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Bydgoszcz

Poland, Bydgoszcz
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"Bydgoszcz" (, ) is a city located in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 358,029 (June 2009), agglomeration more than 460 000, which makes it the 8th biggest city in Poland. It has been the co-capital with Toru艅 of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, and was previously the capital of the Bydgoszcz Voivodeship (1947-1998) and before that, of the Pomeranian Voivodeship (1945-1947). Since 1999 it is also the seat of Bydgoszcz County.

Bydgoszcz is part of the metroplex Bydgoszcz-Toru艅 with Toru艅, only 45 km away, and over 850,000 inhabitants. Bydgoszcz is the seat of Casimir the Great University, University of Technology and Life Sciences and a conservatory as well as a Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toru艅. Bydgoszcz has a famous Concert Hall (Filharmonia Pomorska), opera house Opera Nova,
From the Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport there are flights to Warsaw, London, Dublin, Liverpool, Berlin, Krakow, Vienna, Copenhagen, Birmingham and D眉sseldorf-Weeze as well charter flights to Antalya, Crete and Tunis. Thanks to its location between Vistula and Odra water system on the Bydgoszcz channel, the city is an important link in a water system connected via Note膰, Warta, Odra, Elbe with the Rhine and Rotterdam.

History
Originally a fishing settlement called "Bydgozcya" ("Bydgostia" in Latin), the city became a stronghold for the Vistula trade routes. In the 13th century it was the site of a castellany, first mentioned in 1238. The city was occupied by the Teutonic Knights in 1331, and incorporated into the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. The city was relinquished by the Knights in 1343 with their signing of the Treaty of Kalisz along with Dobryznia and the remainder of Kuyavia.

King Casimir III of Poland, granted Bydgoszcz city rights (charter) on April 19, 1346. The city increasingly saw an influx of Jews after that date. In the 15th-16th centuries Bydgoszcz was a significant site for wheat trading. The Treaty of Bydgoszcz signed between King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland and Elector Frederich William II of Brandenburg-Prussia in the city in 1657, announcing a military alliance between Poland and Prussia against Sweden.

Bydgoszcz followed the history of Greater Poland until 1772, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in the First Partition of Poland and incorporated into the Netze District as Bromberg and, later, West Prussia. During this time, a canal was built from Bromberg to Nak艂o which connected the north-flowing Vistula River via the Brda to the west-flowing Note膰, which in turn flowed to the Oder via the Warta.


In 1807, after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleon, and the signing of the Treaty of Tilsit, Bromberg became part of the Duchy of Warsaw. In 1815 it returned to Prussian rule as part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Pozna艅 (the Province of Posen after 1848) and the capital of the Bromberg region. After 1871 the city was part of the German Empire. After World War I and the Great Poland Uprising, Bromberg was assigned to Poland in 1919. In 1938 it was made part of the Pomeranian Voivodeship.

From 1939-45 during World War II, Bydgoszcz was retaken by Nazi Germany, in the Invasion of Poland and annexed to the Reichsgau Wartheland. On September 3, 1939, shortly after the war started, the Bromberg Bloody Sunday incident occurred in which numerous Germans and Poles were killed; the incident was used by Nazi propaganda for retaliation against Poles after Bromberg was occupied by the Wehrmacht on September 9. The city"s Jewish citizens were repressed, as thousands of people were sent to concentration camps and/or executed. Bromberg was the site of Bromberg-Ost, a female subcamp of Stutthof. The subcamp was staffed by several female SS guards (Aufseherin) and was commanded by the Oberaufseherin Johanna Wisotzki and a male commandant. A deportation camp was situated in Smuka艂a village, now part of Bydgoszcz. According to "Nowa encyklopedia powszechna PWN", 37,000 citizens of the city died during the war.

In 1945 Bromberg was overrun by the Soviet army. After the Yalta Agreement, it was assigned to Poland, which later became a soviet satellite in the Warsaw Pact.

In March 1981 Solidarity"s activists were violently suppressed in Bydgoszcz.

