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Darmstadt

Germany, Darmstadt
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|PLZ = 64283–64297
|PLZ-alt = 6100
|Vorwahl = 06151, 06150
|Kfz = DA
|Gemeindeschlüssel = 06 4 11 000
|LOCODE = DE DAR
|Gliederung = 9 boroughs
|Adresse = Luisenplatz 564283 Darmstadt
|Website =
|Bürgermeister = Walter Hoffmann
|Bürgermeistertitel = Lord Mayor
|Partei = SPD
}}
The city as it looked in 1626.
The "Schlossplatz", a market square in front of the Ducal Palace around 1900. One of the few areas to survive in similar style after WWII.
Orangerie in Darmstadt - southern facade.

"Darmstadt" is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine Main Area.

The city of Darmstadt was founded by the Counts of Katzenelnbogen in 1330, though settlement in the area is known to have been present as early as the late 11th century. However, the sandy soils in the Darmstadt area, ill-suited for agriculture in times before industrial fertilisation,"Micronutrient Status in Two Long-Term Trials with Fertilisation Treatments and Different Cropp Systems" - Fischer, Meike et al., Institute for Biodynamic Research, Darmstadt prevented any larger settlement from develop, until the city became the seat of the Landgraves of Hessen-Darmstadt in the 16th century.

As the administrative centre of an increasly prosperous duchy, the city gained in prominence dur the follow centuries. In the 20th century, industry (especially chemicals) as well as large science and electronics (later information technology) sectors became increasly important, and are still a major part of the city"s economy. Darmstadt also has a large tertiary education sector, with three major universities and numerous associated institutions. (from the official city website. Accessed 2008-08-10.)

Darmstadt is one of few cities (as opposed to smaller towns) in Germany which does not lie close to a river, lake or coast. It can also boast be the sunniest city in the state of Hesse." (in German) - "Frankfurter Rundschau", 2006-08-16 The chemical element Darmstadtium (atomic number 110) is named after it, hav been synthetisized in the GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt-Arheilgen.

History
rigin

The name Darmstadt first appears towards the end of the 11th century, then "Darmundestat"; Literally translated, the current German name "Darmstadt" means "Intestine City". This is just a coincidence however, and the origins of the name are unknown. Even locals often believe, incorrectly, that the name derives from the "Darmbach" (a small stream formerly runn through the city). In fact the stream received its current name much later, after the city, not vice versa." - "Darmstaedter Echo", 2007-12-03, in German. Retrieved 2008-01-05.)

Darmstadt was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, belong to the counts of Katzenelnbogen. (from the official city website) The city, then called "Darmstait", became a secondary residence for the counts, with a small castle be established at the site of the current, much larger edifice.
(from the "Graf v. Katzenelnbogen" website, in German. Retrieved 2008-01-05.)

When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse, and was seat of the rul landgraves (1567-1806) and thereafter (to 1918) of the Grand Dukes of Hesse. (from the "Graf v. Katzenelnbogen" website, in German. Retrieved 2008-01-05.).

ndustrial ag
The city grew in population dur the 19th century from little over 10,000 to 72,000 inhabitants . A polytechnical school, which later became a Technical University now known as TU Darmstadt, was established in 1877.

In the beginn of the 20th century Darmstadt was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil, the German variant of Art Nouveau. Annual architectural competitions led to the build of many architectural treasures of this period. Also dur this period, in 1912 the chemist Anton Kollisch, work for the pharmaceutical company Merck, first synthesised the chemical MDMA (ecstasy) in Darmstadt. Darmstadt"s municipal area was extended in 1937 to include the neighbour localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, and in 1938 the city was separated administratively from the surround district ("Kreis").

azi German

Darmstadt was the first city in Germany to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany (dur this first incident, shops were only closed for a day, for "endanger communal order and tranquility")" - Musman, Moshe; from "Borne Aloft On The Ws Of A Dove" (in-depth feature on Dei"ah veDibur website) In 1942, over 3,000 Jews from Darmstadt were first forced into a collection camp located in the Liebigschule, and then later deported to concentration camps (from the official city website, in German, less detailed also in English) where most were eventually killed.

Some prominent members of the German resistance against the Nazis were citizens of Darmstadt (e.g. Wilhelm Leuschner and Theodor Haubach, both executed for their opposition to the regime).

Darmstadt"s old city centre was largely destroyed in a British bomb raid on Darmstadt on September 11, 1944 (Darmstadt had first been raided on July 30, 1940, one of 35 attacks to come). Dur this worst attack an estimated 11,000-12,500 inhabitants died, and 66,000-70,000 were rendered homeless. Over three quarters of Darmstadt"s inner city area was destroyed in the raid, (from the website of the Technical University of Darmstadt) lead to a relatively architecturally plain style of post-war rebuild.

ost-World War I

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Darmstadt became home to many technology companies and research institutes, and has been promot itself as a "city of science" since 1997. It is well known as a high-tech centre in the vicinity of Frankfurt Airport, with important activities in spacecraft operations (the European Space Operations Centre, European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites), chemistry, pharmacy, information technology, biotechnology, telecommunications (substantial Deutsche Telekom presence) and mechatronics. In 2000, its region also scored Rank 3 amongst 97 German regions in the "WirtschaftsWoche" test rank Germany"s high-tech regions.

