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Chania

Greece, Chania
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"Chaniá" (, , also transliterated ", "Hania", and "Xania", older form "Chanea" and Venetian "Canea", Ottoman Turkish خانيه "Hanya") is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Prefecture. It lies along the north coast of the island, about 70 km west of Rethymno and 145 km west of Heraklion.

The official population of the municipal area is 55,838 but around 70,000 people live in the greater area of . With 4,248.1 inhabitants/km², the municipality is the most densely populated outside the Athens and Thessaloniki metropolitan areas.

eograph
The city of lies at the east end of the "Gulf of ", a wide embayment between the Akrotiri peninsula in the east and the Spatha peninsula (also called Rodopos) in the west. Kastelli Hill is a prominent landform within the city, which hill was a center of the ancient city of Kydonia. It covers a significant part of the small "Plain of " and borders with the hilly suburbs of Profitis Ilias, Agios Mattheos and Kounoupidiana towards the east, with the villages of Vamvakopoulo, Nerokourou, Mournies and Perivolia towards the south and with the coastal areas of Chryssi Akti and Agioi Apostoloi towards the west.


limat
The city enjoys a typical Mediterranean climate, with sunny dry summers and mild rainy winters. During the period between April and October, clear-sky weather is almost an everyday feature. The atmosphere is always warm, but fierce heat waves (temperatures above 38°C) are not very common, since the prevailing Etesian winds ("Meltemia") blow from northern directions and pleasantly moderate the conditions. Intervals of sunny days are frequent during the windy and rainy winter as well. Snow and frost are rare near the coast, with very few exceptions, like the snowstorm on 13 February 2004, when 10–30 cm of snow accumulated in the urban area, causing general chaos. However, such cold days can be followed by much warmer and sunny weather. Even minor early heat waves can occur in March or April, during a Saharan dust event, whose main feature is the strong and hot katabatic southerly wind, which is a type of Sirokos (σιρόκος) and is called "Livas" (i.e. the wind from Libya) by the Greeks. Such events happen only a couple of times a year, and their duration is never more than 1 or 2 days.

Chart to the left is based on data recorded during 1958-1997. Absolute maximum temperature ever recorded was 42,5°C, while absolute minimum ever recorded was 0°C. However, the record minimum was broken on 13 February 2004 when the temperature reached -1°C at midday.

istor
arly histor

is the site of the Minoan settlement the Greeks called Cydonia, Greek for quince. Some notable archaeological evidence for the existence of this Minoan city below some parts of today"s was found by excavations in the district of Kasteli in the Old Town. This area appears to have been inhabited since the Neolithic era. The city reemerged after the end of the Minoan period as an important city-state in Classical Greece, one whose domain extended from Hania Bay to the feet of the White Mountains. The first major wave of settlers from mainland Greece was by the Dorian Greeks who came around 1100 BC. Cydonia was constantly at war with other city-states such as Aptera, Phalasarna and Polyrrinia and was important enough for the Cydonians to be mentioned in Homer"s "Odyssey" (iii.330). In 69 BC the Roman consul Caecilius Metellus defeated the s and conquered Cydonia to which he granted the privileges of an independent city-state. Cydonia reserved the right to mint its own coins until the third century AD.

yzantine Er


The early Christian period under Byzantine rule (First Byzantine Period, 395–824 AD) and the rule of the Arabs, who called the settlement "Al Hanim" ("the Inn"), are not well documented. Under the Arabs the Christian population was persecuted and moved to the mountains. The Byzantine Empire retook the city in 961 AD (Second Byzantine Period, until 1204 AD). In this period the Arabic name of the city was changed into Greek ". Byzantines began to strongly fortify the city in order to prevent another Arab invasion, using materials from the ancient buildings of the area. By this time was the seat of a bishop.

he Venetian er
The old harbour during the Venetian era

After the Fourth Crusade (1204) and the fall of Byzantium in the Hellenic area, Crete was given to Bonifacio, Marquess of Montferrat. He in turn chose to sell it to the Venetians for 100 silver marks. In 1252 the Venetians managed to subdue the s but in 1263, their rivals of Genoa, with local support, seized the city under the leadership of Enrico Pescatore, count of Malta, and held it until 1285, when the Venetians returned. was chosen as the seat of the Rector (Administrator General) of the region and flourished as a significant commercial centre of a fertile agricultural region.