Population
* Diagram of city population since 1600


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bar:1910 from:0 till:57700
bar:1921 from:0 till:89282
bar:1925 from:0 till:104000
bar:1939 from:0 till:141000
bar:1946 from:0 till:134614
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bar:1965 from:0 till:256582
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bar:1849 at: 10263 text: 10 263 shift:(-14,5)
bar:1875 at: 31300 text: 31 300 shift:(-14,5)
bar:1910 at: 57700 text: 57 700 shift:(-14,5)
bar:1921 at: 89282 text: 89 282 shift:(-14,5)
bar:1925 at: 104000 text: 104 000 shift:(-17,5)
bar:1939 at: 141000 text: 141 000 shift:(-17,5)
bar:1946 at: 134614 text: 134 614 shift:(-14,5)
bar:1955 at: 202044 text: 202 044 shift:(-17,5)
bar:1965 at: 256582 text: 256 582 shift:(-17,5)
bar:1975 at: 322657 text: 322 657 shift:(-17,5)
bar:1985 at: 366424 text: 366 424 shift:(-17,5)
bar:1998 at: 386855 text: 386 855 shift:(-17,5)
bar:2009 at: 358029 text: 358 029 shift:(-17,5)


Landmarks
"Przechodz膮cy przez rzek臋" ("Crossing the River")
Definitely one of the most beautiful buildings, and undoubtedly the oldest building, in the city is the Church of St Martin and Nicolaus, commonly known as Fara Church. It is a three-aisle late Gothic church erected between 1466 and 1502. The church boasts a late-Gothic painting entitled "Madonna with a Rose", or "the Holy Virgin of Beautiful Love", from the 16th century. The colourful 20th-century polychrome is also worth noticing.

The Church of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin, commonly referred to as "The Church of St Calres," is a famous landmark of the city. It is a small, Gothic-Renaissance (including Neo-Renaissance additions), one-aisle church built between 1582 鈥 1602. The interior of the temple is rather austere since the church has been stripped of most his furnishings. Not a surprising fact when taking into account that in the 19th century the Prussian authorities dissolved the Order of St Clare and turned the church into a warehouse, among others. Nonetheless, the temple is worth visiting and examining. The original wooden polychrome ceiling from the 17th century draws the attention of every visitor.

"Wyspa M艂y艅ska" (the Mill Island) is among the most spectacular and atmospheric places in Bydgoszcz. What makes it unique is the location in the very heart of the city centre, just a few steps from the old market square. It had been the "industrial" centre of Bydgoszcz in the Middle Ages and throughout the next few hundreds years of its existence. It was there that the famous royal mint operated for many years in the 17th century. The buildings which can still be seen on the island come from the 19th century. However, the so-called "Bia艂y Spichlerz" (the White Granary) remembers the end of the 18th century. But it is the water, footbridges, red-brick edifices of historical tenement houses reflected in rivers, and the greenery, including old chesnut trees, that create the atmosphere of the Island.

Economy
Historic grain elevators at the Brda river bank.

Major corporations
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
* Alcatel-Lucent
* Atos Origin

Education
* Kazimierz Wielki University
*
*
* University Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera (Uniwersytet Miko艂aja Kopernika w Toruniu, Akademia Medyczna)
*
* Sekcja Wydzia艂u Teologicznego Uniwersytetu im. A. Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
*
*
*
*
*
* in 艁贸d藕, Branch in Bydgoszcz
* Nauczycielskie Kolegium J臋zyk贸w Obcych
* Niepubliczne Nauczycielskie Kolegium J臋zyk贸w Obcych

Transport
Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport
Airports
* Bydgoszcz Ignacy Jan Paderewski Airport

Railways
Bydgoszcz is one of the biggest railroad junctions in Poland, with two important lines crossing there - the east-west connection from Toru艅 to Pila and the north-south line from Inowroc艂aw to Gda艅sk (see: Polish Coal Trunk-Line). There are also secondary-importance lines stemming from the city, to Szubin and to Che艂m偶a.

