Temple will complement the existing four Sikh Temples ("Gurdwaras") in with two in the West End ("Central Gurdwara Singh Sabha" in Finnieston and "Guru Nanak Sikh Temple" in Kelvinbridge) and two in the Southside area of Pollokshields ("Guru Granth Sahib Gurdwara" and "Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Gurdwara"). There are approximately 6,500 Sikhs in Scotland with the highest proportion, 36%, in .

has seven synagogues with the seventh largest Jewish population in the United Kingdom after London, Manchester, Leeds, Gateshead, Brighton and Bournemouth, but once had a Jewish population second only to London, estimated at 20,000 in the Gorbals alone.

In 1993, the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art opened in . It is believed to be the only public museum to examine all the world"s major religious faiths.

ialec

"Glaswegian", otherwise known as the patter, is a local variety of Scots.

Glaswegian is a dialect, more than an alternative pronunciation; words also change their meaning as all over in Scotland, e.g. "away" can mean "leaving" as in "A"m away", an instruction to stop being a nuisance as in "away wi ye", or "drunk" or "demented" as in "he"s away wi it". "Ginger" is a term for any carbonated soft drink ("A bottle o ginger" ). Then there are words whose meaning has no obvious relationship to that in standard English: "coupon" means "face", via "to punch a ticket coupon". A headbutt is known in many parts of the British Isles as a " kiss"," although this term is rarely used by Glaswegians, who say "Malkie" e.g. "ah"ll Malkie ye" or "stick the heid on ye".

A speaker of Glaswegian might refer to those originating from the Scottish Highlands and the Western Isles as "teuchters", while they would reciprocate by referring to Glaswegians as "keelies" and those from the East of Scotland refer to Glaswegians as "Weegies" (or "Weedgies").

The long-running TV drama "Taggart" and the comedies "Empty", "Chewin" the Fat", "Rab C. Nesbitt", "Still Game" and "Dear Green Place" depict the Glaswegian "patois", while Craig Ferguson and Billy Connolly have made Glaswegian humour known to the rest of the world.

rchitectur

The rear of Provand"s Lordship
Very little of medieval remains, the two main landmarks from this period being the 15th century Provand"s Lordship and 13th century St. Mungo"s Cathedral. The vast majority of the city as seen today dates from the 19th century. As a result, has an impressive heritage of Victorian architecture: the City Chambers; the main building of the University of , designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott; and the Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, designed by Sir John W. Simpson are notable examples.

The city is notable for architecture designed by the School, the most notable exponent of that style being Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Mackintosh was an architect and designer in the Arts and Crafts Movement and the main exponent of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom, designing numerous noted buildings such as the School of Art, Willow Tearooms and the Scotland Street School Museum. A hidden gem of , also designed by Mackintosh, is the Queen"s Cross Church, the only church by the renowned artist to be built.and Interview with Stuart Robertson, Charles Rennie Mackintosh Society Director

Sir Norman Foster"s Clyde Auditorium, colloquially known as the "Armadillo".
Another architect who had an enduring impact on the city"s appearance was Alexander Thomson with notable examples including the Holmwood House villa.

The buildings reflect the wealth and self confidence of the residents of the "Second City of the Empire". generated immense wealth from trade and the industries that developed from the Industrial Revolution. The shipyards, marine engineering, steel making, and heavy industry all contributed to the growth of the city.

Many of the city"s most impressive buildings were built with red or blond sandstone, but during the industrial era those colours disappeared under a pervasive black layer of soot and pollutants from the furnaces, until the Clean Air Act was introduced in 1956. In recent years many of these buildings have been cleaned and restored to their original appearance.

Modern buildings in include the Royal Concert Hall, and along the banks of the Clyde are the Science Centre and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, whose Clyde Auditorium was designed by Sir Norman Foster, and is affectionately known as the "Armadillo". Zaha Hadid won a competition to design the new Museum of Transport, which will move to the waterfront.

"s impressive historical and modern architectural traditions were celebrated in 1999 when the city was designated UK City of Architecture and Design, winning the accolade over Liverpool and Edinburgh.

ousin

The Holmwood House villa in Cathcart, designed by Alexander "Greek" Thomson.

is known for its tenements. These were the most popular form of housing in 19th and 20th century and remain the most common form of dwelling in today. Tenements are commonly bought by a wide range of social types and are favoured for their large rooms, high ceilings and original period features. The Hyndland area of is the only tenement conservation area in the UK and includes some tenement houses with as many as six bedrooms.

