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Italy, Catanzaro
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"Catanzaro" (, ; ), also known as the "city of the two seas", is an Italian city of 96,000 inhabitants and the capital of the Calabria region and of its province.

The archbishop seat was the capital of the province of Calabria Ultra for over 200 years. It currently houses the University "Magna Græcia", the second largest University of Calabria.

Catanzaro is an urban center, with intense activity, including some coastal towns, such as Marina Sellia Soverato, and the municipalities of Silas, with a total of 156,196 inhabitants. Cantanzaro is currently being consolidated to form a greater metropolitan area, by the Region of Calabria, and in connection with the town of Lamezia Terme, comprising 10 municipalities. This will lead to the creation of an integrated area which will extend from the coast to the Ionian Sea, involving over 200,000 inhabitants.

During the summer months, the Ionian coast from Catanzaro to Soverato is an important tourist attraction, especially for the youth, and is in the presence of several important structures located in the coastal districts of the city and the town of Copanello Soverato.

Catanzaro is also known as city of the three V"s, referring to the three distinct features of the city, namely:

"V" San "V"italiano, patron saint;

"V" "V"elvet as an important silk center since the time of the Byzantines;

"V" Wind ("V"ento in Italian) as constantly experienced by the strong breezes from the Ionian Sea and Silas.

"VVV" was the symbol by which Catanzaro"s silk industry was known by, identified for both its domestic and foreign markets, and iconic for the finest fabrication of silks, velvets, damasks and brocades from the city.

Catanzaro is overlooking the Gulf of , in the Ionian Sea, where according to some scholars, the port of the kingdom of Feaco is located. According to Homer, Ulysses was accepted and told his story here, specifically at Isthmus, the strip of land closer to Italy. Only 30 km separate the Ionian Sea from the Tyrrhenian Sea.

The district of Catanzaro stretches from the sea to a height of 600 meters. The historic center is located approximately 300 meters above sea level. It includes a coastline on the Ionian Sea which hosts 8 km of beach and a marina. The town dates back to the valley of Fiumarella (formerly known as River Zaro). The Bishopric, St. Tryphon (or San Rocco) and St. John (or castle) marks the city"s historical center and is connected to the North Sila. Due to its particular geography, the municipality gets wet from the sea, and is still subjected to a snowy winter.

Catanzaro"s rivers include, the main stream of the Fiumarella (in local dialect Hjiumareddha), which joins with the river Musofalo, and the torrent Corach (formerly called Crotalo).

"Finding a friend is so rare / as a day without wind in Catanzaro" (an ancient Calabrian saying)

The climate of Catanzaro is typically Mediterranean, temperate, and characterized by a windy spring and autumn.

According to the thirty-year average of 1961-1990 reference, the average temperature of the coldest month, January, came to +8.9 °C, the hottest month, August, is +24,5 °C.

The climate, as mentioned, is marked by the presence of wind, even high intensity, especially during spring and autumn. The annual average intensity is about 4 knots with peaks at 6 knots, The months of April and May are characterized by strong winds and the "scirocco libeccio".

The annual rainfall is around 1,000 mm and are distributed in 87 days on average, with a long summer and a minimum peak in the autumn and winter.

"The entire area between the two gulfs of sea, the Nepetinico and the Scilletinico , was reduced
under Italo, a powerful, wise, and good man, who convinced Catanzaro"s immediate neighbors, through words rather than by force.
Italo was first to call the Italian land mass, Italy.

"(Antiochus of Syracuse V century BC)"

Certain assumptions trace the origin of Catanzaro to an ancient Greek colony, already in place, which became the land of Scolacium, believed to have been built on the ruins of the ancient city of Trischines. Other hypotheses identify Catanzaro"s development to have grown from various settlements scattered in the area of Catanzaro, Marina, Tiriolo (formerly Teure), Santa Maria di Catanzaro, and on the hill Trivonà (Trischines, along the valley of Corach which formed the old "Land of Feaco"). The mouth of the river, according to legend, created the ancient Ulysses Skilletion.

Recently, in the district of Germaneto along the valley of Corach, a Greek necropolis of the fifth century BC, an ancient Roman settlement was found. Archaeological discoveries show that the municipality was active since the Iron Ages, flourishing with the populations of "Vitulo", so called because they worship the statue of the calf, which the Greeks renamed "Italoi" (worshipers of the calf), and governed by the famous Italian king of the same name, brother of Dardanus and ancestor of the Trojans. Italy gets its name from this figure.

According to another legend, Catanzaro was named after two Byzantine generals Cattaro and Zaro who led the coastal city of Magna Graecia Skilletion or Skillakion, corresponding to the Roman Scolacium (near Catanzaro"s Marina), first on Zarapotamo (today Santa Maria di Catanzaro) and then later on Trivonà, a military fortress.