The TU Darmstadt is one of the important technical institutes in Germany and is well known for its research and teach in the Electrical, Mechanical and Civil Engineer disciplines. Together with other tertiary institutions, the TU is responsible for the large student population of the city, which stood at 33,547 in 2004.

odern day
Transport


Darmstadt is relatively typical for German cities in terms of its transport system, with the car be the main, but not overwhelmly dominant mode of transport.

;Roads

Darmstadt is connected to the surround areas with a number of major roads, primarily access the areas to the north, west and south, includ two Autobahn links cross just west of the city as well as a Bundesstraße also runn north-south. The less settled areas east of the city in the Odenwald are accessed by several lower-hierarchy roads.

;Trains

Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof is its main train station, located at the western end of the central city and connects to the rest of Germany and Europe with the Intercity-Express network. There is also a much-utilised S-Bahn link north to Frankfurt am Main and a number of suburban train stations along the high-speed connections and lesser local rail links (two towards the east and into the Odenwald, for example) that still provide passenger services.

;Airports

Darmstadt has no airport with scheduled passenger services, with the historic role of such an airport hav long been taken over by the Frankfurt Airport not too far away.

A modern tram near the Schloss.
;Trams and buses

Darmstadt started in 1886 with a steam tram system, that later evolved (with a short period of also includ trolleybuses from 1944 to 1963) into a 36.2 km network by 2001. - "Tramways & Urban Transit", September 2001, via "lrta.info". Accessed 2009-01-26. Darmstadt had not scrapped this comparatively extensive network after World War II as many other cities did, though some links were decommissioned in the 1960s and 1970s and replaced by bus lines of which the city also has an extensive network.

However, the 2000s brought a major tram renaissance in Darmstadt (where further reduction of the system had by now long since been stopped), partly thought to have been due to new low-floor trams strongly increas patronage. A major new line was built to the Darmstadt-Kranichstein suburb, and track duplication and extension in Darmstadt-Arheilgen is ongo as of 2009. A line to Weiterstadt, a northwestern suburb, is also in advanced plann stages. Substantial parts of the track system were also upgraded and in some cases incorporated in major new beautification works, such as in front of the Hauptbahnhof or the Schloss.

uilds and attraction
The "Luisenplatz", main square of Darmstadt. Part of the Ducal Palace is visible in the rear right.
The "Wasserturm" (a former railway water tower), contains an art gallery and restaurant.

The ducal palace of Darmstadt is located in the city centre. It was the residence of the counts of Hesse-Darmstadt, later as Grand Dukes of Hesse by the grace of Napoleon. Its current look was established in the 18th century. The counts also owned a castle on the Langenberg above the city that was named Castle Frankenstein. This castle dates back to the 13th century, but it was acquired by the counts of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1662. Mary Shelley likely adopted the name for her novel "Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus" (1818). Before writ the story, she had travelled through the region and visited Eberstadt near the castle (today a borough of Darmstadt), so the inspiration was likely from here.

The "Luisenplatz", the largest square of the city, forms the centre of the city and is the main public transport hub. In 1844 the "Ludwigsäule" (called "Langer Lui", mean "Long Ludwig"), a 33-meter column commemorat Ludwig I, first Grand Duke of Hesse, was placed in the middle of the square. While the column still stands, the square is today surrounded by mostly modern builds. The other large city square is the "Marktplatz" (see image) near the old city hall, only several hundred meters away.

Surviv examples of the Jugendstil period include the Rosenhöhe, a landscaped English-style rose garden from the 19th century, recently renovated and replanted, (from the official city website) the Mathildenhöhe, (from the official city website) with the "Hochzeitsturm" ("Marriage tower", also commonly known as the "Five-Fer-Tower") by Joseph Maria Olbrich and the "Russian Chapel" and large exhibition halls as well as many private villas built by Jugendstil architects who had settled in Darmstadt. The Russian Chapel was built as a private chapel by the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, whose wife Alexandra was born in Darmstadt.

The Waldspirale ("Forest Spiral"), a residential complex by Austrian Friedensreich Hundertwasser, was built 1998–2000. An almost surreal build, it is internationally famous for its almost absolute rejection of rectangular forms, down to every window hav a different shape, the style be a trademark of Hundertwasser"s work.

The Botanischer Garten der TU Darmstadt is a botanical garden and arboretum contain a fine collection of rare trees.

Darmstadt"s central train station, Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof, built in 1912 is at the west end of the city. Both local and inter-city trains stop at the station. The station also serves as a stop for buses and streetcars. (private photo gallery)

Every year around early July the Heinerfest festival is held in the streets surround the old ducal palace. It is a traditional German festival with music acts, beer halls, amusement rides and booths sell trinkets and food. The similar "Schloßgrabenfest", which is more live music-oriented, is held in the same location every year in May.
These two festivals attract 700,000 (in German) and 400,000 (in German) visitors respectively.

nstitution

;Technology
The ESOC build.