Typical red sandstone south side tenement (Shawlands)
Like many cities in the UK, witnessed the construction of high-rise housing in tower blocks in the 1960s. These were built to replace the decaying tenement buildings originally built for workers who migrated from the surrounding countryside, the Highlands, and the rest of the United Kingdom, particularly Ireland, in order to feed the local demand for labour. The massive demand outstripped new building and many, originally fine, tenements often became overcrowded and unsanitary.Worksall, Frank "The Tenement - a way of life". W & R Chambers Ltd Edinburgh 1972 ISBN 055020252 Many degenerated into the infamous slums, such as the Gorbals.

Efforts to improve this housing situation, most successfully with the City Improvement Trust in the late 19th century, ed the slums of the old town areas such as the Trongate, High Street and Cross. Subsequent urban renewal initiatives, such as those motivated by the Bruce Report, entailed the comprehensive demolition of slum tenement areas, the development of new towns on the periphery of the city, and the construction of tower blocks.

The policy of tenement demolition is now considered to have been short-sighted, wasteful and largely unsuccessful. Many of "s worst tenements were refurbished into desirable accommodation in the 1970s and 1980s and the policy of demolition is considered to have destroyed many fine examples of a "universally admired architectural" style. The Housing Association took ownership of the housing stock from the city council on 7 March 2003, and has begun a £96 million ance and demolition programme to and demolish many of the high-rise flats.

ealth care
This is mainly provided by the National Health Service and is the responsibility of NHS Greater and Clyde. Accident & emergency provision is at the Western Infirmary in the West, Royal Infirmary in the East and Southern general in the South for adults and at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children for children. There is an emergency phone line provided by NHS 24 and 24 hour access to General Practitioners through the Out of hours centres.

All Pharmacies provide a wide range of services including minor ailment advice, emergency hormonal contraception, public health aradvice, some provide oxygen and needle exchange.

There are private clinics and hospitals at the Nuffield in the West and Ross Hall in the South of the city.

cademi
The University of is one of the oldest and largest academic institutions in the UK.
is also a major centre of education and academic research, with four universities within 10 miles (16 km) of the city centre:
*University of
*University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Campus
* Caledonian University
*University of the West of Scotland

There are also a number of further education colleges in the city, including Anniesland College, Metropolitan College, Cardonald College, Central College, Stow College and the College of Nautical Studies as well as a number of teacher training colleges, and teaching hospitals such as the Royal Infirmary. The Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama, Scotland"s national conservatoire, and the School of Art are based in the city.

is home to a student population in excess of 168,000, the largest in Scotland and second largest in the United Kingdom. The majority of those who live away from home are found in Shawlands, Dennistoun and the West End of the city.

The City Council runs twenty-nine secondary schools, a number of primary schools and three specialist schools - the Dance School of Scotland, School of Sport and Sgoil Ghàidhlig Ghlaschu ( Gaelic School, the only secondary school in Scotland to teach exclusively in Gaelic). Shawlands Academy in the South Side of the city is described as the city"s International School, and facilities for Outdoor Education are available at the Blairvadach Centre, near Helensburgh.


por

ootbal
Hampden Park, home of the Scottish national football team
The world"s first international football match was held in 1872 at the West of Scotland Cricket Club"s Hamilton Crescent ground in the Partick area of the city. The match, between Scotland and England finished 0–0.

is one of only three cities (along with Liverpool in 1985 and Madrid in 1986) to have had two football teams in European finals in the same season: in 1967 Celtic F.C. competed in the European Cup final defeating F.C. Internazionale Milano to become the first Scottish, British and Northern European football club to win the trophy, with Rangers F.C. competing unsuccessfully in the now defunct Cup Winners" Cup final.

The city is home to Scotland"s only two UEFA 5 star rated stadia which allows them to host UEFA Champions League or UEFA Cup finals Ibrox Stadium (51,082 seats) and Hampden Park (52,670 seats), meaning that they are eligible to host the final of the UEFA Champions League. Hampden Park has hosted the final on three occasions, most recently in 2002 and hosted the UEFA Cup Final in 2007.

Hampden Park, which is Scotland"s national football stadium, holds the European record for attendance at a football match: 149,547 saw Scotland beat England 3-1 in 1937, in the days before British stadia became all-seated. Celtic Park (60,832 seats) is also located in the east end of .

has three professional football clubs: Celtic F.C. and Rangers F.C., together known as the Old Firm, and Partick Thistle F.C. A fourth club, Queen"s Park F.C., is an amateur club that plays in the Scottish professional league system. Prior to this, had five other professional clubs: Clyde F.C., which moved to Cumbernauld, plus Third Lanark A.C., Cambuslang F.C., Cowlairs F.C. and Clydesdale F.C., who all went bankrupt. There are a number of Scottish Junior Football Association clubs within the city as well, such as Pollok F.C., Maryhill F.C., Ashfield F.C. and Petershill F.C., as well as countless numbers of amateur teams.