Catanzaro was always choice land due to its safe, high location, and the territory was under several group"s control, including the Saracens, Normans, and Venetians. The Saracens were the first to push the town"s development to its highest regions by the second half of the ninth century. Byzantine general Niceforo Foca was responsible for the naming of the "Rock of Niceforo". Catanzaro"s development into a fortress town was established by General Flagizio, who began the construction of a citadel, which later assumed the name of Katantzárion. According to some assumptions, the name is inspired from the development of workshops for creating silk, what the Greeks call "Katartarioi" (Καταρταριοι) (spinners of silk).

At the beginning of the tenth century, the Byzantine city was occupied by the Saracens, who founded an emirate and took the Arab name of Qatansar. An Arab presence is evidenced by findings at an eighth century necropolis which had items with Arabic inscriptions.

Around the year 1050, Catanzaro rebelled Saracen dominance and returned to a brief period of Byzantine control again. In 1069, Catanzaro was the last city in Calabria, after many months of resistance, to fall under siege by the Normans of Robert Guiscard, who built the Norman castle, still in existence today. During this era, arts and crafts pioneered, and particularly the processing of silk, which was traded with other regions in Italy, other countries and Eastern Europe.

In the middle of the thirteenth century, Emperor Frederick II, made Catanzaro direct possession of the crown. Later the city was the household feud of Ruffo, Caraffa and Soriano. To make a domain, the Normans elevated Catanzaro into a noble county, giving it to Peter Ruffo. However, it was lost in a struggle against Manfredi. Ruffo later returned to the city, when Charles I of Anjou, was victorious in the war of the Vespers. For fourteen years, it was the royal domain of King Ladislaus, an in 1420, it was returned again to Nicholas Ruffo, who gave it as part of a dowry for his daughter Enrichetta who was married to Antonio Centelles. After a rebellion by the rural people, Alfonso I took control and in 1460 there was a war with the partisans of Centelles. When peace returned, the city granted new privileges which greatly promoted the development of its silk industry, for which its damasks were known throughout Europe. From this time forward, Catanzaro frimly established itself as an import center for its textile productions.

In 1528 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor gave authorization for Catanzaro to bear the imperial eagle attached to a coat of arms depicting the hill tops of the town.

By the 20th century, Catanzaro"s importance for the whole region was officially confirmed. In 1970 Catanzaro was designated to be the capital of Calabria.

istorical name

Catanzaro had different names, which correspond to different periods of history through the city:

* Katantza"rion, a Greek settlement
* Chatacium, during Roman times
* Quatansàr, Saracen short period
* Rock of Niceforo, Byzantine period
* Cathacem, Norman period
* Cathanzario, under the Kingdom of Naples
* Catanzaro, under united Italy.

ain sight
*Catanzaro Bridge, a well-known, one-arch bridge (Viaduct Morandi-Bisantis)- one of the tallest in Europe.
*"Duomo" (Cathedral). Built over a Norman cathedral built in 1121, in the 16th century it received a Renaissance façade which was however destroyed in 1638. The church was almost entirely destroyed by the bombings of 1943, and was later rebuilt.
*"Basilica dell"Immacolata".
*Church of the "Santissimo Rosario" (15th or 16th century), with a Renaissance façade and a single nave interior.
*Church of "Sant"Omobono" (11th or 12th century).
*Byzantine small church of "Sant"Omobono" (11th century).
*"Chiesa dell"Osservanza", or "Santa Teresa". In the interior is the 16th century Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre and a statue of "Madonna delle Grazie" by Antonello Gagini.
*Remains of the Norman Castle.
*"Porta di S. Agostino" and "Porta di Stratò", two gates which are the last remains of the medieval walls, demolished in 1805.
*"Palazzo de" Nobili" (15th century), now Town Hall.
*"Piazza Grimaldi", a town square named in honor of the House of Grimaldi, who had branches that traded heavily within Catanzaro.

otable peopl
*Renato Dulbecco: Nobel prize winner.
*Mimmo Rotella: contemporary artist and inventor of the Decollage.

Catanzaro"s current economy is mostly based on tertiary and services. Industries are mostly medium and small-size companies working within a local market.

Catanzaro is served by the SS106 Jonica state road which connects it to the A3 Highway.

In the city centre is a line with three stations. A metropolitan service (with c. 1,600,000 users per year, with 20 trains working) is provided by Ferrovie della Calabria, with a total of 11 railway stations in the city, plus others in 12 "comuni" of the hinterland. The rest of the public transportation system is based on 49 bus lines of AMC (Azienda per la Mobilità Catanzaro).

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Category:Cities and towns in Calabria

nl:Catanzaro (stad)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 17.06.2019 03:24 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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