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Doboj

Bosnia-Herzegovina, Doboj
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View of Doboj from the fortress
14th Century Doboj Fortress, reconstructed in 2006, with a wooden stage added during reconstruction

"Doboj" (Cyrillic: Добој) is a city and a municipality in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina, situated in the northern part of the Republika Srpska entity on the river Bosna. Doboj is the largest national railway junction; as such, the seats of the Republika Srpska Railways, and the Railways Corporation of Bosnia and Herzegovina are located in Doboj. It is one of the oldest cities in the country and one of the most important urban centers in Northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.

istor
iddle Age
The first official mention of the settlement is from 1415, as it was written in the charter issued by Dubrovnik to Hungarian Emperor Sigismund, although there are numerous artefacts and objects that have been found (The National Museum of Bosnia/Herzegovina in Sarajevo & The Regional Museum in Doboj) and which confirm the fact that the area had been inhabited ever since the early stone age, and that the Roman Empire had an army camp ("Castrum") and a settlement ("Canabea") in the vicinity of the town dating from the 1st century AD. Following the arrival of the Slavs in the 6th century AD it became a part of the region/bannate Usora (in the medieval documents sometimes put together with the nearby province Soli, hence, "Usora and Soli").

The Doboj fortress, a royal Kotromanic fortress, was first built in the early 13th century and then expanded in the early 15th century (1415). It was expanded during the Ottoman Empire in 1490. This newer stone foundation of the fortress was built on previous layers of older foundation (dating to 9th or 10th century AD) made of wood, mud and clay (Motte & Bailey type). It was a very important obstacle for the invaders coming from North, Hungarians, and later on, Austrians and Germans. It was built in the Gotho-Roman style with the gothic towers and romanic windows. The area has seen numerous battles in the Medieval times and the fortress often changed hands between Bosnian and Hungarian armies. Doboj was the site of a particularly major battle between Hungarians and Bosnian/Turkish coalition in early August of 1415 in which Hungarians were heavily defeated on the field where the modern City of Doboj lies today (esp. around Makljenovac and Usora area). As an important border fortress (between Bosnian Kingdom and Hungary), it was also frequently attacked (officially recorded - 18 times) in the Austro-Ottoman Wars, and finally fell to the Habsburgs in 1878.

orld War I and World War I

Doboj at the beginning of the 20th Century

During World War I, Doboj was the site of the largest Austro-Hungarian concentration camp for Serbs. According to its official figures, it held, between December 27, 1915 and July 5, 1917:

* 16,673 men from Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly of Serb ethnicity)
* 16,996 women and children from Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly of Serb ethnicity)
* 9,172 soldiers and civilians (men, women, children) from the Kingdom of Serbia
* 2,950 soldiers and civilians from the Kingdom of Montenegro

In total, 45,791 persons.

By February 1916, the authorities began redirecting the prisoners to other camps. The Serbs from Bosnia were mostly sent to Győr (Sopronyek, Šopronjek/Шопроњек).

Most of the interned from Bosnia were whole families from the border regions of eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is said that 5,000 families alone were uprooted from the Sarajevo district in eastern Bosnia along the border with the Kingdoms of Serbia & Montenegro.

The Nobel Prize-laureate Ivo Andrić was also an inmate of the camp.

During World War II, Doboj was an important site for the partisan resistance movement. From their initial uprising in August 1941 up until the end of the war, the Ozren partisan squad carried out numerous diversions against the occupation forces, among the first successful operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The town was liberated on April 17, 1945.

osnian Wa

Doboj was strategically important during the Bosnian War. In May 1992, the occupation of Doboj by the Serbian forces began. The Serbian Democratic Party took over the governing of the city. What followed was a mass disarming and subsequently mass arrests of all non-Serb civilians (namely Bosniaks and Croats). Many instances of war crimes and ethnic cleansing were committed by Serb forces.

In an effort to liberate the city, Doboj was shelled by Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (over 5,500 mortar and tank rounds had hit the city itself and immediate surrounding area during the period of May 1992 - October 1995). As a result, 99 citizens of Doboj have been killed due to mortar and tank fire in the aerial attacks on downtown, and about 400 of Doboj"s residents got wounded and maimed in the process..

Biljana Plavšić acting individually or in concert with Radovan Karadžić, Momčilo Krajišnik and others planned, instigated, ordered, committed or otherwise aided and abetted the planning, preparation or execution of the destruction, in whole or in part, of the Bosniak and Bosnian Croat national, ethnical, racial or religious groups, as such, in several municipalities, including but not limited to Doboj.