The history of football in the city, as well as the status of the Old Firm, attracts many visitors to football matches in the city throughout the season. The Scottish Football Association, the national governing body, and the Scottish Football Museum are based in , as are the Scottish Football League, Scottish Premier League, Scottish Junior Football Association and Scottish Amateur Football Association. The Cup was a once popular tournament, which was competed for by Celtic, Rangers, Clyde, Partick Thistle and Queen"s Park. The competition is now played for by the youth sides of the five teams.


ugby Unio
has a professional rugby union club, the Warriors, which plays in the Magners League alongside teams from Scotland, Ireland and Wales.

In the Scottish League, Hawks was formed in 1997 by the merger of two of "s oldest clubs: Academicals and High Kelvinside (GHK). Despite the merger, the second division teams of Academicals and High Kelvinside re-entered the Scottish rugby league in 1998.

In the South suburb of Giffnock is based another of "s most prominent clubs Hutchesons Aloysians RFC (GHA). GHA was formed in 2002 with the merger of two of "s leading clubs at the time, Southern RFC and Hutchesons" Aloysians RFC.

ugby Leagu
has hosted many Scotland Rugby League Internationals in recent years including last year"s World Cup Qualifier Versus Wales in which Scotland qualified for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup on aggregate despite going down by 2 points. also regularly hosts Scotland A home games in the Home Nations Cup.

In 2009, a based Rugby League team will enter into National League 2. This club will be the first ever semi-pro Scottish Rugby League team. The name and playing venue of the team is yet to be announced. The team will look to follow in the footsteps of Celtic Crusaders and be chosen for a Super League License.

ther sport
Major international sporting arenas include the Kelvin Hall and Scotstoun Sports Centre. In 2003 the National Academy for Badminton was completed in Scotstoun. In 2003, was also given the title of European Capital of Sport.

is also host to many cricket clubs including Clydesdale Cricket Club who have been title winners for the Scottish Cup many times. This club also acted as a neutral venue for a One Day International match between India and Pakistan in 2007, but due to bad weather it was called off.

Smaller sporting facilities include an abundance of outdoor playing fields, as well as golf clubs such as Hagg"s Castle and artificial ski slopes. Between 1998 and 2004, the Scottish Claymores American football team played some or all of their home games each season at Hampden Park and the venue also hosted World Bowl XI.

Motorcycle speedway racing was first introduced to in 1928 and is currently staged at Saracen Park in the North of the city.

The venues were the Olympic Stadium, also known as Nelson (1928 & 1932), Carntyne Stadium (1928 & 1930), White City Stadium (1928 - 1931, 1939 - 1940, 1945 - 1954, 1956, 1964 - 1968), Celtic Park (1928), Hampden Park (1969 - 1972), Sacarcen Park (1949 - 1953 , 1999 to date), Shawfield Stadium (1988 - 1998). Details in Speedway in Scotland - Tempus Publishing.



Befitting its strong Highland connections as the City of the Gael "Baile Mòr nan Gàidheal", is also one of five places in Scotland which hosts the final of the Scottish Cup of Shinty, better known as the Camanachd Cup. This is usually held at Old Anniesland. Once home to numerous Shinty clubs, there is now only one senior club in , Mid-Argyll, as well as two university sides from University of Strathclyde and University of .

014 Commonwealth Game


On 9 November 2007, was selected to be the host city of the 2014 Commonwealth Games. The games will be based around a number of existing and newly constructed sporting venues across the city, including a refurbished Hampden Park, Kelvingrove Park, the Kelvin Hall, and the planned Scottish National Arena at the SECC. Plans have already been drawn up for a Commonwealth Games campus in the east end of the city, which will include a new indoor arena, velodrome and accommodation facilities in Dalmarnock and Parkhead, with an upgraded Aquatics Centre at nearby Tollcross Park. 2014 will be the third time the Games have been held in Scotland. www.glasgow2014.com

