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Colmar

France, Colmar
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"Colmar" (, ; Alsatian: "Colmer" ; , between 1940-1945 under Nazi rule: "Kolmar") is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.

It is the capital of the department. Colmar is also the seat of the highest jurisdiction in Alsace, the appellate court.

It is situated along the Alsatian Wine Route and considers itself to be the "Capital of Alsatian Wine" ("capitale des vins d"Alsace").

In 2006, the city of Colmar had a population of 65,713 on INSEE and the metropolitan area of Colmar had a population of 120,367. on INSEE Colmar is the center of the arrondissement of Colmar, which has 144,700 inhabitants in 2006. on INSEE

Colmar is the home town of the painter and engraver Martin Schongauer and the sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi, who designed the Statue of Liberty. The city is renowned for its well preserved old town, its numerous architectural landmarks and its museums, among which the Unterlinden Museum.

istor

Colmar was founded in the 9th century. This was the location where Charles the Fat held a diet in 884. Colmar was granted the status of a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire in 1226. During the Thirty Years" War, the city was taken by the armies of Sweden in 1632, who held it for two years. The city was conquered by France under Louis XIV in 1697.

In 1679 (Treaties of Nijmegen) Colmar was ceded to France. With the rest of Alsace, Colmar was annexed by the newly formed German Empire in 1871 as a result of the Franco-Prussian War. It returned to France after World War I, was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1940, and then reverted to French control after the battle of the "Colmar Pocket" in 1945.

The Colmar Treasure, hidden during the Black Death, was discovered here in 1863.

eograph
The canal which runs through Colmar.
Colmar is south-southwest of Strasbourg, at 48.08°N, 7.36°E, on the Lauch River, directly to the east of the Vosges Mountains. It is connected to the Rhine by a canal.

limat

Colmar has a sunny microclimate and is the driest city in France, with an annual precipitation of just 550 mm, making it ideal for Alsace wine. It is considered the capital of the Alsatian wine region.

The dryness results from the town"s location next to mountains which force clouds arriving from the west to rise, and much of their moisture to condense and fall as precipitation over the higher ground, leaving the air warmed and dried by the time it reaches Colmar.

ight
Église Saint-Martin
Martin Schongauer"s "Virgin in a rose-garden" inside the Église des Dominicains
Howl"s Moving Castle.
"Little Venice"
Musée Bartholdi
Mostly spared by the destructions of the French Revolution and the wars of 1870-1871, 1914-1918 and 1939-1945, the cityscape of old-town Colmar is homogenous and renowned among tourists. The area crossed by canals of the river Lauch, and which formerly served as the butcher"s, tanner"s and fishmonger"s quarter, is now called "little Venice" (la Petite Venise). Colmar"s cityscape (and neighbouring Riquewihr"s) served for the design of the Japanese animated film Howl"s Moving Castle.

rchitectural landmark
Colmar"s secular and religious architectural landmarks reflect eight centuries of Germanic and French architecture and the adaptation of their respective stylistic language to the local customs and building materials (pink and yellow Vosges sandstone, timber framing).

ecular building
*Maison Adolph - 14th century (German Gothic)
*Koifhus, also known as Ancienne Douane - 1480 (German Gothic)
*Maison Pfister - 1537 (German Renaissance).
*Ancien Corps de garde - 1575 (German Renaissance)
*Maison des Chevaliers de Saint-Jean - 1608 (German Renaissance)
*Maison des Têtes - 1609 (German Renaissance)
*Poêle des laboureurs - 1626 (German Baroque)
*Ancien Hôpital - 1744 (French Classicism)
*Tribunal de grande instance - 1771 (French Classicism)
*Hôtel de ville - 1790 (French Classicism)
*Théâtre municipal - 1849 (French Neoclassicism)
*Marché couvert - 1865 (French Neo-Baroque). The city"s covered market, built in stone, bricks and cast iron, still serves today.
*Préfecture - 1866 (French Neo-Baroque)
*Water tower - 1886. Oldest still preserved water tower in Alsace. Out of use since 1984.
*Gare SNCF - 1905 (German Neo-Baroque)
*Cour d"appel - 1906 (German Neo-Baroque)

eligious building
*Église Saint-Martin - 1234-1365. The largest church of Colmar and one of the largest in Haut-Rhin. Displays some early stained glass windows, several Gothic and Renaissance sculptures and altars, a grand Baroque organ case. The choir is surrounded by an ambulatory opening on a series of Gothic chapels, a unique feature in Alsacian churches.
*Église des Dominicains - 1289-1364. Now disaffected as a church, displays Martin Schongauer"s masterwork "La Vierge au buisson de roses" as well as 14th century stained glass windows and baroque choir stalls.
*Église Saint-Matthieu - 13th century. Gothic and Renaissance stained glass windows and mural paintings, as well as a wooden and painted ceiling.
*Chapelle Saint-Pierre - 1742-1750. Classicist chapel of a former Jesuit college.
*Synagogue - 1843 (Neoclassicism)

ountain
*Fontaine de l"Amiral Bruat - 1864 (Statue by Bartholdi)
*Fontaine Roeselmann - 1888 (Statue by Bartholdi)
*Fontaine Schwendi - 1898 (Statue by Bartholdi)

onument
*Monument du Général Rapp - 1856 (first shown 1855 in Paris. Statue by Bartholdi, his earliest major work)
*Monument Hirn - 1894 (Statue by Bartholdi)
*Statue "Les grands soutiens du monde" − 1902 (in the courtyard of the Bartholdi Museum)

useum
*Unterlinden Museum - one of the main museums in Alsace. Displays the Isenheim Altarpiece, a large collection of medieval, Renaissance and baroque Upper-Rhenish paintings and sculptures, archeological artefacts, design and international modern art.
*Musée Bartholdi - the birthplace of Frédéric Bartholdi show his life and work through paintings, drawings, family objects and furniture as well as numerous plaster, metal and stone sculptures. A section of the museum is further dedicated to the local Jewish community"s heritage.
*Musée d"histoire naturelle et d"ethnographie - the zoological and ethnographical museum of Colmar was founded in 1859. Besides a large collection of stuffed animals and artefacts from former French and German colonies in Africa and Polynesia, it also houses a collection of ancient Egyptian items.
*Musée du jouet - the town"s toy museum, founded 1993
*Musée des usines municipales - industrial and technological museum in a former factory, dedicated to the history of everyday technology.

