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Cyprus

Cyprus
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"Cyprus" (; , "Kýpros", ; , – officially the "Republic of" (, "Kypriakī́ Dīmokratía", ; , ); – is a Eurasian island country in the Eastern Mediterranean,Fouskas, V. 2002. . "Turkish Yearbook of International Relations" (ISSN: 0544-1943): Vol. 33, pp. 183–207; on p. 186: "he requirement is to decipher the parameters and the linkages of the balance of power in the Eurasian region, and in its Near Eastern subregion, to which belongs."Cyprus is approximate to Anatolia (Asia Minor) (which comprises the bulk of Turkey) but it may be considered to be in Asia and/or Europe, which together constitute Eurasia. The UN places in Western Asia; also places in Asia. Conversely, numerous sources place in Europe such as the BBC and ; it is also a member of the European Union. Additionally, sources may place in the Middle East, e.g., the CIA World Factbook. south of Turkey and west of Syria and Lebanon. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of its most popular tourist destinations.Invest in website – figures do not include tourism to the occupied North An advanced, high-income economy with a very high Human Development Index, the Republic of was a founding member of the until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004.

The earliest known human activity on the island dates back to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Choirokoitia (also known as Khirokitia), which has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, along with the Tombs of the Kings. is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world, and is the site of the earliest known example of feline domestication.Wade, Nicholas, ", "The New York Times", June 29, 2007 As a strategic ation in the Middle East,, " ; "CIA Atlas of the Middle East" (1993) (), "Xpeditions Altas", "National Geographic", "Britannica Online Encyclopedia", "MSN Encarta" has been occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Hittites, Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Rashiduns, Umayyads, Lusignans, Venetians and Ottomans. Settled by Mycenean Greeks in the 2nd millennium BC, the island also experienced long periods of Greek rule under the Ptolemies and the Byzantines. In 333 B.C., Alexander the Great took over the island from the Persians. The Ottoman Empire conquered the island in 1570 and it remained under Ottoman control for over three centuries. It was placed under British administration in 1878 until it was granted independence in 1960, (click on Historical review) becoming a member of the Commonwealth the following year.

In 1974, following 11 years of intercommunal violence and an attempted "coup d"état" by Greek Cypriot nationalists, Turkey invaded and occupied the northern portion of the island. The intercommunal violence and subsequent Turkish invasion led to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Cypriots and the establishment of a separate Turkish Cypriot political entity in the north. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of ongoing dispute.

The Republic of has "de jure" sovereignty over the entire island of and its surrounding waters except small portions, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, that are alated by treaty to the United Kingdom as sovereign military bases. The Republic of is "de facto" partitioned into two main parts; the area under the effective control of the Republic of, comprising about 59% of the island"s area, and the Turkish-occupied area in the north, calling itself the Turkish Republic of Northern, covering about 36% of the island"s area and recognized only by Turkey.
History
Etymology ===The etymology of the Greek name "Kypros" is unkn
Suggestions include
*the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree ("Cupressus sempervirens"), "κυπάρισσος" ("kypárissos")
*the Greek name of the henna plant ("Lawsonia alba"), "κύπρος" ("kýpros")
* an Eteocypriot word for copper. Georges Dossin, for example, suggests that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper ("zubar") or for bronze ("kubar"), from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island.

The earliest attested reference to "Cyprus" is the Mycenaean Greek "ku-pi-ri-jo", meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script., Word study tool of ancient languages

Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase "aes Cyprium", "metal of", later shortened to "Cuprum".Fisher, Fred H. "Cyprus: Our New Colony And What We Know About It". London: George Routledge and Sons 1878, pp. 13–14.
Cyprus, more specifically the shores of Paphos, was also one of the birthplaces of Aphrodite given in Greek mythology, who was known as "Kupria", since according to Phoenician mythology, Astarte, goddess of love and beauty, who was later identified with the Aphrodite.

The standard demonym relating to or its people or culture is "Cypriot". The terms "Cypriote" and "Cyprian" are also, less frequently, used.
Ancient times
The Neolithic archeological site at Choirokoitia.

The earliest confirmed site of human activity on is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC,Mithen, S. "After the Ice: A Global Human History, 20000 BC – 5000 BC." Boston: Harvard University Press 2005, p.97. with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants.The earliest prehistory of from colonization to exploitation,
ed. Swiny, Stuart, American Schools of Oriental Research, 2001, Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old.

Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with its human owner at a separate Neolithic site in. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilization and pushing back the earliest known feline-human association significantly. The remarkably well-preserved Neolithic village of Choirokoitia (also known as Khirokitia) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site dating to approximately 6800 BC.Simmons, A.H. "Faunal extinction in an island society: pygmy hippopotamus hunters of". New York: Springer 1999, p.15.

Temple to "Apollo Ilatis" outside the city of Limassol.

The island was part of the Hittite empire during the late Bronze Age until the arrival of two waves of Greek settlement.Thomas, Carol G. & Conant, C.: "The Trojan War", pages 121–122. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005. ISBN 0-313-32526-X, 9780313325267. The first wave consisted of Mycenaean Greek traders who started visiting around 1400 BC. A major wave of Greek settlement is believed to have taken place following the Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece in the period 1100–1050 BC, with the island"s predominantly Greek character dating from this period.Thomas, C.G., Conant, D. "The Trojan War." Santa Barbara, CA, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group 2005. p.64. occupies an important role in Greek mythology being the birthplace of Aphrodite and Adonis, and home to King Cinyras, Teucer and Pygmalion.Encyclopedia of Freemasonry Part 1 and Its Kindred Sciences Comprising the Whole Range of Arts … – Page 25 Beginning in the 8th century BC Phoenician colonies were founded on the south coast of, near present day Larnaca and Salamis.

Cyprus was ruled by Assyria for a century starting in 708 BC, before a brief spell under Egyptian rule and eventually Persian rule in 545 BC. The Cypriots, led by Onesilos, king of Salamis, joined their fellow Greeks in the Ionian cities during the unsuccessful Ionian Revolt in 499 BC against the Achaemenid Empire. The revolt was suppressed without bloodshed, although managed to maintain a high degree of autonomy and remained oriented towards the Greek world.

The island was brought under permanent Greek rule by Alexander the Great and the Ptolemies of Egypt following his death. Full Hellenization took place during the Ptolemaic period, which ended when was annexed by the Roman Republic in 58 BC.
Middle Ages
Portrait of Catherine Cornaro, Queen of.