conom
HMS "Daring" was built in and launched in 2006. Although diminished from its early 20th century heights, remains the hub of the UK"s Shipbuilding industry.
has the largest economy in Scotland and is at the hub of the metropolitan area of West Central Scotland. The city also has the third largest GDP Per Capita in the UK, after London and Edinburgh. The city itself sustains more than 410,000 jobs in over 12,000 companies. Over 153,000 jobs have been created in the city since 2000 - a growth rate of 32%. "s annual economic growth rate of 4.4% is now second only to that of London. In 2005, over 17,000 new jobs were created, and 2006 saw private-sector investment in the city reaching £4.2 billion pounds, an increase of 22% in a single year. 55% of the residents in the Greater area commute to the city every day. Once dominant export orientated manufacturing industries such as shipbuilding and other heavy engineering have been gradually replaced in importance by more diversified forms of economic activity.

Tower, Scotland"s tallest tower, and the IMAX Cinema at the Science Centre symbolise the increase in the importance of tourism to the city"s economy.
Whilst manufacturing has declined, "s economy has seen significant relative growth of tertiary sector industries such as financial and business services, communications, biosciences, creative industries, healthcare, higher education, retail and tourism. is now the second most popular foreign tourist destination in Scotland (fourth in the UK) and its largest retail centre.

Between 1998 and 2001, the city"s financial services sector grew at a rate of 30%, making considerable gains on Edinburgh, which has historically been the centre of the Scottish financial sector. is now one of Europe"s sixteen largest financial centres, with a growing number of Blue chip financial sector companies establishing significant operations or headquarters in the city.

The 1990s and first decade of the 21st century saw substantial growth in the number of call centres based in . In 2007 roughly 20,000 people, a third of all call centre employees in Scotland, were employed by call centres.BBC Scotland This growth and its high use of recruitment agencies to hire graduates as temporary workers has led to accusations of exploitative practices such as long hours, poor pay and lack of job security by the TUC and other union bodies. In recent years some call centres have taken steps to rectify this criticism.

The city"s main manufacturing industries include companies involved in; shipbuilding, engineering, construction, brewing and distilling, printing and publishing, chemicals and textiles as well as newer growth sectors such as optoelectronics, software development and biotechnology. forms the western part of the Silicon Glen high tech sector of Scotland.

ranspor


ublic transpor
Central station is the northern terminus of the West Coast Main Line
has a large urban transport system, mostly managed by the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport (SPT).

The city has many bus services; since bus deregulation almost all are provided by private operators though SPT part-funds some services.

has the most extensive urban rail network in the UK outside of London with rail services travelling to a large part of the West of Scotland. All trains running within Scotland, including the local trains, are operated by First ScotRail, who own the franchise as determined by the Scottish Government. Central Station and Queen Street Station are the two main railway terminals. Central is the terminus of the long West Coast Main Line from London Euston. All services to and from England use this station. Central is also the terminus for suburban services on the south side of , Ayrshire and Inverclyde, as well as being served by the cross city link from Dalmuir to Motherwell. Most other services within Scotland - the main line to Edinburgh, plus services to Aberdeen, Dundee, Inverness and the Western Highlands - operate from Queen Street station.

The city"s suburban network is currently divided by the River Clyde, and an initiative has been proposed to link them; it is currently awaiting funding from the Scottish Government. The city is linked to Edinburgh by three direct railway links; a further one, the Airdrie-Bathgate Rail Link, is proposed for completion in 2010. In addition to the suburban rail network, SPT operates the Subway. The Subway is the United Kingdom"s only completely underground metro system, and is generally recognised as the world"s third underground railway after London and Budapest. Both rail and subway stations have a number of park and ride facilities.

As part of the wider regeneration along the banks of the River Clyde, a Pre-Tram System, using dedicated bus lanes, called Clyde Fastlink is currently under construction.



hippin
Ferries used to link opposite sides of the Clyde in but they have been rendered near-obsolete, by bridges and tunnels including the Erskine Bridge, Kingston Bridge, and the Clyde Tunnel. The only remaining crossings are the Renfrew Ferry between Renfrew and Yoker, and the Kilcreggan Ferry in Inverclyde, both run by SPT but outwith the city boundary. The "PS Waverley", the world"s last operational seagoing paddle-steamer, provides services from City Centre, mainly catering to the pleasure cruise market. A regular waterbus service links the City Centre with Braehead in Renfrewshire, some 30 minutes downstream. A service by Loch Lomond Seaplanes, connecting the city with destinations in Argyll and Bute started in 2007. The only operational dock left in operated by Clydeport is the King George V Dock, near Braehead. Most other facilities, such as Hunterston Terminal are located in the deep waters of the Firth of Clyde, which together handle some 7.5 million tonnes of cargo each year.

oad
M8 Motorway, the busiest motorway in Scotland
The city is the focus of Scotland"s trunk road network and has many road connections to other cities. The main M8 motorway passes through the city centre, and connects to the M77, M73, and M80 motorways. The A82 connects the city to Argyll and the western Highlands. The M74 runs directly south towards Carlisle; the highly controversial M74 completion scheme will extend the motorway from Tollcross into the Tradeston area to join the M8. A legal challenge to stop the extension was withdrawn in 2006, and the road is now scheduled for completion by 2010.

