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Geel

Belgium, Geel
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"Geel" is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp which acquired the status of a city in the 1980s.
It comprises Central-Geel which is constituted of 4 old parishes a/o towns : St-Amand, St-Dimfna, Holven and Elsum. Further on around the center are the parish-towns of Ten Aard (N), Sas 7 (NE), Bel (E), Winkelomheide (SE), Stelen, Oosterlo and Zammel (S), Punt (SW) and Larum (W). On January 1, 2006 Geel had a total population of 35,189. The total area is 109.85 km² which gives a population density of 320 inhabitants per km². Geel’s patron saint, the Irish Saint Dymphna, inspired the town’s unique method of care for the mentally ill. The city is also featured in Ciaran Carson"s novel "Shamrock Tea" (Granta 2001).

istor
rigins and Middle Age
Archeological finds in the area point to iron-age settlements, but the name of Geel, from a Germanic root meaning “yellow”, dates from the early Middle Ages. A hamlet already existed in the mid-13th century, at which time a certain Petrus Cameracencis, canon of Cambrai, wrote the "Vita Sanctae Dimpnae" (i.e., life of Saint Dymphna) set in Geel according to oral tradition. The cult of the saint attracted numerous pilgrims to the area, leading to a substantial population growth: 2,136 inhabitants in 1374.

In the 12th century, the extended territory around Geel was given to the Grimbergen Abbey. It then became property of one noble family after another throughout medieval times. The noble lords or dames were masters of their community, but pledged feudal allegiance to the Dukes of Brabant. Some form of municipal government was granted to Geel as early as the first half of the 13th century. Throughout the Middle Ages to the end of the 18th century, the history of Geel follows that of the Duchy of Brabant. During all this time, the economy of the city depended on the breeding of sheep for the cloth industry, complemented by the cultivation of flax for the manufacture and trade of linen. A cloth hall was built at the beginning of the 15th century, which was later transformed into the city hall. The Eighty Years" War greatly damaged the Geel economy as well as its buildings and churches. The textile industry recovered to last until the early 19th century, but the economy was now mostly supported by agriculture, specifically rye, oat, barley, and buckwheat. Geel was also known at that time for its Latin School, which attracted students from far away to prepare them for entry at the Catholic University of Leuven.

rom the French Revolution until toda
In 1795, the Duchy of Brabant was dissolved and Geel made part of the French department of Deux-Nèthes, the precursor of the present province of Antwerp. The nobles and clerics of the Ancien Régime gave way to a mayor, who was now answerable to the town’s people. Geel actively participated in the Belgian Revolution of 1830, resulting in the award of an honorary flag from King Leopold II. The 19th century also saw the building of several new churches at the demand of the various parishes.

model of psychiatric car
Geel is well known for the early adoption of deinstitutionalization in psychiatric care Roosens, Eugeen. "Mental patients in town life: Geel, Europe"s first therapeutic community". Beverly Hills, Sage Publications, 1979. ISBN 0-8039-1330-3 - ISBN 0-8039-1331-1 . This practice is based on the positive effects that placement in a host family gives the patient, most importantly access to family life that would otherwise have been denied. The legendary 7th-century Saint Dymphna, who had moved to the Geel area from Ireland, is usually credited for this type of care. The earliest Geel infirmary and the model where patients go into town, interact with the community during the day, and return to the hospital at night to sleep, date from the 13th centuryGoldstein, Jackie L. and Godemont Marc M. L. (2003). The legend and lessons of Geel: A 1500-year-old legend, a 21st century model. "Community Mental Health Journal 39(5)", 441-458. Abstract at: .

180px
Originally, this practice was religiously motivated and organized by a chapter of canons, attached to the church of Saint Dymphna. By the 18th century, however, the placement of patients was mostly done directly, without the intervention of the canons. The number of patients grew in proportion to the growing city’s reputation abroad and the economic benefits flowing to the city provided further motivation to the inhabitants. Attracted by the gentle care of patients, Vincent Van Gogh’s father considered sending his famous son to Geel in 1879. The high point came in 1938, with a total of 3,736 placed patients, compared with only 700 a hundred years earlier.