When the Roman Empire was divided into Eastern and Western parts in 395, became part of the East Roman, or Byzantine Empire, and would remain part of it until the crusades some 800 years later. Under Byzantine rule, the Greek orientation that had been prominent since antiquity developed the strong Hellenistic-Christian character that continues to be a hallmark of the Greek Cypriot community. Beginning in 649, suffered from devastating raids launched from the Levant, which continued for the next 300 years. Many were quick piratical raids, but others were large-scale attacks in which many Cypriots were slaughtered and great wealth carried off or destroyed.

No Byzantine churches survive from this period, thousands of people were killed, and many cities – such as Salamis - were destroyed and never rebuilt. Byzantine rule was restored in 965, when Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas scored decisive victories on land and sea. In 1191, during the Third Crusade, Richard I of England captured the island from Isaac Komnenos ofRiddle, J.M. "A History of the Middle Ages." Lanham, MD, USA: Rowman & Littlefield 2008. p. 326. He used it as a major supply base that was relatively safe from the Saracens. A year later Richard sold the island to the Knights Templar, who, following a bloody revolt, in turn sold it to Guy of Lusignan. His brother and successor Amalric was recognized as King of by Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor.

Following the death in 1473 of James II, the last Lusignan king, the Republic of Venice assumed control of the island, while his Venetian widow, Queen Caterina Cornaro, reigned as figurehead. Venice formally annexed in 1489, following the abdication of Caterina. The Venetians fortified Nicosia by building the famous Venetian Walls, and used it as an important commercial hub. Throughout Venetian rule, the Ottoman Empire frequently raided. In 1539 the Ottomans destroyed Limassol and so fearing the worst, the Venetians also fortified Famagusta and Kyrenia.

During the almost four centuries of Latin rule, there existed two societies on. The first consisted of Frankish nobles and their retinue, as well as Italian merchants and their families. The second, the majority of the population, consisted of Greek Cypriots serfs and laborers. Although a determined effort was made to supplant native traditions and culture, the effort failed.
Ottoman Empire
Historical map of by Piri Reis.

In 1570, a full scale Ottoman assault with 60,000 troops brought the island under Ottoman control, despite stiff resistance by the inhabitants of Nicosia and Famagusta. 20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted., "U.S. Library of Congress" The previous Latin elite was destroyed and the first significant demographic change since antiquity took place when Ottoman Janissaries were settled on the island.

The Ottomans abolished the feudal system previously in place and applied the millet system to, under which non-Muslim peoples were governed by their own religious authorities. In a reversal from the days of Latin rule, the head of the Church of was invested as leader of the Greek Cypriot population and acted as mediator between Christian Greek Cypriots and the Ottoman authorities. Ottoman rule of was at times indifferent, at times oppressive, depending on the temperaments of the sultans and al officials, and during this period the island fell into economic decline.

Reaction to Ottoman misrule led to uprisings by both Greek and Turkish Cypriots, although none were successful. By 1872, the population of the island had risen to 144,000 comprising 44,000 Muslims and 100,000 Christians."Osmanli Nufusu 1830–1914" by Kemal Karpat, ISBN 975-333-169-X and "Die Völker des Osmanischen" by Ritter zur Helle von Samo. Centuries of neglect by the Turks, the unrelenting poverty of most of the people, and the ever-present tax collectors fuelled Greek nationalism, and by 19th century the idea of "enosis", or union, with newly independent Greece was firmly rooted among Greek Cypriots.
British Empire
Flag of under the British colonial rule.

In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), administration, but not sovereignty, of the island was ceded to the British Empire in 1878 in exchange for guarantees that Britain would use the island as a base to protect the Ottoman Empire against possible Russian aggression. The island would serve Britain as a key military base in its colonial routes. By 1906, when the Famagusta harbour was completed, was a strategic naval outpost overlooking the Suez Canal, the crucial main route to India which was then Britain"s most important colony. Following the outbreak of The First World War and the entry of the Ottoman Empire on the side of the Central powers, Great Britain formally annexed the island in 1914.

In 1915, Britain offered to Constantine I of Greece on condition that Greece join the war on the side of the British, which he declined. In 1923, under the Treaty of Lausanne, the nascent Turkish republic relinquished any claim to and in 1925 it was declared a British Crown Colony. Many Greek Cypriots fought in the British Army during both World Wars, in the hope that would eventually be united with Greece. During the Second World War many enlisted in the Regiment.

In January 1959, the Church of organized a referendum, which was boycotted by the Turkish Cypriot community, where over 90% voted in favor of "enosis", meaning union with Greece. Restricted autonomy under a constitution was proposed by the British administration but eventually rejected. In 1955 the EOKA organisation was founded, seeking independence and union with Greece through armed struggle. At the same time the TMT, calling for Taksim, or partition, was established by the Turkish Cypriots as a counterweight. Turmoil on the island was met with force by the British.
Independence ===The first president of Makarios

On August 16, 1960, attained independence after the Zürich and London Agreement between the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey. The UK retained the two Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia while government posts and public offices were alated by ethnic quotas giving the minority Turks a permanent veto, 30% in parliament and administration, and granting the 3 mother-states guarantor rights.

In 1963 inter-communal violence broke out, partially sponsored by both "motherlands" with Turkish Cypriots being forced into enclaves and Cypriot President Archbishop Makarios III calling for unilateral constitutional changes as a means to ease tensions over the whole island. The United Nations was involved and the United Nations forces in (UNFICYP) deployed at flash points.

In 1964, Turkey attempted to intervene in in response to the ongoing Cypriot intercommunal violence, but was stopped by a strongly worded telegram from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson on June 5, 1964; who warned that the United States would not stand beside Turkey in case of a consequential Soviet invasion of Turkish territory.
Contemporary era
Greek Cypriot prisoners taken to turkish military camps.

Following a coup d"état engineered by the Greek Junta, Turkey launched a full-scale military invasion of the island in 1974. The Turkish air force began bombing Greek positions on, hundreds of paratroops were dropped in the area between Nicosia and Kyrenia, where well-armed Turkish Cypriot enclaves had been long-established, while off the Kyrenia coast 30 Turkish troop ships protected by destroyers landed 6,000 men as well as tanks, trucks, and armored vehicles.

Three days later, when a ceasefire had been agreed, Turkey had landed 30,000 troops on the island and captured Kyrenia, the corridor linking Kyrenia to Nicosia, and the Turkish-Cypriot quarter of Nicosia. The junta in Athens, and then the Sampson regime in fell from power. In Nicosia Glafkos Clerides assumed the presidency and constitutional order was restored; ostensibly removing the pretext the Turks gave for the invasion. The Turks used a period of negotiations to reinforce their Kyrenia bridgehead and prepare for the second phase of the invasion, which began on 14 August and resulted in the seizure of Morphou, Karpasia, Ammochostos and the Mesaoria. The Greek forces were unable to resist the Turkish advance.