Among rail stations located in the city, there are:
* Bydgoszcz G艂贸wna - main railway station
* Bydgoszcz Le艣na
* Bydgoszcz Wsch贸d
* Bydgoszcz Zach贸d
* Bydgoszcz 艁臋gnowo
* Bydgoszcz Bielawy
* Bydgoszcz Osowa G贸ra
* Bydgoszcz Fordon

Buses and Trams
* PKS Bydgoszcz - operates inter-city and international bus routes.
* Local buses and trams are operated by .

Culture
Museums
* Muzeum Okr臋gowe im. Leona Wycz贸艂kowskiego (Leon Wycz贸艂kowski District Museum) is a municipally-owned museum. Apart from a large collection of Leon Wycz贸艂kowski"s works, it houses permanent as well as temporary exhibitions of art.
It occupies several buildings:
- Main building (Gda艅ska 4 St.)
- The White Granary (Mennica St.)

Classical musi
* Filharmonia Pomorska im. Ignacego Paderewskiego (Ignacy Paderewski"s Concert Hall) - thanks to superbly designed acoustic qualities of the main concert hall, it is one of the best classical music concert halls in Europe.

Popular music
* Concerts of popular music in Bydgoszcz are usually held in Filharmonia Pomorska, 艁uczniczka, Zawisza and Polonia stadiums as well as open plains of Myslecinek"s Rozopole on the outskirts of the city.
* Alternative music festival "Low Fi" ,
*Smooth Festival Z艂ote Przeboje Bydgoszcz
*Eska Music Festival Bydgoszcz
*Hity na Czasie Festival Bydgoszcz

Theatre
"Opera Nova" at the bank of the Brda river.
* Teatr Polski im. Hieronima Konieczki (Hieronim Konieczka"s Polish Theatre) - despite its name, theatre offers a wide variety of shows both of national and foreign origin. It also regularly plays hosts to a large number of touring shows. Once a year, in autumn, "Festiwal Prapremier" is organized: the most renowned Polish theatres stage their latest premieres.
* Opera Nova (The Nova Opera)

Sports
Sports clubs
* Astoria Bydgoszcz - men"s basketball team playing in Dominet Bank Ekstraliga (formerly Era Basket Liga): 8th in 2003/2004 season, 6th in 2004/2005, 9th in 2005/2006. In 2006, due to lack of funding, the team was relegated to 3rd Polish League, now play in 2nd Polish League.
* Centrostal Focus Park Bydgoszcz - women"s volleyball team playing in Polish Seria A Women"s Volleyball League: 2nd place in 2004/2005 season, 4th place in 2005/2006 season.
* Delecta Chemik Bydgoszcz - men"s volleyball team playing in Polish Volleyball League
* Polonia Bydgoszcz - speedway team from the Polish 1st League. The club has won Polish Speedway League 7 times (lately in 2002) and European Team Championship 3 times (lately in 2001).
* Zawisza Bydgoszcz - football (soccer) team playing in Polish 2nd League.
* - Rowing (sport) Bydgostia Regional Rowing Association was founded on December 4, 1928.
The Club was A Team Polish Champion in the following years: 1938, 1966, 1967, 1970 and for the successive sixteen years: 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008.

Sports facilities
The sport, show and fair arena "艁uczniczka".
* 艁uczniczka Sport, Show and Fair Arena
* Zdzis艂aw Krzyszkowiak Stadium
* Polonia Stadium

Sports events
* Speedway:
** Grand Prix of Poland: (1998-1999, since 2001)
** Grand Prix of Europe: (2000)
** Mieczys艂aw Po艂ukard Criterium of Polish Speedway Leagues Aces (1951-1960, since 1982)
* Bydgoszcz was the host of the IAAF 2008 World Junior Championships in Athletics held July 8 - 13, 2008.
* Eurobasket 2009
* Women"s European Volleyball Championships 2009
* European Athletics Festival Bydgoszcz