This novel type of psychiatric care was evaluated by various other institutions around the world (see for instance Eastern State Hospital in Virginia), but often seen as too revolutionary to implement. It is only in the early 20th century that the idea of deinstitutionalization was adopted more widely elsewhere. Today, a modern psychiatric centre stands on the place of the old infirmary, and close to 500 patients are still placed with inhabitants.

ight
*The market square, facing the St-Amand church and bordered by attractive café terraces, is the focal point of the city. The oldest part of the city hall dates from the 17th century. Not far away, the St-Dymphna church marks the place where the saint was buried.
*Geel is located along the river Nete, in the Campine region, which offers to its visitors a varied landscape of forests and dunes, and a nature reserve, "de Zegge", owned by the Antwerp Zoo.
*Among the city"s attractions one counts a field of orchids, a centenary linden tree, three wind mills, a military cemetery, and a handful a museums including a clock museum, a lamp museum, and an old bakery. The Saint-Alexis college is emblazoned with Art Nouveau sgraffiti by Gabriel van Dievoet.

180px

ducatio
Geel is a regional educational centre with several basic schools, highschools and the Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen as an institute for higher education.

conomic activit
Geel is a regional agricultural, industrial, and commercial center offering medical and educational services to the neighboring communities. The city is the location of a Janssen Pharmaceutica chemical factory and a production site for the biotech company Genzyme. It also hosts the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, which is one of the seven scientific institutes of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre. Innotek a technology centre and CIPAL are located in Geel.

ports and cultural event
*Geel is home to the K.F.C. Verbroedering Geel football club. Due to fraude, Verbroedering Geel is now called Verbroedering Geel-Meerhout. This means the 2 football clubs joined.
*One of the largest reggae festivals in Europe, the Reggae Geel festival, takes place usually early in August just outside the city.

otable inhabitant
*Patrik Vankrunkelsven, physician and politician (b. 1957)
*Ludo Dierckxsens, racing cyclist (b. 1964)
*Marc Goossens, racecar driver (b. 1969)
*Jan Heylen, racecar driver (b. 1980)
*Sepp De Roover, defense football player (b.1984)
*Kirsten Flipkens, female tennis player (b. 1986)
*Alois Verwaest, physician,poet,playwright and WWII doctor (jan 28th,1900 - june 6th,1981)

win citie
*: Tydavnet, County Monaghan
*: Xanten

eference


xternal link

*"Geel, Belgium: A Model of "Community Recovery" Samford University Psychology Dept. Birmingham, AL.
* – in Dutch
* - popular website among the youth of Geel, in Dutch



Category:Municipalities of Antwerp
Category:Cities and towns in Belgium
Category:psychiatry

bg:Гел (град)
br:Geel (kêr)
da:Geel
de:Geel
eo:Geel
fr:Geel
it:Geel
lt:Gelis (Belgija)
nl:Geel (stad)
no:Geel
pl:Geel
pt:Geel
ro:Geel
simple:Geel
sv:Geel
vi:Geel
vo:Geel
zh:赫尔 (比利时)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 10.12.2018 08:19 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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REISEPORTAL
"Geel" is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp which acquired the status of a city in the 1980s.It comprises Central-Geel which is constituted of 4 old parishes a/o towns : St-Amand, St-Dimfna, Holven and Elsum. Further on around
rchitecturMuch of the city"s medieval architecture remains intact and is remarkably well preserved and restored. The city center is one of the largest carfree areas in Belgium. The beguinage, as well as the belfry, were recognized by UNESCO as World
"Dendermonde" (French: "Termonde") is a Belgian city and municipality located in the Flemish province of . The municipality comprises the city of Dendermonde proper and the towns of Appels, Baasrode, Grembergen, Mespelare, Oudegem, Schoonaarde, and
"Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve" is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of . On January 1, 2006 Ottignies-Louvain-la-Neuve had a total population of 29,521. The total area is 32.96 km² which gives a population density of 896
"Etterbeek" is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium. It neighbours the municipalities of the City of Brussels, Ixelles, Auderghem, Woluwe-Saint-Pierre, Woluwe-Saint-Lambert and Schaerbeek.The main
"Charleroi" ("King Charles", ) is the largest city and municipality of Wallonia, located in the province of , Belgium. On 1 January 2008, Charleroi had a total population of 201,593. Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1 January 2008.
 
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