After the Dayton Agreement and the peace following in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the city served as a major HQ/base for IFOR (later SFOR) units.

thnic cleansing and mass killing

Serb forces were implicated in the systematic looting and destruction of Bosniak and Croatian homes and villages during the Bosnian War. Women were raped and civilians tortured and killed. Widespread looting and destruction of Bosniak homes and property took place daily and the Bosnian Muslim mosques in town were destroyed. Many of the non-Serbs who were not immediately killed were detained at various locations in the town, subjected to inhumane conditions, including regular beatings, torture and strenuous forced labour. A school in Grabska and the factory used by the Bosanka company that produced jams and juices in Doboj was used as a rape camp. Four different types of soldiers were present at the rape camps including the local Serbian militia, the Yugoslav army (JNA), police forces based in the Serbian-occupied town of Knin (or "Marticevci" as their commander was Milan Martic) and members of the "White Eagles" (Beli Orlovi) paramilitary group who wore an insignia bearing three eagles and a "kokarda" on their hats. The man who oversaw the women"s detention in the school was Nikola Jorgic, a former police officer in Doboj, who has been convicted of genocide in Germany and is currently serving a life sentence. - , July 12 2007.

Biljana Plavšić"s charges against humanity include but are not limited to the killings in Doboj.Plavisic"s indictment related to genocide charges in Doboj specifically includes but is not limited to the following killings:
* the killing on or about 10 May 1992 of thirty-four Bosnian Muslim /Bosniak and/or Bosnian Croat civilians of the village of Gornja Grapska - Doboj municipality.
* many of the Bosnian Muslims /Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats who survived the attacks and forced marches were taken to these camps and detention facilities, including but not limited to: Bare ammunition warehouse from 1 May 1992, Spreca prison from 1 May 1992, the SUP station from 1 May to 31 July 1992, Percin’s Disco from 1 May 1992, Sevarlije JNA barracks from 1 May to 30 June 1992, and the JNA hangars near the Bosanska plantation from May 1992, all in the Doboj municipality.

Other incidents currently under investigation include:
* the execution of 15 civilians from the Spreca Central Prison in Doboj in May 1992;
* a series of mass executions of non-Serbs on the banks of the river Bosna on June 17-19, 1992;
* a series of mass executions in the "July 4th" military barracks in the village of Miljkovac on July 12, 1992; and
* the use of civilians as human shields against a Bosnian Army advance the same month.

Although Jorgic"s, Plavsic"s, Karadzic"s and Krajisnik"s cases were tried in foreign jurisdictions, the court of Bosnia and Herzegovina has processed or is currently processing the following cases for war crimes in Doboj:
* Milovan Stankovic, the former Bosnian Serb military commander for the town and surrounding region.
* Milan "Mico" Ninkovic, formerly chairman of the local branch of the Serb Democratic Party, SDS, as well as being a former Bosnian Serb defence minister.
* Andrija Bjelosevic, the one-time head of the Doboj Security Centre.

emographic

The non-Serb population of Doboj numbered approximately 55,000, including about 41,000 Bosniaks, 13,000 Croats and 1,000 others, at the outbreak of the Bosnian War in 1992, during which almost all left or were ethnically cleansed. With the city"s post-war division into Republika Srpska, very few non-Serbs have returned. As a result, Doboj"s current Bosniak and Croat population is generally assumed to negligible, despite the fact that the last census was conducted in 1991.

It has been announced in 2007 that a country-wide census will likely take place in 2011. Currently, the only official census numbers are those from 1971 and 1991, but they do not reflect the current demographics as ethnic cleansing of the last decade has caused permanent population changes.

97
88.985 total

* Serbs - 39.884 (44,82)
* Muslims - 32.418 (36,43)
* Croats - 14.754 (16,58)
* Yugoslavs - 1.124 (1,26)
* Others - 805 (0,91)

99
In 1991, prior to the Yugoslav wars, the Doboj municipality (including the present Republika Srpska and Federation of BiH regions was inhabited by 102,519 people, including:
*41.164 Muslims by nationality (40,14%)
*39.820 Serbs (38,83%)
*13.264 Croats (12,93%)
*5.765 Yugoslavs (5.62%)
*2.536 others (2.48%)

Yugoslavs (5.5% of the municipal population) were likely to be Serbs, Muslims or children from numerous inter-ethnic marriages.

