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Cesena

Italy, Cesena
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The towers of the Rocca Malatestiana in Cesena.
The Abbey of St Maria del Monte.
the "Biblioteca Malatestiana".

"Cesena" is a city and "comune" in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, south of Ravenna and west of Rimini, on the Savio River, co-chief of the Province of Forlì-Cesena. It is at the foot of the Apennines, and about 15 km from the Adriatic Sea.

istor
Cesena was originally an Umbrian or Etruscan town, known as "Caesena". After a brief spell under Gaulish rule, it was taken over by Romans in the 3rd century BC. It was a garrison town of strategic importance which was destroyed in the wars between Gaius Marius and Sulla. Pliny mentions the wines of Cesena as among the best.

Cesena was on the border that the Exarchate of Ravenna shared with the Lombards. It was presented to the Papacy by its Frankish conqueror in 754 and passed back and forth between the popes and the archbishops of Ravenna, was briefly a communal republic (1183-1198). After having been long contested between popes and Holy Roman Emperors, it was later a fief held sometimes by the Malatesta, sometimes directly held by the papacy, not without resistance.

The brief rule by the Forlivese Ordelaffi was crushed in 1357, after a long siege directed by Cia degli Ordelaffi, by the Papal troops led by Cardinal Gil de Albornoz: the heroic defense of the town by Cia degli Ordelaffi, wife of the Lord of Forlì, against besieging Papal troops was ultimately unsuccessful.

The little "comune" revolted again in 1377 during the War of the Eight Saints. This time it was recaptured by Breton troops of Giovanni Acuto (the English-born condottiere John Hawkwood) under the command of Robert, Cardinal of Geneva, (later antipope Clement VII): the latter, acting as the legate of Pope Gregory XI, directed the savage murder of between 2,500 and 5,000 civilians, an atrocity by the rules of war at the time that earned the label the "Cesena Bloodbath" and the cardinal the "butcher of Cesena". The following year what remained of Cesena was assigned by the new pope Urban VI to Galeotto I Malatesta.

During the period 1379-1465 the city recovered and prospered under the Malatesta, who rebuilt the castle (called Rocca Malatestiana) overlooking the town. The Malatestiana Library, built by near the castle by Malatesta Novello (1429), is considered a fine example of a Renaissance library and holds many valuable manuscripts.

After Novello"s death (1465), Cesena returned to direct Papal control, but was again seized by a local seignor, Cesare Borgia, in 1500. The city was elevated to capital of his powerful though short-lived duchy.

Cesena subsequently turned into a secondary city of the Papal States. In the 18th and 19th centuries Cesena gave births to two popes, Pope Pius VI and Pope Pius VII, and once had Pope Pius VIII as bishop, gaining the "city of the three popes" title. During the Napoleonic Wars it was stripped of numerous monasteries and churches. Some of its citizens had notable roles in the unification of Italy, in second half of the 19th century.

During World War II Cesena was near the Gothic Line, which passed on the Appennini near the city, and suffered heavily for Bombings.

In 1992 it was elevated to the rank of co-capital of province, together with Forlì.

ain sight
Cesena"s monuments include:
*the Abbey of St Maria del Monte.
*the Malatestian Fortress ("Rocca Malatestiana"), built by Cardinal Albornoz (from 1380) over a pre-existing edifice which had hosted, among the others, Frederick Barbarossa and his nephew Frederick II. It was completed by the Papal governor Lorenzo Zane in 1480, and was used by Cesare Borgia as jail for Caterina Sforza. It has octagonal plant, with two main towers, the higher "maschio" and the lower "foemina"
*the "Biblioteca Malatestiana", the first public library in Europe.
*the Gothic Cathedral (completed around 1500).
*The Pinacoteca Comunale is housed in what was once a Benedictine monastery.
*The Galleria dei dipinti antichi della Cassa di Risparmio di Cesena is housed in what was once a Celestine monastery.

conom

Cesena"s industry centers on agriculture, handicrafts, and tourism.

ounding commune

*Mercato Saraceno
*Cesenatico
*Cervia
*Ravenna
*Gambettola
*Montiano
*Longiano
*Roncofreddo
*Meldola
*Bertinoro
*Sarsina

otable peopl
* Nicoletta Braschi, Italian actress, best known for her work with her husband, actor and director Roberto Benigni
* Alberto Sughi, Italian painter
* Pope Pius VI, was Pope from February 15, 1775 to August 29, 1799
* Pope Pius VII, was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823.
* Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno

"Frazioni"
Acquarola, Aie, Bagnile, Borello, Borgo di Ronta, Borgo delle Rose, Borgo Paglia, Botteghino, Budrio, Bulgaria, Bulgarnò, Calisese, Calabrina, Capannaguzzo, Carpineta, Casalbono, Casale, Case Castagnoli, Case Frini, Case Gentili, Case Missiroli, Case Scuola Vecchia, Celincordia, Celletta, Diegaro, Formignano, Gattolino, Gualdo, Il Trebbo, Lizzano, Luogoraro, Luzzena, Macerone, Madonna dell"Olivo, Martorano, Massa, Molino Cento, Monte Aguzzo, Monte Vecchio, Montereale, Monticino, Oriola, Osteria di Piavola, Paderno, Pievesestina, Pioppa, Ponte Abbadesse, Ponte Pietra, Pontecucco, Provezza, Rio Eremo, Rio Marano, Ronta, Roversano, Ruffio, Saiano, San Carlo, San Cristoforo, San Demetrio, San Giorgio, San Mamante, San Martino in Fiume, San Matteo, San Tomaso, San Vittore, Santa Lucia, Sant"Andrea in Bagnolo, Settecrociari, Tessello, Tipano, Torre del Moro, Trebbo, Valdinoce, Villa Calabra, Villa Casone.

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Category:Cities and towns in Emilia-Romagna
Category:Gothic sites of Emilia-Romagna
Category:Renaissance sites of Emilia-Romagna

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 27.04.2017 08:57 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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