International pressure led to a ceasefire at which point 37% of the island had been taken over by the Turks and 180,000 Greek Cypriots were evicted from their homes in the north. At the same time, around 50,000 Turkish Cypriots moved to the areas under the control of the Turkish Forces and settled in the properties of the displaced Greek Cypriots.
In mid-1975, the United States Congress amongst a variety of sanctions against Turkey, imposed an arms embargo on Turkey for using American-supplied equipment during the Turkish invasion of in 1974.

In 1983 Turkish Cypriots proclaimed the Turkish Republic of Northern which is recognised only by Turkey.
As of today, there are 1,534 Greek Cypriots and 502 Turkish Cypriots missing as a result of the fighting. The events of the summer of 1974 dominate the politics on the island, as well as Greco-Turkish relations. Around 150,000 settlers from Turkey are believed to be living in the north in violation of the Geneva Convention and various UN resolutions. Following the invasion and the capture of its northern territory by Turkish troops, the Republic of announced that all of its ports of entry in the north are closed, as they are effectively not under its control.

The last major effort to settle the dispute was the Annan Plan. It gained the support of the Turkish Cypriots but was rejected by the Greek Cypriots, who perceived the Annan Plan to be both unbalanced and excessively pro-Turkish.

In July 2006, the island served as a safe haven for people fleeing Lebanon because of the conflict between Israel and Hezbollah.

In March 2008, a wall that for decades had stood at the boundary between the Greek Cypriot controlled side and the UN buffer zone was demolished. The wall had cut across Ledra Street in the heart of Nicosia and was seen as a strong symbol of the island"s 32-year division. On 3 April 2008, Ledra Street was reopened in the presence of Greek and Turkish Cypriot officials.. Associated Press article published on International Herald Tribune Website, 3 April 2008
Geography
Topographic image of.

Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean (after the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia) and the world"s 81st largest. It measures 240 kilometers long from end to end and 100 km wide at its widest point, with Turkey 75 km to the north. Other neighbouring territories include Syria and Lebanon to the east (105 km and 108 km, respectively), Israel 200 km to the southeast, Egypt 380 km to the south, and Greece to the northwest: 280 km to the small Dodecanesian island of Kastellórizo (Meyísti), 400 km to Rhodes, and 800 km to the Greek mainland.

The physical relief of the island is dominated by two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains and the smaller Kyrenia Range, and the central plain they encompass, the Mesaoria. The Troodos Mountains cover most of the southern and western portions of the island and account for roughly half its area. The highest point on is Mount Olympus at , ated in the center of the Troodos range. The narrow Kyrenia Range, extending along the northern coastline, occupies substantially less area, and elevations are lower, reaching a maximum of .

Geopolitically, the island is subdivided into four main segments. The Republic of, the internationally recognized government, occupies the southern two-thirds of the island (59.74%). The Turkish Republic of Northern occupies the northern third (34.85%) of the island and is recognized only by Turkey, as it consists of the Turkish-occupied areas. The United Nations-controlled Green Line is a buffer zone that separates the two and covers 2.67% of the island. Lastly, two bases under British sovereignty are ated on the island: Akrotiri and Dhekelia, covering the remaining 2.74%.


File:Troodos snow.jpg|Troodos mountains in winter
File:Fig tree agia napa.jpg|Ayia Napa
File:Akamas Peninsula.jpg|Akamas natural park
File:Corn-cyprus hg.jpg|Cyprus countryside
File:Madari winter 2.JPG|Troodos in winter

Biodiversity

One of the unique features of" habitats is the wild and sharp differences in elevations and habitats in different parts of the island as well as different climate conditions, all of which supply a diverse habitat for a unique array of fauna and flora. The number of plant species and sub-species of wild plant in is possibly in the thousands, many of them being endemic. Wildlife can be seen in Troodos mountains, Larnaca salt lake, Akrotiri salt lake and undoubtedly Akamas national park.
Cyprus is home to moufflon which is a national symbol of the country. Moufflon is protected and can be seen in Paphos forests towards branches of Troodos Mountain


File:Cyprus wild mouflon Agrino.jpg|Cyprus wild mouflon is a unique mammal of the island
File:Long Eared hedgehog.jpg|Long-eared Hedgehog
File:StripedDolpin.jpg|Striped Dolphin
File:Streptopelia decaocto zoom.jpg|Dove
File:Lesser-flamingos.jpg|Flamingos

Climate
Cyprus has a Subtropical climate - Mediterranean and Semi-arid type (in the north-eastern part of island) - according to Köppen climate classification signes "Csa" and "Bsh", "(direct: )" - Geographic ation with very mild winters (on the coast) and warm to hot summers. Snow is possible only in the Troodos mountains in the central part of island. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. Also, coastal of is one of the few places in Europe which are "green" all year round.

Cyprus has the warmest climate (and warmest winters) in the Mediterranean part of the European Union. The average annual temperature on the coast is around during the day and at night. Generally – summer"s/holiday season lasts about 8 months, begins in April with average temperatures of during the day and at night, ends in November with average temperatures of during the day and at night, although also in remaining 4 months temperatures sometimes exceeds . Among all cities in the Mediterranean part of the European Union, Limassol has the warmest winters, in the period January–February average temperature is during the day and at night, in other coastal ations in is generally during the day and at night. In March and December in Limassol average temperatures is during the day and at night, in other coastal ations in is generally during the day and at night. Middle of summer is hot - in the July and August on the coast the average temperature is usually around during the day and around at night (inside the island, in the highlands average temperature exceeds ) while in the June and September on the coast the average temperature is usually around during the day and around at night. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare. Temperatures inside the island are more stringent, with colder winters and more hot summers compared with the coast of the island.

Average annual temperature of sea is , from in February to in August (depending on the ation). In total 7 months - from May to November - the average sea temperature exceeds .