Darmstadt is the site of the Darmstadt University of Technology, renowned for its engineer departments, and of the Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences. Related institutes are four Institutes of the Fraunhofer Society, and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI, "Society for Heavy Ion Research"), which operates a particle accelerator at its Wixhausen site.

The GSI, amongst other elements, discovered the chemical element Darmstadtium (atomic number: 110), named after the city in 2003. This makes Darmstadt one of only eight cities with an element named after it (the other cities be Ytterby in Sweden (four elements); Stockholm in Sweden (Holmium); Strontian in Scotland; Copenhagen in Denmark (whose Latin name gives Hafnium); Paris (whose Latin name gives Lutetium); Berkeley, California; and Dubna in Russia). Various other elements, includ Meitnerium (atomic number: 109) (1982), Hassium (atomic number: 108) (1984), Roentgenium (atomic number: 111) (1994) and Ununbium (atomic number: 112) (1996) were also synthesized in the Darmstadt facility.

The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency is located in Darmstadt, as is EUMETSAT, which operates meteorological satellites. Darmstadt is a centre for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, with Merck, Röhm and Schenck RoTec (part of The Dürr Group) hav their main plants and centres here.

;Culture

The "Jazz-Institut Darmstadt" is Germany"s largest publicly accessible Jazz archive. (official institute website)

The "Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt", harbor one of the world"s largest collections of post-war sheet music, (official institute website, in German) also hosts the biennial "Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik", a summer school in contemporary classical music founded by Wolfgang Steinecke. A large number of avant-garde composers have attended and given lectures there, includ Olivier Messiaen, Luciano Berio, Milton Babbitt, Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, John Cage, György Ligeti, Iannis Xenakis, Boris Porena, Karlheinz Stockhausen and Mauricio Kagel.

The "Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung" (German Academy for Language and Poetry) provides writers and scholars with a place to research the German language. (official academy website, in German) The Academy"s annual Georg Büchner Prize, named in memory of Georg Büchner, is considered the most prestigious literary award for writers of German language.

;United States Military presence

U.S. forces entered the city of Darmstadt on March 25, 1945. At the end of World War II, Darmstadt was among the 112 communities where U.S. Forces were stationed. Early units stationed here included elements of the U.S. Constabulary, Air Force units and a Quartermaster School.

Over the years, the U.S. military community Darmstadt — under a variety of designations — served as home for thousands of American soldiers and their families. It included six principal installations in Darmstadt and nearby Babenhausen, Griesheim and Münster, plus several hous areas, an airfield and a large number of smaller facilities as far away as Bensheim and Aschaffenburg. The military newspaper European "Stars and Stripes" also had its headquarters there. As of 1993, the Darmstadt military community also assumed responsibility for the remain U.S. Army facilities in the Frankfurt area.

As part of the U.S. Army"s ongo transformation in Germany, the Darmstadt military community, by then designated , inactivated on September 30, 2008. Even after the garrison inactivation, however, there are two units still in Darmstadt until new facilities are constructed for them elsewhere: The 66th Military Intelligence Group at the Dagger Complex on Eberstädter Weg, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency on Nathan Hale Depot. They draw their support from the nearby .

orough

Darmstadt has 9 official "Stadtteile" (boroughs). These are, alphabetically: ("Statistical overview", from the official city website, in German)

*Darmstadt-Arheilgen
*Darmstadt-Bessungen
*Darmstadt-Eberstadt

*Darmstadt-Kranichstein
*Darmstadt-Mitte ("Central")
*Darmstadt-Nord ("North")

*Darmstadt-Ost ("East")
*Darmstadt-West ("West")
*Darmstadt-Wixhausen


nternational relation

win towns / Sister citie
Darmstadt is twinned with: (from the official city website. Accessed 2008-08-11.)

* Alkmaar, Netherlands
* Brescia, Italy
* Bursa, Turkey
* Chesterfield, United Kdom
* Graz, Austria

* Gyönk (Tolna County), Hungary
* Liepaja, Latvia
* Logroño, Spain
* Płock, Poland
* Szeged, Hungary

* Trondheim, Norway "(since 1968)"
* Troyes, France
* Uzhhorod, Ukraine
* Saanen, Switzerland
* Freiberg, Germany


eference


xternal link

* (German, English, French)
* Darmstadt on Wikitravel





Category:Merck



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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 05.07.2022 08:24 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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|pop_date = 2008-12-31|pop_urban = 3700000|pop_metro = 5000000|elevation = 34 - 115|GDP = 81.7|GDP_year = 2007|Website = / |leader_title = Governing Mayor|leader = Klaus Wowereit|leader_party = SPD|ruling_party1 = SPD|ruling_party2 = Die Linke|votes
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