The Venetian rule was initially strict and oppressive but slowly the relations between the two parts improved. Contact with Venice led to close intertwining of and Venetian cultures, without, however, the s losing their Greek Orthodox nature. The city"s name became "La Canea" and fortifications were strengthened, giving the form that it still has today. On the other hand, after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, many priests, monks and artists took refuge in Crete and reinforced the Byzantine religion and culture on the island. The city of during the period that followed was a blend of Byzantine, Venetian and Classical Greek cultural elements. Many of the important buildings of the town were built during this era and the intellectual activities (written word, music, education) were also promoted.

ttoman Er
The old harbour during the Ottoman era


However the walls did not prevent the Turkish army overrunning the city in 1645 after just two months" siege. The Turks landed near the Monastery of Gonia in Kissamos, which they plundered and burnt. They seized itself on 2 August 1645. Huge numbers died in the siege, particularly Turks. The Turkish commander was executed on returning home for losing up to 40,000 men. Later, most churches were turned into mosques and the riches of the city were taken. The Turks resided mainly in the eastern quarters, Kastelli and Splantzia, where they converted the Dominican church of St Nicholas into the central Sovereign"s Mosque ("Houghiar Tzamissi" Turkish: "Hünkar Camisi"). They also built new mosques such as "Kioutsouk Hassan Tzamissi" (Turkish: "Küçük Hasan Camisi") on the harbour. Public baths (hamam), and fountains were a feature of the Turkish city. The pasha of Crete resided in .

In 1821, as Greece rose against the Ottoman Empire, there were conflicts between Greeks and Turks in , leading to casualties from both sides, most of whom were Christians. The Bishop of Kissamos, Melhisedek Despotakis was hanged from a tree in Splantzia for participation in the revolutionary events. In 1878, the Pact of Halepa was signed and Christians were granted certain rights. This was when a big part of the local Muslim population moved to Turkey. The rest of them stayed until the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1922.

odern Greek Er
Eleftherios Venizelos (1864–1936), one of the greatest political figures of modern Greece.


In 1898, during the final moves towards independence and "enosis"— union with Greece— the Great Powers made the capital of the semi-autonomous State ("Kritiki Politeia"), with Prince George of Greece, the High Commissioner of Crete living here. During these years Crete issued its own stamps and money. This was a very important transitional period when, no longer an isolated "vilayet" of the Ottoman Empire, the city became more cosmopolitan and flourishing, regaining its role as the crossroad of civilizations, influenced by Europe as well as by the East. Many important buildings were built during this era, intellectual and artistic societies were created and a new class of local aristocracy brought a different atmosphere to the everyday life of the town. The district of Halepa has many fine neoclassical embassies and consulates dating from this period.

However the main goal was "enosis" with Greece which came after Venizelos"s constant opposition to Prince George"s rule over Crete. The series of conflicts includes the Revolution of Therissos in 1905, which overthrew Prince George and brought Alexandros Zaimis to rule Crete. Finally in 1908 Venizelos managed to establish a revolutionary government, recognized by the Great Powers. His later election as the prime minister of Greece (1910) was the last step before Crete was united with Greece on 1 December 1913. The Greek flag was raised for the first time at Fort Firca in the Old Harbour in the presence of Eleftherios Venizelos and King Constantine.

Eleftherios Venizelos, who hailed from Mournies near , was the leader of the 1896-97 uprising against Ottoman rule and went on to be Prime Minister of Greece and a great statesman. His tomb is on a hill overlooking (Profitis Ilias, ).

in World War I


Another important period for the city of was the invasion and occupation by German forces during World War II. The British force that faced the German paratroopers during the Battle Of Crete in 1941, had artillery elements over the hill of Dexameni in the south of the city. These elements bombed the German forces in the Maleme airfield undetected, until they ran out of ammunition.George II of Greece also, stayed in a villa near the village of Perivolia, outside before he escaped to Egypt. Part of the city was bombed, progress in several aspects of life was halted and a significant proportion of the area"s population was either executed or imprisoned due to participation in the resistance against the German rule. The Jewish community of was also eliminated during the German occupation. Most of them were transported off the island by the Nazi occupiers in 1944. Tragically a British torpedo sank the ship "Tanais" carrying most of the Jewish prisoners, killing the island"s pre-war community.