Sunshine hours on the coast is around 3,400 per year, from average 5–6 hours of sunshine / day in December to average 12–13 hours in July. This is about double that of cities in the northern half of Europe, for comparison: London - 1,461, however in winter up to some times more sunshine, for comparison: London has 37 hours while coastal ations in has around 180 hours of sunshine in December (that is, as much as in May in London).
Water supply ===Kouris dam is the largest of a network of 108 dams

Cyprus is suffering from an ongoing shortage of water. The country relies heavily on rain to provide household water and for many years now, the average annual rainfall seemed to be falling. Between 2001 and 2004, exceptionally heavy annual rainfall pushed water reserves up, with supply exceeding demand, allowing total storage in the island"s reservoirs to rise to an all time high by the start of 2005.
However, since then demand has d annually - a result of al population growth, foreigners reating to and the number of visiting tourists - while supply has fallen. has a total of 108 dams and reservoirs, with a total water storage capacity of about 330,000,000 m3. Dams remain the principal source of water both for domestic and agricultural use. Water desalination plants are gradually being constructed in order to deal with recent years of prolonged drought.
The Government has invested heavily in the creation of water desalination plants which have supplied almost 50 percent of domestic water since 2001. Efforts have also been made to raise public awareness of the situation and to encourage domestic water users to take more responsibility for the conservation of this increasingly scarce commodity.
Politics

Cyprus is a Presidential republic. The head of state and of the government is elected by a process of Universal suffrage for a five-year term. Executive power is exercised by the government with legislative power vested in the House of Representatives whilst the Judiciary is independent of both the executive and the legislature.
The Presidential Palace (Residence) in Nicosia.
The 1960 Constitution provided for a presidential system of government with independent executive, legislative and judicial branches as well as a complex system of checks and balances including a weighted power-sharing ratio designed to protect the interests of the Turkish Cypriots. The executive was led by a Greek Cypriot president and a Turkish Cypriot vice president elected by their respective communities for five-year terms and each possessing a right of veto over certain types of legislation and executive decisions. Legislative power rested on the House of Representatives who were also elected on the basis of separate voters" rolls.

Following clashes between the two communities the Turkish Cypriot seats in the House remain vacant since 1965. Turkish Cypriots refused to establish the state of affairs before the invasion of as is evident in the Secretary-General of the United Nations who said "The Turkish Cypriot leaders have adhered to a rigid stand against any measures which might involve having members of the two communities live and work together, or which might place Turkish Cypriots in situations where they would have to acknowledge the authority of Government agents. Indeed, since the Turkish Cypriot leadership is committed to physical and geographical separation of the communities as a political goal, it is not likely to encourage activities by Turkish Cypriots which may be interpreted as demonstrating the merits of an alternative policy. The result has been a seemingly deliberate policy of self-segregation by the Turkish Cypriots"Quotation from 1965 in a report submitted by in the framework of the Convention for the Protectino of Mational Minorities citing , 10 June 1965 By 1974 the two communities had returned to a more tolerant state of living.

In 1974 was divided "de facto" into the Greek Cypriot controlled southern two-thirds of the island and the Turkish controlled northern third. The Turkish Cypriots subsequently declared independence in 1983 as the Turkish Republic of Northern but were recognized only by Turkey. In 1985 the TRNC adopted a constitution and held its first elections. The United Nations recognises the sovereignty of the Republic of over the entire island of.

The House of Representatives currently has 59 members elected for a five year term, 56 members by proportional representation and 3 observer members representing the Armenian, Latin and Maronite minorities. 24 seats are alated to the Turkish community but remain vacant since 1964. The political environment is dominated by the communist AKEL, the liberal conservative Democratic Rally, the centrist Democratic Party, the social-democratic EDEK and the centrist EURO.KO.
On 17 February 2008 Dimitris Christofias of the AKEL was elected President of, on AKEL"s first electoral victory without being part of a wider coalition. is currently one of only two countries in the world to have a democratically elected communist government (the other being Nepal), and the only European Union member state under communist leadership. Christofias took over government from Tassos Papadopoulos of the Democratic Party who had been in office since February 2003.
Administrative divisions
The Republic of is divided into six districts: Nicosia, Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol and Paphos.


Exclaves and enclaves ===Episkopi Cantonment in southern p

Cyprus has four exclaves, all in territory that belongs to the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia. The first two are the villages of Ormidhia and Xylotymvou. The third is the Dhekelia Power Station which is divided by a British road into two parts. The northern part is an exclave, like the two villages, whereas the southern part is ated by the sea and therefore not an exclave although it has no territorial waters of its own.

The UN buffer zone runs up against Dhekelia and picks up again from its east side off Ayios Nikolaos and is connected to the rest of Dhekelia by a thin land corridor. In that sense the buffer zone turns the Paralimni area on the southeast corner of the island into a "de facto", though not "de jure", exclave.
Foreign relations
Cyprus president Dimitris Christofias and first lady with U.S. President Barack Obama and Michelle Obama.

The island nation is member of: Australia Group, CN, CE, CFSP, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ITUC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO.
Human rights ===The constant focus on the division of the island can sometimes mask other human rights issues. Prostitution is rife in both the government-controlled and the Turkish-controlled regions leading to the government being criticised for its lack of controls and for the role of in the sex trade as one of the main destinations for human trafficking from Eastern Europe. The Turkish-controlled regime has been the focus of occasional freedom of speech criticisms regarding heavy-handed treatment of newspaper editors. A Class Action has been filed by Tsimpedes Law in Washington DC against Turkey, and the Turkish-occupation regime in the northern part of, for "the denial of access to and enjoyment of land and property held in the north". The Class Action lawsuit, initiated by Greek Cypriot refugees from the Turkish invasion of in 1974, has been joined by Sandra Kocinski, Pat Clarke and Suz Latchford who paid for but have never been given legal title to the villas that they purchased in the northern part of the island. , 17 January 2010, NorthCyprusDaily

Domestic violence legislation remains largely unimplemented and mistreatment of domestic staff, mostly immigrant workers from developing countries, are sometimes reported in the Cypriot press and are the subject of several campaigns by the anti-racist charity KISA.
Military
Soldiers of Cypriot National Guard marching in Rome.

The Cypriot National Guard is the main military institution of the Republic of. It is a combined arms force, with land, air and naval elements. The National Guard is a required 26 month service for all men upon completing their 18th birthday.The land forces of the Cypriot National Guard comprise the following units:
*First Infantry Division (Ιη Μεραρχία ΠΖ)
*Second Infantry Division (ΙΙα Μεραρχία ΠΖ)
*Fourth Infantry Brigade (ΙVη Ταξιαρχία ΠΖ)
*Twentieth Armored Brigade (ΧΧη ΤΘ Ταξιαρχία)
*Third Support Brigade (ΙΙΙη Ταξιαρχία ΥΠ)
*Eighth Support Brigade (VIIIη Ταξιαρχία ΥΠ)

The air force includes the 449th Helicopter Gunship Squadron (449 ΜΑΕ) – operating SA-342L and Bell 206 and the 450th Helicopter Gunship Squadron (450 ME/P) – operating Mi-35P, BN-2B and PC-9. Current Senior officers include Supreme Commander, Cypriot National Guard: Lt. Gen. Konstantinos Bisbikas, Deputy Commander, Cypriot National Guard: Lt. Gen. Savvas Argyrou and Chief of Staff, Cypriot National Guard: Maj. Gen. Gregory Stamoulis.
Economy
The city of Limassol is a major port and touristic hub in the Mediterranean.

