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Eisenstadt

Austria, Eisenstadt
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"Eisenstadt" (, , ) is a city in Austria, the state capital of . It has a population of about 12,000 (2006).
In the Habsburg monarchy, Kismarton (Eisenstadt) was the seat of the Eszterházy Hungarian noble family. The composer Joseph Haydn lived there as "Hofkapellmeister" under Esterházy patronage.

Geography
Eisenstadt lies on a plain leading down to the river Wulka, at the south foot of the mountain range known as the Leithagebirge (Hungarian Lajta Mountains), about 12 km from the Hungarian border.

Subdivisions

The city is divided into 4 or 5 districts:
* Oberberg, aka Oberberg-Eisenstadt (, ) - north area from the Jewish quarter, Jewish cemetery
* Unterberg, aka Unterberg-Eisenstadt (, ) - southern area from Kalvarienbergplatz, Ruster Strasse
* Kleinhöflein im (, ) (de) - a town lies in west
* St. Georgen am Leithagebirge (, ) (de) - a town lies in east
* Eisenstadt-Schloßgrund ()

Wiesäcker and Lobäcker quarter are lies in south of Eisbach (River).

Origin of the nam
The present city name, meaning "Iron City", was first recorded in 1118 as "castrum ferrum" and refers to the history of iron mining and iron trade in the area. The first written mention of the town took place in 1264 as "minor Mortin", matching the Hungarian name, Kismarton, which is recalling Saint Martin, the patron saint of the main church.

History
Archeological finds prove that the Eisenstadt area was already settled in the Hallstatt period. Celts and Romans settled somewhat later. During the Migration Period, the area was settled by different Germanic tribes and the Huns. Around 800, during the reign of Charlemagne, settlement by the Bavarii began.

The fortress built on the original earth works was destroyed by the troops of Leopold III, Margrave of Austria. In 1241, it was destroyed by the Mongol invaders. In 1373, the town came into the possession of the Kanizsai family, who rebuilt the walls surrounding the town and built a fortress at the site of the present day castle between 1388 and 1392. In 1388, Eisenstadt was given the right to hold markets by Emperor Sigismund.

In 1445 Archduke Albert VI of Austria acquired the town. In 1451 it was ceded to Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor by Matthias Corvinus in return for the Holy Crown of Hungary. Matthias Corvinus reconquered it by force in 1482, but Maximilian I acquired it again in 1490. It remained under Habsburg rule until 1622. In 1529 and 1532 the Ottoman Empire conquered Eisenstadt with their advance on the city of Vienna (see Ottoman wars in Europe). It was captured by the army of Imre Thököly in 1683, and it saw the defeat of the kuruc army of Sándor Károlyi by the Habsburgs in 1704. A royal town since 1648, it was destroyed by fire in 1589 and 1776.

In 1648, it passed under the rule of the Esterházy family. These Hungarian princes permanently changed the face of the city due to their extensive construction especially on their castle, Schloss Esterházy. The appointment of Joseph Haydn as the prince"s "Hofkapellmeister" (court orchestra director, composing and performing music) began the great artistic period in the city"s history. In 1809, Eisenstadt was occupied by French troops during the Napoleonic Wars; in 1897, it was joined to the railway network.

Until the end of World War I, it was the seat of Kismarton district in Sopron county in the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1921, by the Saint-Germain and Treaties of Trianon it became part of Austria. Since 30 April 1925, Eisenstadt is seat of the state government and thus the state capital. During World War II, Eisenstadt was heavily bombarded. In 1945, it was occupied by the Red Army, and the city remained until 1955 under Soviet occupation. In 1960, Eisenstadt became the see of its own Roman Catholic diocese.



Politics
The current mayor of Eisenstadt is Andrea Fraunschiel ÖVP.

The district council is composed as follows (as of 2007):
* ÖVP: 17 seats
* SPÖ: 8 seats
* Austrian Green Party: 2 seats
* FPÖ: 2 seats

Main sights
The Old Town Hall
Religious edifices
* "Bergkirche", housing Haydn"s tomb
* "Domkirche", late Gothic former military church, began in 1460
* "Franziskanerkirche "(Franciscan church), Built in 1629, it contains the crypt of the Esterházy family
* Jewish quarter () of city central (Oberberg),
** Jewish Community of Eisenstadt (1732-1938, 1945-)
** Jerusalemplatz & gate, Judengasse "(Unterberggasse)"
** Österreichisches Jüdisches Museum and Samnson Wertheimer"s house (, the Synagogue of Eisenstadt); there was the chief rabbinate of Hungarian Kingdom: Around Gloriettenallee, Alexander Wolf-Gasse, Meierhofgasse, Museumsgasse, Wertheimergasse, Carl Moreau-Strasse, Alois Tomasini-Gasse, Weingartenstrasse, etc.
** Jewish cemeteries of Eisenstadt

Castles and palaces
* Schloss Esterházy and "Schlosspark", the Esterházy castle and park.
** Orangerie
** Lindenstadion
* Gloriette, the former Esterházy hunting lodge.

Buildings
* Haydn-Mausoleum
* "Rathaus "(City Hall)
* "Pulverturm" (lit. "Powder tower")

Museums
* "Haydnmuseum", a museum dedicated to Joseph Haydn, who lived in the building between 1766 and 1778.
* "Landesmuseum" (regional museum).
* "Österreichisches Jüdisches Museum"(Austrian Jewish Museum).
* "Diözesanmuseum" (museum of the local Roman Catholic diocese).
* "Feuerwehrmuseum" (fire department museum).

Gallery

Image:
Image:Kismarton légifotó1.jpg
Image:Kismarton légifotó2.jpg
Image:Kismarton légifotó3.jpg


Cultur
Eisenstadt hosts a Haydn festival, the Haydnfestspiele, and an annual otter-baiting event, Vadnnisier Di.

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Eisenstadt is twinned with:
* Bad Kissingen, Germany
* Colmar, France
* Lignano Sabbiadoro, Italy
* Sanuki, Kagawa, Japan
* Sopron, Hungary

Nearby municipalities
* Großhöflein, Müllendorf, Steinbrunn, Neufeld/Leitha & Ebenfurth
* Hornstein
* Wulkaprodersdorf, Trausdorf/Wulka (on the Wulka and Eisbach)

People



*
*
*
*
*
* University of applied sciences.
* , Eisenstadt page for young adult activities.
*





Category:Districts of
Category:Cities and towns in
Category:House of Esterházy
Category:Siebengemeinden
Category:Eisenstadt-Umgebung District

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 25.06.2022 16:25 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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"Linz" is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of (). It is located in the north centre of Austria, approximately 30 km south of the Czech border, on both sides of the river . The population of the city is 189,284 (2009),
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