odern er
Fortunately, and Crete in general escaped the disastrous consequences of the Greek Civil War of the postwar years. The city of was slowly regaining its normal pace of development during the 1950s, trying to overcome the difficulties that the war had left as an aftermath. During the 1970s Crete became a major tourist destination for Greek and international tourists, something that gave a significant boost to the city"s economy and affected the everyday life and the overall culture of the locals. The capital of Crete was moved to Heraklion in 1971.

istorical populatio


ityscap
Old Harbour panorama

The city of can be divided in two parts: the old town and the modern city which is the larger one. The old town is situated next to the old harbour and is the matrix around which the whole urban area was developed. It used to be surrounded by the old Venetian fortifications that started to be built in 1538; of them the eastern and western parts have survived. From the south, the old town is continuous with the new, and from the north the physical border is the sea. The centre of the modern city is the area extending next to the old town and especially towards the south.

he old tow
Traditional street in the old town.
Kastelli.

Despite being heavily bombed during World War II "s Old Town is considered the most beautiful urban district on Crete, especially the crumbling Venetian harbour. The borders of the Old Town are the mostly destroyed old Venetian wall (and bulwarks) and this has been the cradle of all the civilizations which were developed in the area. The central part of the old town is named Kasteli and has been inhabited since Neolithic times. It is located on a small hill right next to the seafront and has always been the ideal place for a settlement due to its secure position, its location next to the harbour and its proximity to the fertile valley in the south. Nowadays it is a bit more quiet than the neighbouring areas of the west part of the district. The Splantzia quarter (next to the east part of Kasteli) is also largely untouched and very atmospheric. A plan for its future development is now being under consideration.

The main square of the Old Town (next to the west end of Kasteli) is the Eleftherios Venizelos Square ("Syntrivani"). It is the heart of the touristic activities in the area. Next to this (on the west side) lies the Topanas district, which used to be the Christian part of the city during the Turkish occupation. Its name comes from the Venetian ammunition warehouse (Top-Hane in Turkish), which was located there. The Jewish quarter ("Evraiki" or "Ovraiki") was located at the north-west of the Old Town, behind the harbour and within the borders of Topanas. The whole Topanas area is generally very picturesque, with many narrow alleys and old charming buildings, some of which have been restored as hotels, restaurants, shops and bars. This makes it a lively and colourful place especially during the warm period (April-October). In the winter, it still remains a center of activities (especially for nightlife) but in a more quiet and atmospheric way.

Finally, a very distinctive area of the Old Town is the harbour itself and generally the seafront ("akti"). Akti Tompazi, Akti Kountouriotou and Akti Enoseos (marina) all feature several historical buildings and a thriving nightlife. The main street that combines the modern town with the old town is Halidon Str.

he modern cit
The Court House Square ("Dikastiria")
The Orthodox Cathedral
The modern part of is where most locals live and work. It is less traditional than the old town, but there are still areas of charming beauty or of some historical interest. The oldest district (early 18th century) of the modern city is Nea Hora (meaning "New Town") which is located beyond the west end of the old town. It is a developing area, but also a very picturesque one, with narrow old lanes leading to a small fishing harbour. During the same era the district of Halepa begun to grow to the east of the city and used to be home for the local aristocracy. Some of the historical buildings of the area (including old embassies of foreign countries) had been destroyed or abandoned during the later decades of the 20th century, and it was only recently when some interest was shown for the restoration of the remaining ones.

Other historical buildings in the area include Eleftherios Venizelos’s House (built 1876–1880), the old French school (now property of the Technical University of Crete, housing the Department of Architecture), the Church of Agia Magdalini (built 1901–1903) , The “Palace” (built 1882, house of Prince George during the period of the independence) and The Church of Evangelistria (built 1908–1923). Part of the marine area of Halepa is called Tabakaria, where a unique architectural complex of old leather processing houses is situated. The district of Koum Kapi (the Venetians had first named it "Sabbionara", which means "the Gate of the Sand", the same as "Koum Kapi") situated beyond the walls at the eastern part of the old town, was also one of the first places to be inhabited outside the fortification walls. Initially, it was home for the "Halikoutes", a group of bedouins from North Africa who had actually settled there since the last years of the Turkish occupation. Nowadays it is a developing area with many trendy cafes, bars and restaurants on its picturesque beach.