The Cypriot economy is prosperous and has diversified in recent years. According to the latest IMF estimates, its per capita GDP (adjusted for purchasing power) at $28,381 is just above the average of the European Union.List of countries by future GDP (PPP) per capita estimates has been sought as a base for several offshore businesses for its highly developed infrastructure.
Economic policy of the government has focused on meeting the criteria for admission to the European Union. The Cypriot government adopted the euro as the national currency on 1 January 2008.
Oil has recently been discovered in the seabed between and Egypt and talks are underway between Lebanon and Egypt to reach an agreement regarding the exploration of these resources. The seabed separating Lebanon and is believed to hold significant quantities of crude oil and natural gas. However the government of states that the Turkish Navy doesn"t allow the exploration of oil in the region.

Cyprus has been part of the Eurozone since 2008.

The economy of the Turkish-occupied areas operates on a free-market basis although it continues to be handicapped by the lack of private and public investment, high freight costs and shortages of skilled labor. Despite these constraints the economy turned in an impressive performance in 2003 and 2004 with growth rates of 9.6% and 11.4%. The average income in the area was $15,984 (S₣16,289) in 2008., TRNC State Planning Organization. Growth has been buoyed by the relative stability of the Turkish new lira and by a boom in the education and construction sectors.
The island has witnessed a massive growth in tourism over the years and as such the property rental market in has grown alongside.
Added to this is the capital growth in property that has been created from the demand of incoming investors and property buyers to the island.
Ayia Napa
In, the euro was introduced in 2008. Three different designs were selected for the Cypriot coins. The designs were chosen from entrants in a competition in 2005.

The €2 (S₣2.59) coin is a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins.

To commemorate this event, a €5 (S₣6.48) collector coin was also issued. Unlike normal issues these coins are not legal tender in all of the eurozone and so cannot be used in any other country but.
Transport
A map showing the main roads of.
Larnaca International Airport.
Cruise ship in Limassol.
Cyprus has a full bus network.

Available modes of transport are by road, sea, and air. Of the of roads in the government controlled area as of 1998, were paved, and were unpaved. As of 1996 the Turkish occupied area had a similar ratio of paved to unpaved, with approximately of paved road and unpaved. is one of only four EU nations in which vehicles drive on the left-hand side of the road, a remnant of British colonisation, the others being Ireland, Malta and the United Kingdom.

"Motorways"

* A1 Nicosia to Limassol
* A2 connects A1 near Pera Chorio with A3 by Larnaca
* A3 Larnaca to Agia Napa
* A5 connects A1 near Kofinou with A3 by Larnaca
* A6 Pafos to Limassol
* A9 Nicosia to Astromeritis



In 1999, had six heliports and two international airports: Larnaca International Airport and Paphos International Airport. Nicosia International Airport has been closed since 1974 and although Ercan airport was still in use it was only for flights from Turkey.

Public transport in is limited to privately run bus services (except in Nicosia), taxis, and interurban "shared" taxi services (referred to ally as "service taxis"). Per capita private car ownership is the 5th highest in the world. In 2006 extensive plans were announced to improve and expand bus services and restructure public transport throughout, with the financial backing of the European Union Development Bank. The main harbours of the island are "Limassol harbour" and "Larnaca harbour", which service cargo, passenger, and cruise ships.
Communications
Cyta, the state-owned telecommunications company, manages most Telecommunications and Internet connections on the island. However, following the recent liberalisation of the sector, a few private telecommunications companies have emerged including MTN, Cablenet, TelePassport, OTEnet Telecom, Omega Telecom and PrimeTel. In the Turkish-controlled area of, three companies are also present. These are Turkcell, Vodafone and Turk Telekom.
Demographics
Ethnographic map of prior to the 1974 Turkish invasion.
Population growth (numbers for the entire island, excluding in recent years some 150,000 Turkish immigrants residing in Northern).
Population structure.

According to the first population census after the declaration of independence, carried out in December 1960 and covering the entire island, had a total population of 573,566, with ethnic Greeks comprising 77% of the island"s population and ethnic Turks 18% (other nationals accounted for the remaining 5%)., Library of Congress, Washington, DC, 1991. According to the last census covering the entire island (April 1973), the population of was 631,778 with the ethnic Turkish community estimated at 19% of the total (about 120,000).
, Republic of, Statistical Service, Report No. 53 The subsequent censuses conducted in 1976–2001 after the de facto division of the island covered only the population in the area controlled by the Republic of government, and the number of Turkish Cypriots residing in Northern was estimated by the Republic of Statistical Service on the basis of population growth rates and migration data. In the last census of 2001 carried out by the Republic of, the population in the area controlled by the government was 703,529. The number of Turkish Cypriots residing in Northern was estimated by the Republic of Statistical Service at 87,600.

The latest available estimates by the Republic of Statistical Service put the island’s population at the end of 2006 at 867,600 in the government controlled area and 88,900 Turkish Cypriots in Northern. However, the Republic of estimate of Turkish Cypriots does not represent the total population of Northern. In addition, the Republic of Statistical Service also estimated that 150,000–160,000 Turkish immigrants (described as “illegal settlers” in the Republic of "Statistical Abstract 2007", footnote on p. 72) were living in Northern, bringing the de facto population of Northern to about 250,000.

It is traditionally accepted that Greek Cypriots form 80%, Turkish Cypriots 18% (not including Turkish settlors), and Christian minorities (including Maronites, Latin Catholic and Armenians) 2% of the Cypriot population.

According to the 2006 census carried out by Northern, there were 256,644 (de jure) people living in the North. 178,031 were TRNC citizens, of which 147,405 were-born (112,534 from the North; 32,538 from the South; 371 did not indicated what part of they were from); 27,333 Turkey-born; 2,482 UK-born and 913 Bulgaria-born. Of the 147,405-born TRNC citizens, 120,031 have both parents born in; 16,824 have both parents born in Turkey; 10,361 have one parent born in Turkey and the other parent born in. The total population of is thus slightly over 1 million, comprising 778,700 in the territory controlled by the government of the Republic of and 265,100 in Northern.

Outside there is a significant and thriving Cypriot diaspora in other countries, with the United States, the United Kingdom, Greece and Australia hosting the majority of migrants who left the island after the de facto division in 1974. The Cypriot population of the United Kingdom is estimated to number 150,000.

Pyla village in Larnaca District is the only settlement in Cypriot government-controlled territory with a mixed Greek and Turkish Cypriot population.

Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in : J (43.07% including 6.20% J1), E1b1b (20.00%), R1 (12.30% including 9.2% R1b), F (9.20%), I (7.70%), K (4.60%), A (3.10%).(n=65), , Capelli et al. 2005 J, K, F and E1b1b haplogroups consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe while R1 and I are typical in West European populations.
Religion


Almost all Greek Cypriots are members of the autocephalous Greek Orthodox Church of, whereas most Turkish Cypriots are adherents of Sunni Islam. According to Eurobarometer 2005, is one of the most religious countries in the European Union, alongside Malta, Romania, Greece, and Poland. The first President of, Makarios III, was an archbishop.




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Given the special legal status of the Church of, the country is also one of only six EU states to have an established state church, alongside Finland (Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church and Finnish Orthodox Church), Denmark (Danish National Church), Greece (Church of Greece), Malta (Roman Catholic Church) and the United Kingdom (Church of England (only in England)). In addition to the Greek Orthodox and Muslim communities, there are also small Hindu, Sikh, Bahá"í, Jewish, Protestant (including Pentecostal), Catholic (including Latin Rite and Maronite) and Armenian Apostolic communities in.

Hala Sultan Tekke, situated near the Larnaca Salt Lake, is considered by some secular orientalists as the third holiest site in Sunni Islam Cited by: , "University of Arizona: Center for Middle Eastern Studies", "The Mosque of Umm Haram is the chief Muslim shrine on the island of and an important holy site for the entire Muslim world... The Hala Sultan Tekke is the third most revered site of pilgrimage in the Muslim world." Retrieved: 23-02-2009Papalexandrou, Nassos. , "Journal of Modern Greek Studies", Volume 26, Number 2. Johns Hopkins University Press, (October 2008) pp. 251–281. "Der Parthog calls it the "third most holy space in Islam" (1995:222–223)" southwest of Larnaca. It is the main Muslim pilgrimage site of and the third most important holy place of Islam."
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and an object of pilgrimage for both Muslims and Christians.", A Virtual Reconstruction of the Hala Sultan TekkePapalexandrou, Nassos, ", Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Volume 26, Number 2, October 2008, pp. 251–281

The current leader of the Greek Orthodox Church of is Archbishop Chrysostomos II. He is known for his right-wing nationalist views, branding eg. illegal immigrants as "‘interlopers’ who do not belong on the island" and admits espousing several other political ideas of" National People’s Front (ELAM), a fanatical movement whose members wear black uniforms and whose literature is being investigated for violating anti-racism laws. http://www.cyprus-mail.com/religion/our-view-archbishop-purposely-stoking-culture-racism/20101229 http://www.trncpio.org/trncpio/en/index.asp?sayfa=haberdetay&newsid=899
Languages ===The country has two official languages: Greek and Turkish, although Turkish is used only in Northern. In addition to these languages - according the Eurobarometer by European Commission - 76% of the population of speak English, 12% speak French, and 5% speak German.,
Education

University of modern facilities.
Faneromeni School, the oldest functioning all-girl primary school in.

Cyprus has a highly developed system of primary and secondary education offering both public and private education. The high quality of instruction can be attributed to a large extent to the above-average competence of the teachers but also to the fact that nearly 7% of the GDP is spent on education which makes one of the top three spenders of education in the EU along with Denmark and Sweden.

State schools are generally seen as equivalent in quality of education to private-sector institutions. However, the value of a state high-school diploma is limited by the fact that the grades obtained account for only around 25% of the final grade for each topic, with the remaining 75% assigned by the teacher during the semester, in a minimally transparent way. Cypriot universities (like universities in Greece) ignore high school grades almost entirely for admissions purposes. While a high-school diploma is mandatory for university attendance, admissions are decided almost exclusively on the basis of scores at centrally administered university entrance examinations that all university candidates are required to take.

The majority of Cypriots receive their higher education at Greek, British,Turkish, other European and North American universities. It is noteworthy that currently has the highest percentage of citizens of working age who have higher-level education in the EU at 30% which is ahead of Finland"s 29.5%. In addition 47% of its population aged 25–34 have tertiary education, which is the highest in the EU. The body of Cypriot students is highly mobile, with 78.7% studying in a university outside.
Culture ======Art ===Aphrodite; Greek goddess of love, beauty and sexuality is said to be born

The art history of can be said to stretch back up to 10,000 years, following the discovery of a series of Chalcolithic period carved figures in the villages of Khoirokoitia and Lempa and the island is also the home to numerous examples of high quality religious icon painting from the Middle Ages. Cypriot architecture was heavily influenced by French Gothic and Italian renaissance introduced in the island during the era of Latin domination (1191-1571).

In modern times Cypriot art history begins with the painter Vassilis Vryonides (1883–1958) who studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice.Chrysanthos Christou, "A short History of Modern and Contemporary Cypriot Art," Nicosia 1983. Arguably the two founding fathers of modern Cypriot art were Adamantios Diamantis (1900–1994) who studied at London"s Royal College of Art and Christopheros Savva (1924–1968) who also studied in London, at St Martins School of Art.Ministry of Education and Culture, "State Gallery of Contemporary Cypriot Art" (Nicosia: MOEC,1998) In many ways these two artists set the template for subsequent Cypriot art and both their artistic styles and the patterns of their education remain influential to this day. In particular the majority of Cypriot artists still train in EnglandMichael Paraskos, "The Art of Modern", in "Sunjet," Spring 2002, 62f although art schools in Greece are also popular and al art institutions such as the College of Art, University of Nicosia and the Frederick Institute of Technology are becoming more popular.

One of the features of Cypriot art is a tendency towards figurative painting although conceptual art is being rigorously promoted by a number of art “institutions” and most notably the Nicosia Municipal Art Centre . Municipal art galleries exist in all the main towns and there is a large and lively commercial art scene. was due to host the international art festival Manifesta in 2006 but this was cancelled at the last minute following a dispute between the Dutch organizers of Manifesta and the Ministry of Education and Culture over the ation of some of the Manifesta events in the Turkish sector of the capital Nicosia.

Other notable Cypriot artists include Rhea Bailey, Mihail Kkasialos, Ioannis Kissonergis, Theodoulos Gregoriou, Helene Black, George Skoteinos, Kalopedis family, Nicos Nicolaides, Stass Paraskos, Arestís Stasí, Telemachos Kanthos, Konstantia Sofokleous and Chris Achilleos.
Music
Bouzouki, the mainstay of most Cypriot folk music.

The traditional folk music of has several common elements with Greek, Music of Turkish, and Arabic music including Greco-Turkish dances such as the "sousta", "syrtos", "zeibekikos", "tatsia", and "kartsilamas" as well as the Middle Eastern-inspired "tsifteteli" and "arapie". There is also a form of musical poetry known as "chattista" which is often performed at traditional feasts and celebrations. The instruments commonly associated with folk music are the bouzouki ("pictured"), oud ("outi"), violin ("fkiolin"), lute ("laouto"), accordion, flute ("pithkiavlin") and percussion (including the "toumperleki"). Composers associated with traditional Cypriot music include Evagoras Karageorgis, Marios Tokas, Solon Michaelides and Savvas Salides.

