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Cyprus

Cyprus
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"Cyprus" (Greek "Κυπρος", Turkish "Kıbrıs", ) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey. After Sicily and Sardinia, Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Although the island is geographically in Asia it is politically a pean country and is a member of the pean Union.


Understand

Cyprus gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1960. Despite a constitution which guaranteed a degree of power-sharing between the Greek Cypriot majority and the Turkish Cypriot minority, the two populations – with backing from the governments of Greece and Turkey, respectively – clashed vehemently in 1974, with the end result being the occupation of the northern and eastern 40% of the island by Turkey. In 1983, the Turkish-held area declared itself the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus". So far, only Turkey recognizes the TRNC, while all other governments and the United Nations recognize only the government of the Republic of Cyprus over the whole island. The UN operates a peacekeeping force and a narrow buffer zone between the two Cypriot ethnic groups. Fortunately, open hostilities have been absent for some time, as the two sides (now with the growing involvement of the pean Union) gradually inch towards a reunification of some sort.

Climate

Temperate; Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters.

Terrain

Central plain with mountains to north and south; scattered but significant plains along southern coast.

Regions

Cyprus is divided into 6 administrative regions, each named for its administrative capital. Since 1974, the whole of Kyrenia district, most of Famagusta district, and the northern portion of Nicosia district are occupied by Turkish forces. The Turkish Cypriot community administers those areas. The Republic of Cyprus administers the following districts:



Cities

"Note that Cypriot cities have a variety of historical spellings and writings, all in fairly common use, and which change according to the context, whether it be Greek Cypriot, Turkish or English tourist. The following list emphasizes traditional English spellings, that will most often be encountered by the traveller."

*Nicosia (also "Nikosia", "Lefkosia" "Lefkosa") - the divided capital
*Larnaca "Larnaka"
*Limassol "Lemesos" "Limasol"
*Paphos "Pafos" "Baf"

Other destinations

*Akamas Peninsula
*Ayia Napa - in the far east of the Republic, considered by many to be the main party town of Cyprus
*Troodos Mountains
*Lefkara The Lace village,in the foothills of the Troodos Mountains, a charming little town with lots of character, in the heart of Cyprus.

Get in


By plane
Cyprus" main airport is "Larnaca International Airport (LCA)" and is on the outskirts of Larnaka.

The previous main international airport located SW of Nicosia is now located on the Green Line separating the Greek and Turkish parts of Cyprus - it has been out of use since 1974.

Cyprus is serviced by a variety of different carriers, the main one being the Cypriot "Cyprus Airways". There are flight connections with most major pean cities, e.g. London, Birmingham, Manchester, Frankfurt, Paris, Amsterdam, Rome, Milan) and many Eastern pean countries. Unfortunately almost all non-Cyprus Airways scheduled flights arrive and depart in the middle of the night (2/3 o"clock).
There are also connections to almost all Middle Eastern capitals.
There are no flights to Turkey from the south.

There are also charter flights to the western airport of Paphos.

By boat=
Occasional ferries connect Cyprus to Greece. Services to Israel and Egypt have been terminated for the time being; however, there are 2 and 3 day cruises running in the summer months from about April to October and they take passengers one way between Israel and Cyprus. These mini cruises also run to Syria, Lebanon, Rhodes, the Greek Islands, The Black Sea and The Adriatic.
The ferry service from Greece runs from Piraeus, Rhodes and Ayios Nikolaos in Crete to Limassol. See the itinerary here: You may also catch a freighter from Italy, Portugal, Southampton and various other pean ports. See Grimaldi Freighter Cruises providing you with the opportunity to bring a vehicle to Cyprus throughout the year.

There is a regular ferry service from Turkey, connecting Taşucu to Girne (north of Nicosia) .

Travelling to and from the north
Prior to Cyprus"s accession to pean Union, evidence of entry to Northern Cyprus resulted in denial of entry to the Greek part of Cyprus at the very least. After the accession, and according to legislation that considers Cyprus to have been admitted in full, an entry to the Turkish part is formally an entry to whole Cyprus and must therefore not result in any disadvantage to travellers from the . Travellers from non- member states (as, for instance, Turkish citizens) must enter the island via one of the legal entry points (i.e. entry points in the Southern part of the island) in order to visit the Southern part.

The Cyprus embassy in Washington on the phone (June 2006) when asked if the border is open to U.S. citizens, didn"t give a "No", but said that they recommend entering from the "legal" points in the Greek side.

Different entities and web pages claim different things. But there are recent (2006) examples of people entering Northen Cyprus from Turkey, crossing the border without any problems, although it was noticed when leaving Cyprus.