Apart from the previously mentioned older districts of the modern part of the town, several new residential areas have been developed during the 20th century, like Agios Ioannis, Koumbes, Lentariana etc. Some part -but not the biggest- of the city centre is dominated by colourless medium-height block buildings, typical of the urbanization period of Greece (1950–1970). However, there are still some beautiful neoclassical houses especially at the eastern part of and some of the neighbourhoods surrounding the centre are quite picturesque. The plan of the central area is very good, there are some nice parks and several sports grounds, the most important being the Venizeleio Stadium of and the Swimming Pool at Nea Hora. The 1913 indoor market ("Agora"), a large building based on the market of Marseille, is on the edge of the old town and is popular with tourists and locals alike. Some other important sites of the newer urban area are The Court House ("Dikastiria", built late 19th century), The Public Gardens ("Kipos", created 1870), The Garden Clock-Tower ("Roloi", built 1924–1927), The Episcopal Residence (Bishop"s residence, "Despotiko", built early 19th century) and the House of Manousos Koundouros (built 1909), the Cultural Centre ("Pnevmatiko Kentro"). The central largest squares in are the Market Square ("Agora"), the Court House Square ("Dikastiria") and the "1866 Square".

In the last two decades there has been a profound movement of residents towards the suburbs, as well as towards areas around the city which used to be rural, mainly the Akrotiri Peninsula.


File: sanrocco.jpg|The church of St. Rocco in Splantzia
Image:_despotiko.jpg|The Episcopal residence
Image:Domed church in Eastern .jpg|Domed church in Eastern
Image:_Dimokratias_2.jpg|The Clock Tower on Dimokratias Str.
File: - Greek Orthodox cathedral indoor.jpg|thumb|Inside the cathedral of


ultur
A snapshot from a cultural event in

The cultural background of is very rich, first of all due to the town"s long history and its interaction with many diverse civilizations in the past. Furthermore the location of Crete (immediately connected to Athens, situated between Europe, Asia and Africa) as well as the cosmopolitan atmosphere that tourism creates, have generally kept the town up-to-date with modern advances in art and knowledge. Currently, there are several museums, art galleries, theatre and music groups, educational and research institutions within the city.

The most important museums in are:
* Archeological Museum of in Saint Francis Monastery. It houses findings from different parts of the county and from several historical and prehistorical periods of the local history (Neolithic to Roman)
* Folklore Museum (Old Town)
* Historical Archive (the second most important in Greece)
* Nautical Museum of Crete (Old Town)
* Municipal Art Gallery
* Byzantine/Post-Byzantine Collection (Old Town)
* House of E. Venizelos
* War Museum
* Museum of Chemistry
* School life museum
Part of the Mediterranean Centre for Architecture
Several theatre groups are active in with the most important being the Municipal and Regional Theatre of Crete (DI.PE.THE.K) . The repertoire includes old and contemporary plays from Greek and foreign writers. The Venizelian Conservatory of Music ("Odeion", established 1931) is also one of the most important cultural societies in Crete. A recent attempt from the municipality to create a chamber music group named "Sinfonietta" has been successful and its performances throughout the year have enriched the cultural event calendar of the city. There is also a significant community of people who focus on alternative/indie music as well as jazz and some interesting bands performing modern musical styles. A number of traditional musicians are also active in town.

The city is also quite cinephile. There are five cinemas (two of them open-air), concentrating both in commercial and independent movies and occasionally organizing small festivals.

During the summer period a variety of cultural events take place on a daily basis. Theatrical plays, concerts and several exhibitions from Greek and foreign artists are organized either by the municipality or by individuals. A venue which hosts many of these events is a theater located in the east bulwark of the Old Town ("Anatoliki Tafros"). Also, several festivals, conferences or sport events take place in especially between May and September. The Venizeleia athletics competition is one of the most noteworthy events of the year.

Cultural life throughout the wintry period of the year (November-March) is not as rich as in the summer, but it is certainly maintained to a good standard. During the last years there has been a substantial effort by both the city councils and by the locals to create the background for the city to be in the centre of interest throughout the year. Towards this direction, the increasing number of students moving to for their studies has proved to be helpful. There is also some effort to promote Crete as a tourist destination for all seasons - a role that the island could easily hold - which would also support both the local economy and culture.