Popular music in is generally influenced by the Greek "Laïka" scene with several artists including Anna Vissi, Evridiki, and Sarbel earning widespread popularity in, Greece and parts of the Middle East. Hip Hop, R&B and reggae are also very popular genres on the island and have been supported by the emergence of Cypriot rap and the urban music scene at Ayia Napa. Cypriot rock music and "Éntekhno" rock is often associated with artists such as Michalis Hatzigiannis and Alkinoos Ioannidis. Metal also has a small following in represented by bands such as Winter"s Verge and Quadraphonic.
Literature ===Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philoso

Literary production of the antiquity includes the Cypria, an epic poem, probably composed in the late seventh century BC and attributed to Stasinus. The Cypria is one of the very first specimens of Greek and European poetry."An indication that at least the main contents of the "Cypria" were known around 650 BCE is provided by the representation of the Judgment of Paris on the Chigi vase" (Burkert 1992:103). On the proto-Corinthian ewer of ca. 640 BCE known as the , Paris is identified as "Alexandros", as he was apparently called in "Cypria". The Cypriot Zeno of Citium was the founder of the Stoic philosophy.

Epic poetry, notably the "acritic songs", flourished during Middle Ages. Two chronicles, one written by Leontios Machairas and the other by Voustronios, refer to the period under French domination (15th century). Poèmes d"amour written in medieval Greek Cypriot date back from 16th century. Some of them are actual translations of poems written by Petrarch, Bembo, Ariosto and G. Sannazzaro.Th. Siapkaras- Pitsillidés, Le Pétrarchisme en Cypre. Poèmes d" amour en dialecte Chypriote d" après un manuscript du XVIe siècle, Athènes 1975 (2ème édition)

Hasan Hilmi Efendi, a Turkish Cypriot poet, was rewarded by the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II and said to be the "sultan of the poems".Gazioğlu, Ahmet C. (1990). The Turks in: a province of the Ottoman Empire (1571-1878), 293-295, K. Rüstem.

Modern literary figures from include the poet and writer Kostas Montis, poet Kyriakos Charalambides, poet Michalis Pasiardis, writer Nicos Nicolaides, Stylianos Atteshlis, Altheides, Loukis Akritas and Demetris Th. Gotsis. Dimitris Lipertis, Vasilis Michaelides and Pavlos Liasides are folk poets who wrote poems mainly in the Cypriot-Greek dialect. Lawrence Durrell lived in Northern from 1952 until 26 August 1956 and wrote the book Bitter Lemons concerning his time there which won the second Duff Cooper Prize in 1957. The majority of the play "Othello" by William Shakespeare is set on the island of. also figures in religious literature such as the Acts of the Apostles according to which the Apostles Barnabas and Paul preached on the island.
Cuisine
Slices of fresh haloumi cheese with mint leaves packed in the center.

Halloumi cheese originated in and was initially made during the Medieval Byzantine period, subsequently gaining popularity throughout the Middle-East. Halloumi (Hellim) is commonly served sliced, either fresh or grilled, as an appetiser.

Meat meze with sliced luntza, chiromeri, onions and olives.

Seafood and fish dishes of include squid, octopus, red mullet, and sea bass. Cucumber and tomato are used widely in salads. Common vegetable preparations include potatoes in olive oil and parsley, pickled cauliflower and beets, asparagus and "Taro". Other traditional delicacies of the island are meat marinated in dried coriander, seeds and wine, and eventually dried and smoked, such as "lountza" (smoked pork loin), charcoal-grilled lamb, souvlaki (pork and chicken cooked over charcoal), and sheftalia (minced meat wrapped in mesentery). "Pourgouri" (bulgur, cracked wheat) is the traditional carbohydrate other than bread, and is used to make the Cypriot delicacy koubes.

Fresh vegetables and fruits are common ingredients in Cypriot cuisine. Frequently used vegetables include courgettes, green peppers, okra, green beans, artichokes, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce and grape leaves, and pulses such as beans, broad beans, peas, black-eyed beans, chick-peas and lentils. The commonest among fruits and nuts are pears, apples, grapes, oranges, mandarines, nectarines, mespila, blackberries, cherry, strawberries, figs, watermelon, melon, avocado, lemon, pistachio, almond, chestnut, walnut, hazelnut.

Cyprus is also well-known for its desserts, including "lokum", also known as Turkish Delight.", "BBC News", October 18, 2004 This island has protected geographical indication (PGI) for its "lokum" produced in the village of Geroskipou.
Sports ===Petter Solberg driving his Citroën Xsara WRC in Ra
Marcos Baghdatis, Cypriot professional tennis player.

Governing bodies of sports in include the Football Association, Basketball Federation, Volleyball Federation, Automobile Association, Badminton Federation, Cricket Association and the Rugby Federation.

Football is by far the most popular spectator sport. There have been many accomplishments on the European scale by several teams, but most importantly the entrance in the UEFA Champions League Group Stage as firstly achieved in 2008 by Anorthosis Famagusta FC and APOEL FC in 2009.
The League is nowadays considered as quite competitive and includes notable teams such as AEK Larnaca FC, Nea Salamis Famagusta FC, AC Omonia, Apollon FC and AEL Lemesos. Stadiums or sports venues in include the GSP Stadium (the largest in), Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium, Ammochostos Stadium, Neo GSZ Stadium, Tsirion Stadium, and Makario Stadium., also has a football national team which in the last decade has evolved to a promising squad within the European rankings.

Apart from the main interest in football, has exhibited certain accomplishments in other sports. Marcos Baghdatis is one of the most successful tennis players in international stage. He was a finalist at the Australian Open in 2006, and reached the Wimbledon semi-final in the same year. Also Kyriakos Ioannou a Cypriot high jumper achieved a jump of 2.35 m at the 11th IAAF World Championships in Athletics held in Osaka, Japan, in 2007 winning the bronze medal.
Media ===Newspapers include Phileleftheros, Politis (Cyprus), Simerini, Kıbrıs, Mail, the Observer, Today, Weekly, Halkın Sesi, Havadis, Haravgi and Kathimerini (in a special Cypriot edition). TV channels include ANT1, Alfa TV, CNC Plus TV, Broadcasting Corporation, Mega Channel, Bayrak and Sigma
Architecture ===There are nine churches and one monastery in Troodos that are counted among UNESCO"s World Heritage Sites and several other monasteries, of which the Kykkos monastery is the richest and most famous. The churches

* Stavros tou Ayiasmati
* Panayia tou Araka
* Timiou Stavrou at Pelendri
* Ayios Nikolaos tis Stegis
* Panayia Podithou
* Assinou
* Ayios loannis Lampadistis
* Archangel Michael at Pedhoulas

The area has been known since ancient times for its copper mines, and in the Byzantine period it became a great centre of Byzantine art, as churches and monasteries were built in the mountains, away from the threatened coastline.