The main crossings between the south and north are:
*Astromerits/Zodhia (by car only)
*Agios Dometios/Kermia/Metehan
*Ledra Palace (by foot only) - the oldest crossing, just outside the walls of old Nicosia to the west of the city
*Pergamos/Beyarmudu
*Strovilia near Agios Nikolaos - located at the eastern part of the island
*Ledras Str. - the new crossing opened in 2008. Located at the old "dead-end" of the most popular street of Nicosia.

Get around
Public transportation in Cyprus has been revamped with all new buses in Nicosia. Still, most Cypriots drive. There are no railways in Cyprus.

By bus
Bus Routes all over Cyprus
Lefkosia: www.osel.com.cy

Lemesos: www.limassolbuses.com

Pafos: www.pafosbuses.com

Larnaka: www.zinonasbuses.com

Ammochostos: www.oseabuses.com

Intercity Routes: www.intercity-buses.com


By shared taxi
Services run every half-hour or so from 6 or 7 in the morning, but terminate at 5 or 6 PM on the dot. You can book a taxi to pick you up anywhere and ask to be dropped off anywhere in city limits; the flip side is that it will often take you longer to get in or out of the city than the journey itself! Figure on £4-6 for a taxi ride on any of these, with an increased price on Sundays and holidays. Also known as a service taxi.

By car
Car hire is the easiest (but the most expensive) way to get around the island. Cypriots drive on the "left" side of the road, in keeping with British and British Commonwealth practice. However, driving standards are "poor". Drivers attack their art with an equal mix of aggressiveness and incompetence and view road rules as mere guidelines. Some main roads do not even have road markings and people often sound their horn, especially in Nicosia. Take care when crossing the roads, and even greater care when driving on them.

Even in hot weather it is advisable to keep the drivers window of the car closed. This is because truck drivers often flick lit cigarette ends out of their windows. Although a long time has elapsed since the event the writer was warned of the danger. (a motorist was killed when he lost control after a lit cigarette end went in his eye)

See

*the many archaeological and antiquities sites scattered around the island, dating from the New Stone Age through to the Roman Empire
*the beautiful coastline of the island - still quite unspoilt in many places - is well worth exploring
*Nicosia, the capital as it has a wealth of history, preserved Venetian walls surrounding the city, some wonderful bars and restaurants within the old walls of the city and of course the "green line" - the dividing line with the Turkish part of Cyprus, which cuts through the centre of Nicosia, now the only divided capital
*the Troodos mountains, rising as high as 1952 metres, offering some beautiful trail walks and also quaint little villages such as Kakopetria, Platres and Phini. In winter there is the chance to ski there and the ski resort is being developed

Hamam Omerye, Nicosia

*Hamam Omerye in Nicosia, Cyprus is a 14th Century building restored to operate once again as a hammam for all to enjoy, relax and rejuvinate - it is indeed a place to rest. Dating back to French rule and located in the heart of Nicosia"s old town is Hamam Omerye - a true working example of Cyprus" rich culture and diversity, stone struggle, yet sense of freedom and flexibility. The site"s history dates back to the 14th century, when it stood as an Augustinian church of St. Mary. Stone-built, with small domes, it is chronologically placed at around the time of Frankish and Venetian rule, approximately the same time that the city acquired its Venetian Walls. In 1571, Mustapha Pasha converted the church into a mosque, believing that this particular spot is where the prophet Omer rested during his visit to Lefkosia. Most of the original building was destroyed by Ottoman artillery, although the door of the main entrance still belongs to the 14th century Lusignan building, whilst remains of a later Renaissance phase can be seen at the north-eastern side of the monument. In 2003, the funded a bi-communal UNDP/UNOPS project, "Partnership for the Future", in collaboration with Nicosia Municipality and Nicosia Master Plan, to restore the Hamam Omerye Bath, revitalising its spirit and sustaining its historical essence. The hamam is still in use today and after its recent restoration project, it has become a favourite place for relaxation in Lefkosia. In 2006 it received the pa Nostra prize for the Conservation of Architectural Heritage.

Do

Talk

The official languages of Cyprus are "Greek" and "Turkish". Greek is spoken predominately in the south and Turkish is spoken predominately in the north. "English" is very widely spoken by locals of all ages because of previous British rule. Other common languages spoken on the island are "French", "German" and "Russian".

Buy
Currency


If you have any old Cypriot pounds lying around, the Central Bank of Cyprus in Nicosia will exchange them at a rate of CYP 0.585274 per €1 until 2017.