A major role in the city"s cultural life is played by the Municipal Cultural Corporation of (DI.P.E.X.) which organizes a significant part of the events taking place throughout the year.

There is a French, a German, an Italian and a Swedish consulate in .

port
The National Stadium of
Water sports are very popular in and especially the local water polo team (Nautical Club of , N.O.X. ) has managed to be a protagonist in the primary league of the Greek national championship for years. Several athletes of this team have also played extensively for the Greek national team which has achieved major international successes.

Football and basketball are also very popular in the town, however not as successful. The main football teams are "A.E.X" (Sports Club of ). and "Ionia". The main clubs for athletics are "Eleftherios Venizelos" and "Kydon". The "Antisfairisi" club is specialized in tennis and table tennis and has also a significant tradition in chess. Many of the above sports are being practiced in the National Stadium of , constructed in 1935 with the financial support of Elena Venizelou, then wife of Eleftherios Venizelos. There is also an open swimming pool for water sports in Nea Chora and a new indoor one which is being built in the area of Akrotiri. A modern indoor stadium for basketball / volleyball etc has also been built (2002-2005) near Nea Chora (Kladisos area).

It also has to be mentioned that there is a very active climbing / mountain walking club (Greek Mountaineering Club of , E.O.S. Chanion ) organizing weekly excursions of varying difficulty on the mountains of Crete and several other longer term missions in mainland Greece and abroad.

ducation/Researc
The library of the Technical University of Crete

Educational institutions located at the greater area of the city are:
* The Technical University of Crete . It is the largest educational institution in with around 2600 undergraduate and 700 postgraduate students. It is focusing on Electronic and Computer Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Production Engineering and Management, Mineral Resources Engineering, Sciences and Architecture. Future plans include a Civil Engineering and a Fine Arts department.
* The branch of the Technological Educational Institute of Crete
* The Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of

Other research and intellectual institutes and societies in are:
* The National Research Foundation "Eleftherios K. Venizelos"
* The Mediterranean Architecture Centre (KAM)
* The Institute of Olive Tree and Subtropical Plants of
* The Literary Society “Chryssostomos”
* The Institute of Law
* The Historical, Laographical and Archaeological Society of Crete

Primary and secondary schools are mainly public in (as in all cities in Greece). However there has been a slow development of some private high schools recently. Among the "Eniaia Lykeia" (Unified Upper Secondary Schools) of the town there is an autonomus Ecclesiastical Lyceum in Agios Mattheos.

conom
The central Market Square ("Agora")

Two main sources of wealth in are agriculture and tourism. A big portion of the city"s residents (not necessarily farmers) own from few to many decares of agricultural land where several plants are being cultivated, the most popular ones being olive trees and citrus. Other important products include wine, avocados, dairy etc. Apart from the traditional ways of cultivation, some of the producers have concentrated on practicing new methods in order to promote organic food. The organization of the Agricultural August has been a recent attempt to promote local quality products including a series of activities organised by the Prefecture of since 1999 and has proved very successful.

On the other hand, tourism has developed rapidly during the last decades, starting from the early 1970s. Nowadays the tertiary sector is becoming more and more important for the locals, since an increasing number of them are participating in the business. Agrotourism and ecotourism are forms of tourism which are significantly developing lately.

There is also some secondary industry with focus on the processing-packaging of the agricultural products (some of them export oriented) or manufacture products that support the agricultural production. On the other hand, the growth and development of academic/research institutions in is a challenge for future economic activities by taking advantage of the specialised knowledge of scientists and technicians and by also reinforcing quality tourism (conferences etc.).

An important centre of the economic activities in the town is the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (E.B.E.X.) .

ealth Car
The main health center in the city is the General Hospital "Agios Georgios". Other institutions include the Crete Naval Hospital, the branch of the National Centre for Emergency Medical Care (E.K.A.B.) and the Clinic of Chronic Disease. The branch of the Organisation Against Drugs (Ο.ΚΑ.ΝΑ.) opened in 2003.