File:Kykkos2.jpg|Exterior view of Kykkos Monastery
File:Monastery of Stavros door 2010 2.jpg|The entrance of Monastery of Stavros
File:St. Peter & Paul C.jpg|Sts Peter and Paul Church (c.1360)
File:forviotissa_asinou.jpg|The "Pantocrator" fresco in Asinou Church (Troodos mountain range)
File:St. Lazarus Church in Larnaka,.jpg|Church of Saint Lazarus, Larnaca


Three prominent ancient mosques in:
* Hala Sultan Tekke
* Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque
* Arabahmet Mosque
* Ancient mosque in Limassol


File:LarnacaSaltLake.jpg|Hala Sultan Tekke is a very prominent Muslim shrine near Larnaca which attracts Muslims of countries abroad
File:Cipro-Famagosta3.jpg|Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque in Famagusta
File:Nicosia Buyuk Han 02.jpg|Büyük Han
File:Mosques in Limassol3.JPG|Minaret of Limassol"s old mosque


See also
*Outline of
*Index of-related articles
*List of international rankings
*Cyprus dispute
References ===;N


;Further reading
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External links

; Government
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* at annanplan.com
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;Tourism
* – the official travel portal for
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; General information
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* from "UCB Libraries GovPubs"
* information from the United States Department of State includes Background Notes, Country Study and major reports
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; Official publications
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*The Republic of Press and Information Office,
* Non-affiliated news website focusing mainly on the effect of globalisation and foreign interests on the problem
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ace:Siprus
af:Siprus
als:Republik Zypern
ar:قبرص
an:Chipre
arc:ܩܘܦܪܘܣ
roa-rup:Chipro
frp:Ch·ipre (payis)
ast:Xipre
az:Kipr Respublikası
bn:সাইপ্রাস
zh-min-nan:Ku-pí-lō͘
be:Кіпр
be-x-old:Кіпр
bcl:Siprus
bi:Cyprus
bo:སེ་པི་རི་སི།
bs:Kipar
br:Republik Kiprenez
bg:Кипър
ca:Xipre
cv:Кипр Республики
ceb:Cyprus
cs:Kypr
co:Cipru
cy:Cyprus
da:Cypern
de:Republik Zypern
nv:Béésh Łichíiʼii Bikéyah
dsb:Cypern
et:Küpros
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es:Chipre
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ext:Chipri
eu:Zipre
ee:Cyprus
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hif:Cyprus
fo:Kýpros
fr:Chypre (pays)
fy:Syprus
ga:An Chipir
gv:Yn Cheeprey
gd:Cìopras
gl:Chipre - Κύπρος
gu:સાયપ્રસ
hak:Set-phû-lu-sṳ̂
xal:Кипрудин Орн
ko:키프로스
haw:Kupelo
hy:Կիպրոս
hi:साइप्रस
hsb:Cypernska
hr:Cipar
io:Chipro
ilo:Cyprus
bpy:সাইপ্রাস
id:Siprus
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it:Cipro
he:קפריסין
jv:Siprus
kl:Cyperni
pam:Cyprus
krc:Кипр
ka:კვიპროსი
csb:Cyper
kk:Қыбыр
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rw:Shipure
sw:Kupro
kv:Кипр
kg:Kipros
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ku:Kîpros
lad:Repuvlika Kipriyota
la:Cyprus
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li:Cyprus
lmo:Cipru
hu:Ciprus
mk:Република Кипар
mg:Repoblikan"i Kipra
ml:സൈപ്രസ്
mt:Ċipru
mi:Haipara
mr:सायप्रस
arz:قبرص
ms:Cyprus
mdf:Кипра
mn:Кипр
nah:Chipre
na:Cyprus
nl:Cyprus
nds-nl:Cyprus
ne:साइप्रस
new:साइप्रस
ja:キプロス
ce:Кипр
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pih:Siipris
no:Kypros
nn:Republikken Kypros
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nov:Kiprus
oc:Chipre
uz:Kipr
pnb:قبرص
pms:Cipro
tpi:Saipras
nds:Republiek Zypern
pl:Cypr
pnt:Κύπρος
pt:Chipre
kaa:Kipr
crh:Qıbrız
ro:Cipru
qu:Kipru
ru:Республика Кипр
sah:Кипр
se:Kypros
sm:Cyprus
sc:Tzipru
sco:Cyprus
stq:Zypern
sq:Qipro
scn:Cipru
si:සයිප්‍රසය
simple:Cyprus
ss:ISayiphro
sk:Cyprus
cu:Кѵ́пръ
sl:Ciper
szl:Cypr
srn:Sipruskondre
sr:Кипар
sh:Cipar
fi:Kyproksen tasavalta
sv:Cypern
tl:Tsipre
ta:சைப்பிரஸ்
tt:Кипр Республикасы
te:సైప్రస్
tet:Xipre
th:ประเทศไซปรัส
tg:Кипр
tr:Kıbrıs
udm:Кипр
uk:Кіпр
ur:قبرص
ug:سىپرۇس
vec:Sipro
vi:Cộng hòa Síp
vo:Sipreän
fiu-vro:Küprüs
vls:Cyprus
war:Tsipre
wo:Ciipër
wuu:塞浦路斯
yi:קיפראס
yo:Kíprù
zh-yue:塞浦路斯
diq:Qıbrıs
bat-smg:Kėpros
zh:賽普勒斯
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Ramallah (dpa) - A Palestinian man who lost his legs to an Israeli airstrike nine years ago was buried on Saturday after being shot dead by Israeli security forces during a protest the previous day against the US decision to recognize Jerusalem
Berlin (dpa) - German security authorities have identified several dozen women and under-age youths as potential Islamist threats willing to carry out terrorist attacks in Germany.Among the 720 people in Germany currently listed as Islamist threats,
Nuremburg, Germany (dpa) - After weeks of political uncertainty, Horst Seehofer has been granted another term as chair of Germany‘s Christian Social Union (CSU), receiving 83.7 per cent of the vote during a party congress in Nuremburg."This is
Ramallah (dpa) -  A Palestinian official on Saturday rejected a call by a US official for the Western Wall in the Old City of Jerusalem to remain under Israeli control."The Palestinians will not accept any changes to the 1967 border of East
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