In urban part of pre-war Doboj municipality, there were:
*11,133 (40.36%) Muslims by nationality
*8,088 (29.32%) Serbs
*4,334 (15.75%) Yugoslavs
*2,755 (9.98%) Croats
*1,269 others

Population by settlements composing the town of Doboj:http://www.hdmagazine.com/bosnia/census/cens-s.html

*Bare: 732 (62%) Serbs, 153 (13%) Yugoslavs, 135 (11%) Croats, 112 (9%) Muslims, 53 (4%) others, 1,185 total

*Centar: 3,720 (35%) Serbs, 3,365 (31%) Muslims, 1,982 (18%) Yugoslavs, 1,236 (12%) Croats, 432 (4%) others, 10,735 total

*Čaršija: 3,561 (72%) Muslims, 594 (12%) Yugoslavs, 303 (6%) Serbs, 195 (4%) Croats, 273 (6%) others, 4,926 total

*Doboj Novi: 358 (48%) Muslims, 237 (32%) Serbs, 39 (5%) Yugoslavs, 7 (1%) Croats, 108 (14%) others, 749 total

*Donji Grad: 1,879 (37%) Serbs, 1,547 (31%) Muslims, 844 (17%) Yugoslavs, 569 (11%) Croats, 196 (4%) others, 5,035 total

*Orašje: 1,411 (66%) Muslims, 293 (14%) Serbs, 231 (11%) Yugoslavs, 111 (5%) Croats, 90 (4%) others, 2,136 total

*Usora: 924 (33%) Serbs, 779 (28%) Muslims, 502 (18%) Croats, 491 (17%) Yugoslavs, 117 (4%) others, 2,813 total

ymbo

The four squares represent the four mountains which mark the outer borders of Doboj valley in which the City of Doboj lies in: Ozren, Trebava, Vucjak, and Krnjin. The fleur-de-lys represent the medieval origins of the city in the royal fortress "Gradina" built by the kings from the medieval Bosnian dynasty of Kotromanic.

eograph
Before the war in Bosnia the municipality of the same name had a bigger area surface. A larger part of the pre-war municipality is part of the Republika Srpska, including the city itself, (the Doboj Region). The southern rural areas are part of the Zenica-Doboj Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the eastern rural part of the municipality is part of the Tuzla Canton, also in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The parts of the pre-war Doboj Municipality that are in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the municipalities of Doboj South (Doboj Jug) and Doboj East (Doboj Istok) and the Municipality of Usora. The northern suburbs of Doboj are extending into the peri-Pannonian plains, and effectively mark the southern tip of this great Central European plain. The southern (Doboj-South)and eastern suburbs (Doboj-East) are spread on the gentle hills which extend to larger Central Bosnian mountain areas (Mt. Ozren in south-east, Mt. Krnjin in the west).

conomic
As a rail hub, before the Bosnian War, Doboj focused much of its industrial activities around it. Moreover, as a regional center, it was home to several factories, now mostly bankrupt from mismanagement or privatized, including "Bosanka Doboj", a fruit and vegetable product factory; "Trudbenik", a maker of air compressors and equipment, etc. Nowadays, most of the economy, similar to the rest of the country and typical of poorly executed transition from state-controlled to market economy, bases around the service industry. High unemployment warrants a vibrant coffee shop and bar scene, crowded throughout most of the day and night(it is commonly believed that Doboj is one of the top three cities having largest number of coffee bars/pubs within city limits in Bosnia & Herzegovina).

In 1981 Doboj"s GDP per capita was 53% of the Yugoslav average.

On the positive side, an approximately $800 million investment, due for ground braking during 2008 in the Stanari suburb, will start of with the building of an electrical power plant. Additionally, the $1 billion investments in the northern Modrica Oil Refinery are likely to increase railroad traffic.

ightlife/touris
The City of Doboj is very colorful and contrasted to the extremes, there are top notch urban cafes/bars sharing the garbage containers with the old-school towney pubs and restaurants. The place to start is Doboj fortress then Zanatski Centar, bar/club-infested neighborhood, which is located in Naselje Stadion (Stadium Village) in downtown Doboj. There are numerous cafe bars, clubs, restaurants, arcade saloons, and sports-betting joints in this relatively small urban oasis. Mixed mediterranean and European continental food, hard rock and metal concerts, turbo-folk rising stars, cevapcici & other oriental dishes, and all kinds of beer & other liquor(domestic and foreign) available. Magic Caffe, Orange bar, Corner Cafe, Time Out, City, Irish Pub, La Linea are just some of the must-see locales in this part of town.