There is also a number of private clinics and medical centers specializing in various areas within the town.

ransportatio
The city is served by Ioannis Daskalogiannis International Airport (IATA code: CHQ) on the Akrotiri Peninsula. The airport is named after Daskalogiannis, a Sfakiot hero who was skinned by the Turks in the 18th century.

There are several flights a day from Athens to , with Aegean Airlines and Olympic Airlines. From April to early November, there are many direct charter flights to from the UK, Holland, Germany, Scandinavia and other European countries.

Souda, some 7 km from , is the city"s port, with daily ferries to Piraeus and a NATO naval base.

otable resident
*Eleftherios Venizelos 1864-1936 (prime minister of Greece 1910-1920, 1924, 1928-1932, 1933; widely considered as the most important statesman of modern Greece)
*Constantine Mitsotakis *1918 (politician, prime minister of Greece 1990-1993, now the honorary president of the New Democracy party)
*Constantinos Manos 1869-1913 (politician and writer of the late 19th and early 20th century)
*Nikos Christodoulakis *1952 (politician, minister of development and minister of economy & finance, during 2000-2004)
*Nana Mouskouri *1934 (one of the world"s highest-selling female recording artist of all time)
*Alexis Minotis 1898-1967 (famous stage and screen actor active between 1930s-1980s)
*Manos Katrakis 1909-1984 (famous theater and film actor)
*Maro Douka 1947 (Greek novelist)
*John Craxton 1922-2009 (painter and British hon. consul.)
*Eftichios Bitsakis *1927 (philosopher – theoretical physicist)
*Kostas Moundakis 1926-1991 (Traditional music composer, lyra virtuoso and teacher)
*George Psychoundakis 1920-2006 ( war hero and author)
*Eleni Daniilidou *1982 (Greece"s Number 1 Tennis Player)

nternational relation

win towns — sister citie
is twinned with:
* Wellington, New Zealand

ee als
* Prefecture
*List of settlements in the prefecture
*Mount Tityros

eference


xternal link

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Category:Crete
Category:Coastal settlements in Greece
Category:Greek prefectural capitals
Category:Minoan civilization
Category:Municipalities in the Prefecture
Category:Capitals of former nations
Category:Cities, towns and villages in the Prefecture


ar:خانيا
bg:Ханя
ca:Khanià
cs:
da:
de:
el:Χανιά
es:La Canea
eo:Ĥanio
fr:La Canée
ko:하니아
hr:Khania
id:
it:La Canea
la:Cydonia
lt:Chanija
nl: (stad)
ja:ハニア
no:Khania
nn:Khaniá
pl:
pt:
ro:
ru:Ханья (город)
scn:Canea
simple:
sl:Hania
sr:Ханија
fi:Hania
sv:
tr:Hanya
uk:Ханья
war:Khania
zh:干尼亞
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 22.10.2018 04:18 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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"" (Greek: Demotic: Αμαλιάδα, Katharevousa: Αμαλιάς, Amalias) is a municipality in the western Peloponnese, in Greece. It has 32,090 citizens (of whom 18,261 live in the town of Amaliás). It is near the archaeological site of , the
"Galatsi" (, ), called in Katharevousa "Galatsion" (), is a northern suburb of Athens, Greece, and a municipality of the . Until the mid-20th century, the area was mainly made up of farmlands but due to the continuous expansion of the Greek capital,
"Chaniá" (, , also transliterated ", "Hania", and "Xania", older form "Chanea" and Venetian "Canea", Ottoman Turkish خانيه "Hanya") is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Prefecture. It lies along the north coast of the
"Chaidari" or "Haidari" (Greek, modern: Χαϊδάρι, Ancient/Katharevousa: Χαϊδάριον), older forms "Haidarion" and "Chaidarion" is a suburb in the west northwestern part of Athens, Greece. The two mountaintops of Aigaleo lies to the
"" (Greek: Ρέθυμνο, , also "Rethimno", "n", "Réthymnon", and "Rhíthymnos") is a city of approximately 40,000 people in Greece, the capital of Prefecture in the island of Crete. It was built in antiquity (ancient Rhithymna and Arsinoe), even
"" (Greek: Ρέθυμνο, , also "Rethimno", "n", "Réthymnon", and "Rhíthymnos") is a city of approximately 40,000 people in Greece, the capital of Prefecture in the island of Crete. It was built in antiquity (ancient Rhithymna and Arsinoe), even
 
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