Things to buy

*Cypriot wine - the iconic local variety known as "Commandaria" is strong, sweet and somewhat akin to Porto wine
*Lacework of an intricate nature - from the village of Lefkara.
*Zivania - is a strong spirit based alcoholic drink
*Leather goods such as shoes and handbags
* Jewellery

Eat
* Cypriot "meze" (appetizers akin to Spanish "tapas") are an art form, and some restaurant serve nothing but. Meze are available in a meat variety or fish variety but quite often come as a mixed batch, which is rather pleasing.
* "Halloumi" (Χαλλουμι) is a uniquely Cypriot cheese, made from a mix of cow"s and sheep"s milk. Hard and salty when raw, it mellows and softens when cooked and is hence often served grilled.
* "Taramosalata" is traditionally made out of "taramas", the salted roe of the cod or carp. The roe is either mixed with bread crumbs or mashed potatoes. Parsley, onion, lemon juice, olive oil and vinegar are added and it is seasoned with salt and pepper.
* "Tahini"

Sleep

There are countless hotels and hotel apartments of varying degrees of luxury within Cyprus.
Some of the hotels are: Holiday Inn, Four Seasons, Le Meridien, Hilton, Elias Beach Hotel.
Alternative self-catering accommodation is offered in restored traditional houses in picturesque villages all over Cyprus through the government Agrotourism initiative.

Work

Cyprus" climate and natural advantages mean that there is always a steady supply of travellers seeking employment and residency on the island. Perhaps the biggest change that has occurred in recent years has been the accession of southern Cyprus to the pean Union on 1 May 2004, opening up new employment opportunities for pean citizens.

The burgeoning Cypriot tourism industry, however, means that there is a huge seasonal demand for temporary workers of most nationalities during the summer months, with a definite preference for English-speaking workers in order to service the very large numbers of British tourists. The Greek Cypriot South remains the best overall bet for jobs, as the South is where the majority of the tourist trade is located. The Turkish North is much harder to get work in as a traveller, as the local economy is in a precarious position and high local unemployment means competition for work is fierce.

Seasonal employment will most probably involve working in one of the countless bars, hotels and resort complexes of the South. Such work is usually poorly paid, but accommodation is often thrown in as some compensation and the Cypriot lifestyle usually makes up for low wages. Many holiday companies employ "reps" (representatives) and marketing staff to assist their operations on the island - this work is usually more financially rewarding.

Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is another worthwhile option, well paid though often difficult to find.

Finally, Cyprus" ongoing construction boom in tourism infrastructure results in a demand for skilled builders and tradesmen.

Learn

If you are considering an extended stay on the island, there are a number of educational courses that you can take. Popular options include "Greek language" courses and "arts courses". Most will have a tuition fee attached, and nationals should not have any visa problems. If you are from outside the , you will need to speak to individual colleges/organisations about visa requirements.
Some popular "travel and learn" programmes include:

* "Theatre Cyprus - A Gap-Year Theatre Training Programme" , a Gap-Year drama programme that offers a 10 month course in Cyprus and also allows time to explore the surrounding continents (pe, North Africa and the Middle East).

* "Tekni Art" , also run a one year visual arts programme between September and July.

Cope

Electricity

Cyprus operates on a 230 V, 50 Hz electrical system using the 3-pin British plugs.

Stay safe

Cyprus is a remarkably safe country, with very little violent crime. Cars and houses frequently go unlocked. That said however, it is wise to be careful when accepting drinks from strangers, especially in Ayia Napa, since there have been numerous occasions of muggings. There also used to be some residual hostility towards people of Turkish origin or appearance but not anymore.

Note also that the numerous Cypriot "cabarets" are not what their name implies but rather brothels associated with organized crime.

Respect
It is best to avoid discussion of the various merits of the Greek-Turkish divide and events beginning in 1963 in some quarters. Any sully of Archbishop Makarios will be looked down upon.

Contact
*"Internet access" is increasingly available in tourist centres in the guise of internet cafes and side rooms equipped with monitors. Prices vary, so shop about. 2 pounds an hour seems average, but you can do better.Many cafes now offer free wi-fi access. Most hotels and resorts now offer internet access to their guests under various arrangements.






ca:Xipre
de:Zypern
eo:Kipro
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fi:Kypros
fr:Chypre
hu:Ciprus
it:Cipro
ja:キプロス
nl:Cyprus
pl:Cypr
pt:Chipre
ro:Cipru
ru:Кипр
sv:Cypern
wts:Category:Cyprus


WikiPedia:Cyprus
Dmoz:Middle East/Cyprus/
World66:asia/middleeast/cyprus
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