Other road proposals include the East End Regeneration Route, which aims to complete the Inner Ring Road around the city and provide easier access to deprived areas of the East End.

Airports
The city is served by two international airports and a seaplane terminal: International Airport (GLA) in Paisley, Renfrewshire ( west of the city), Prestwick Airport (PIK) ( to the south-west), and Seaplane Terminal, by the Science Centre on the River Clyde. There is also a small airfield at Cumbernauld ( to the north-east) and City Heliport located at Stobcross Quay on the banks of the Clyde. Prestwick has a direct rail link to Central; a plan to also provide a direct rail link to International was dropped with the cancelling of the Airport Rail Link in 2009. In June 2007, International Airport had been subject to an attempted terrorist attack.

nternational relation


win towns - Sister citie
is twinned with various cities, including:



aller

|File: School of Art 52.JPG|Western façade of Charles Rennie Mackintosh"s School of Art
}}

References


External links


* http://www.scotcities.com/cathcart/photoalbum.htm Maps and pictures of "s southside.
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Category:Districts of Scotland
Category:Lieutenancy areas of Scotland
Category:Port cities and towns in Scotland
Category:Settlements established in the 6th century
Category:Council areas of Scotland






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tl:
ta:கிளாஸ்கோ
te:గ్లాస్గో
tet:Glázgua
th:กลาสโกว์
tr:
uk:Глазго
ug:
vi:
vo:
bat-smg:Glazgos
zh:格拉斯哥
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 06.03.2021 10:24 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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REISEPORTAL
Category:Settlements established in the 1st centuryCategory:British capitalsCategory:Capitals in EuropeCategory:Host cities of the Commonwealth GamesCategory:Host cities of the Summer Olympic GamesCategory:Port cities and towns in the United
|statistic2= 2.3 million|statistic_title2 = Metro|population_density= }} |os_grid_reference= NS590655|edinburgh_distance_mi=42|london_distance_mi=403|language= English, Scots (see Patter)|area_footnotes
|statistic2= 2.3 million|statistic_title2 = Metro|population_density= }} |os_grid_reference= NS590655|edinburgh_distance_mi=42|london_distance_mi=403|language= English, Scots (see Patter)|area_footnotes
|statistic2= 2.3 million|statistic_title2 = Metro|population_density= }} |os_grid_reference= NS590655|edinburgh_distance_mi=42|london_distance_mi=403|language= English, Scots (see Patter)|area_footnotes
DemographyPopulation of , 1801-2001The ornamental gate to Chinatown, As wh other major Brish cies, has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 UK Census the recorded population of was 441,900, whilst a mid-2007 estimate by the NS had the cy"s
DemographyPopulation of , 1801-2001The ornamental gate to Chinatown, As wh other major Brish cies, has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 UK Census the recorded population of was 441,900, whilst a mid-2007 estimate by the NS had the cy"s
 
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London's new Muslim mayor, Labour politician Sadiq Khan, attended his first public event as mayor on Sunday at a memorial for the 6 million Jews killed in the Holocaust. London (dpa) - Khan attended Sunday‘s Annual Jewish Remembrance Day for
Prime Minister David Cameron on Monday announced new measures to compel Muslim migrants to improve their English skills, saying the move was linked to "building a more integrated, cohesive, one-nation country." London (dpa) - A
When the UK voted to leave the European Union late last month, the shock waves spread almost immediately throughout the world. Major stock markets crashed, analysts on television and in print began forecasting long-term effects, and British citizens
Witnesses who attended Monday night's Ariana Grande concert at Manchester Arena described scenes of panic and confusion after they heard a loud bang and saw people injured by shrapnel, many of them seriously. London (dpa) - Gary Walker, from the
British Prime Minister Theresa May received a boost for her general election campaign on Friday as her Conservatives made strong gains in local elections. London (dpa) - After results were declared for some 2,000 seats by early afternoon the
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