ibrar
The Municipal Library of Colmar ("Bibliothèque municipale de Colmar") owns one of the richest collections of incunabula in France, with over 2,300 volumes.http://www.colmar.fr/adv/culture/biblio/biblio_municip.htm This is quite an exceptional number for a city that is neither the main seat of a university, nor of a college, and has its explanation in the disowning of local monasteries, abbeys and convents during the French Revolution and the subsequent gift of their collections to the town.

ducatio
Colmar shares the Université de Haute-Alsace with the neighbouring, larger city of Mulhouse. Of the approximately 8,000 students of the UHA, circa 1,500 study at the "Institut universitaire de technologie" (IUT) Colmar, at the Colmar branch of the "Faculté des Sciences et Techniques" and at the "Unité de Formation et de Recherche Pluridisciplinaire d"Enseignement Professionalisé Supérieur" (UFR P.E.P.S.).

usi
Since 1980, Colmar is home to the international summer festival of classical music "Festival de Colmar" (also known as "Festival international de musique classique de Colmar"). In its first version (1980 to 1989), it was placed under the artistic direction of the German conductor Karl Münchinger. Since 1989, it is helmed by the Russian violinist and conductor Vladimir Spivakov.

conom
Colmar: capital of Alsatian wines.
Liebherr in Colmar
Colmar is an affluent city whose primary economic strength lies in the flourishing tourist industry. But it is also the seat of several large companies: Timken (European seat), Liebherr (French seat), Leitz (French seat), Capsugel France (A division of Pfizer) ...

Every year since 1947, Colmar is host to what is now considered as the biggest annual commercial event as well as the largest festival in Alsace , the "Foire aux vins d"Alsace" (Alsacian wine fair).

otable peopl
The following personalities were born in Colmar:
*Martin Schongauer (1450–1491), painter and engraver
*Georg Wickram (1502–1562), poet and novelist
*Jean-François Rewbell (1747–1807), diplomat and revolutionist
*Jean Rapp (1771–1821), general
*Charles Xavier Thomas (1785–1870), inventor
*Armand Joseph Bruat (1796–1855), admiral
*Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d"Anthès (1812–1895), politician, killer of Alexander Pushkin in a duel
*Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (1834–1904), sculptor, created the original Statue of Liberty
*Camille Sée, (1847–1919), politician
*Jean-Baptiste Lemire (1867–1945), composer
*Jean-Jacques Waltz (1873–1951), drawer and caricaturist
*Guy Roux (born 1938), football coach
*Pierre Moerlen (1952–2005), musician
*Pierre Hermé (born 1961), pastry chef
*Thomas Bloch (born 1962), musician
*Lætitia Bléger (born 1981), Miss France 2004
*Marc Keller (born 1968), football player
*Amaury Bischoff (born 1987), football player

win town
Colmar is twinned with:
* Abingdon, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom
* Hyde, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom
* Eisenstadt, Austria
* Győr, Hungary
* Lucca, Italy
* Princeton, New Jersey, United States
* Schongau, Bavaria, Germany
* Sint-Niklaas, Belgium

aller

Image:Place cathedrale colmar.jpg|Old town timber framed houses
Image:Colmar - Alsace.jpg|Old town timber framed houses
Image:Colmar 1.JPG|Old town timber framed houses
Image:FR Colmar 20080828 004.jpg|"Little Venice"
Image:FR Colmar 20080828 026.jpg|Maison des têtes
File:Maison Pfister detail.jpg|Close-up of Maison Pfister
Image:Ancienne douane Colmar.jpg|Koifhus - front building
Image:FR Colmar 20080828 018.jpg|Koifhus - rear building
Image:Tribunal de grande instance (Colmar).JPG|Law court
Image:FR Colmar 20080828 009.jpg|Covered market
Image:Colmar - Watertower.jpg|Water tower
Image:Colmar - Court d"Appelle.jpg|Appellate court
Image:Gare colmar.jpg|Railway station
Image:Stadtbrunnen (Colmar).JPG|Old well, bearing the date "1584"
Image:Amiral bruat.jpg|Fontaine Bruat
Image:Schwendibrunnen.jpg|Fontaine Schwendi
Image:Gustave-Adolphe Hirn.jpg|Monument Hirn
Image:Musee d Unterlinden colmar.jpg|Musée d"Unterlinden
Image:ColmarIsenheimerAltar.jpg|Isenheim Altarpiece inside Musée d"Unterlinden
File:Statue of Liberty Replica in Colmar.jpg|12m high Statue of Liberty replica


ee als
* List of mayors of Colmar
* Colmar Pocket
*Communes of the Haut-Rhin department

eference


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Category:Communes of Haut-Rhin
Category:Prefectures in France
Category:Settlements established in the 9th century
Category:Imperial free cities

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ru:Кольмар
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sk:Colmar
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sr:Колмар (Горња Рајна)
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uk:Кольмар
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zh:科尔马
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 19.09.2018 00:20 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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