Visit the club "Rupa" ("The Hole") by the city park and try to attend one of the beer-promo nights in the crowded atmosphere and stylish underground location (a former city amateur theater location). There is a large, ornate, discothèque/club "Dzungla" (The Jungle) located by the river Bosna for those who love Balkan-style ethno fury mixed with oriental and techno rhythms. Finally, end your night at the Club "Atlantic" in the old town and catch one of the worldwide-famous DJs spinning records almost every weekend there. Above the all, do not forget to visit the freshly-renovated medieval city castle (early 1200s) both during the day and at night before hitting the same bars once again, this time better prepared.

Best cultural performances are taking place on Doboj Fortress and Center for Culture Doboj. There is a famous festival of tourism called FEST-TOUR, traditionally held in the last days of June. On Doboj fortress you can visit Ethno shop/cafe, children playground, take a photo with knights and princess, see an exhibition of medieval weaponry, buy souvenirs and experience a medieval life for a few minutes.

ransportatio
The city is the region"s commanding railroad knot, going south to Ploče on the Adriatic Sea, west to Banja Luka and Zagreb, north to Vinkovci, Croatia, and east to Tuzla and Zvornik. The route of the future E-75 highway is supposed to pass through the Doboj area, and a separate highway toward western Banja Luka is in the planning stage.

ducatio
Doboj hosts the private Slobomir P University branch, with several colleges. Doboj also seats the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Technical School, as well as several specialized High Schools.

Sport
The local football club, FK Sloga Doboj, plays in the First League of the Republika Srpska. The town"s favourite sports activity, however, is team handball. It is being played by the local Sloga Doboj team. Sloga Doboj ranks among the country"s top teams and consistently qualifies for international competitions. Very importantly, Doboj traditionally hosts "The Annual Doboj International Champions" Handball Tournament" every year during the last days of August. The year 2009 will see its 41st tournament and once again, the best European handball teams will fight for the title of the Tournament"s Winner. The prestige of this EHF-listed tournament was consistently strong enough to attract the most important names in the European team handball over the past four decades such as: Barcelona, Grasshopper, Gummersbach, Ademar León, CSKA, Steaua, Dinamo Bucureşti, Atletico Madrid, Red Star, Metaloplastika, Partizan, Pelister, Nordhorn, Pick Szeged, Veszprém, Göppingen, d"Ivry and Chekhovski Medvedi.

otable places/events in Dobo
* The Doboj Fortress from the early 13th century, looking over the town. The grounds of the fortress have been renovated during 2006.
* A Roman military camp (Castrum) from 1st century AD (right above the confluence of the Usora and the Bosna rivers)
* The regional museum (Завичајни Музеј Добој or "Zavičajni Muzej Doboj")
* A monument dedicated to the Serb civilians died in the World War I Austro-Hungarian detention camp in Doboj
* The annual Doboj International TV Handball Tournament
* The Doboj Synagoge located close to the city center
* Dzungla (i.e., "The Jungle") swimming/aqua complex
* The old Austro-Hungarian Railway Station Building (oldest railway station in Bosnia/Herzegovina, built in 1878).
* Small Business Trade Fair DOBOJEXPO
* FEST-TOUR Festival of Tourism of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Western Balkans, late June.
* Cultural Summer on Doboj fortress (June, July, August)
* Gastro show "Dobojgastro" - February
* International Theater Fest - May

amous peopl
* Enis Beslagic, actor
* Silvana Armenulic, singer
* Igor Vukojevic, singer
* Nenad Markovic, basketball player
* Fahrudin Omerović, soccer player
* Vedran Ćorluka, soccer player
* Izet Sarajlić, historian

References


xternal link
* http://www.esiweb.org/index.php?lang=en&id=156&document_ID=100 - ESI report: A Bosnian Fortress. Return, energy and the future of Republika Srpska (19 December 2007)
* http://www.dobojcaffe.com - Sve o Doboju
* http://www.dobojlive.com
* http://www.mojdoboj.com
* http://www.doboj.net - Prvi ISP na području Dobojske regije
* http://www.bhtourism.ba/eng/doboj.wbsp
* http://www.doboj.com
* http://www.dobojskatvrdjava.rs.ba
* http://sajam.doboj.net
* http://www.doboj.eu




Category:Municipalities of Republika Srpska



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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 27.04.2018 01:02 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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