Politics
Bydgoszcz constituency

"Members of Polish Sejm 2007-2011" elected from Bydgoszcz constituency:
* Anna Ba艅kowska, Left and Democrats
* Krzysztof Brejza, Civic Platform
* Jaros艂aw Katulski, Civic Platform
* Eugeniusz K艂opotek, Polish People"s Party
* Tomasz Latos, Law and Justice
* Wojciech Mojzesowicz, Law and Justice
* Pawe艂 Olszewski, Civic Platform
* Teresa Piotrowska, Civic Platform
* Grzegorz Roszak, Civic Platform
* Rados艂aw "Radek" Sikorski, Civic Platform
* Andrzej Walkowiak, Law and Justice
* Janusz Zemke, Left and Democrats

"Members of Polish Senate 2007-2011" elected from Bydgoszcz constituency:
* Zbigniew Paw艂owicz, Civic Platform
* Jan Rulewski, Civic Platform

Legends
It is also said that Pan Twardowski spent some time in the city of Bydgoszcz, where, in his memory, a figure was recently mounted in a window of a tenement, overseeing the Old Town. At 1:13 p.m. and 9:13 p.m. the window opens and Pan Twardowski appears, to the accompaniment of weird music and devilish laughter. He takes a bow, waves his hand, and then disappears. This little show gathers crowds of amused spectators.

People born in Bydgoszcz
Hotel "Pod Or艂em" ("Beneath the Eagle").
* Morris D. Rosenbaum (1831-1885), businessman
* Adolf Martens (1850-1914), metallurgist
* Hugo Hergesell (1859-1938), meteorologist
* Walter Leistikow (1865-1908), painter
* Eberhard von Mackensen (1889-1969), general
* Mieczys艂aw Garsztka (1896-1919), aviator
* Kurt Tank (1898-1983), aerospace engineer
* Alfred-Ingemar Berndt (1905-1945), writer and journalist
* Marian Rejewski (1905-1980), mathematician and cryptologist
* Teodor Kocerka (1927-1999), rower
* Edmund Micha艂 Piszcz (born 1929), archbishop
* Jerzy Broniec (born 1944), rower and then rowing coach
* Jan Rulewski (born 1944), politician
* Edward Obia艂a (born 1946), architect
* Jan Kulczyk (born 1950), businessman
* Jan Krzysztof Bielecki (born 1951), Prime Minister of the Republic of Poland
* Gra偶yna Szapo艂owska (born 1953), film actress
* Marian Sypniewski (born 1955), fencer
* Zbigniew Boniek (born 1956), football player
* Stefan Majewski (born 1956), football player
* Miroslaw Dembinski (born 1959), film director
* Janusz Turowski (born 1961), football coach
* Marzena Hany偶ewska (for some time H.-Traversa) (born 1963), volleyball player
* Marek Le艣niewski (born 1963), cyclist (road)
* Rados艂aw Sikorski (born 1963), Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland
* Miros艂aw Chmara (born 1964), pole vaulter
* Mariusz Max Kolonko (born 1965)
* Mariusz Sobacki (born 1966), basketball player
* Piotr Makowski (born 1968), volleyball coach (women)
* Grzegorz Skiba (born 1968), basketball player
* Jacek Gollob (born 1969), speedway rider
* Katarzyna Radtke (born 1969), race walker
* Alicja P臋czak (born 1970), swimmer
* Sebastian Chmara (born 1971), decathlete
* Tomasz Gollob (born 1971), speedway rider
* Agnieszka Malinowska (born 1973 as Obremska), volleyball player
* Ewa Kowalkowska (born 1975 as Nogowska), volleyball player
* Vivian Schmitt (born 1978), pornographic actress
* Sylwester Szmyd (born 1978), cyclist (road)
* Pawe艂 Olszewski (born 1979), politician
* Filip Dylewicz (born 1980), basketball player
* Wojciech 艁obodzi艅ski (born 1982), football player
* Micha艂 Winiarski (born 1983), volleyball player
* Beata Miko艂ajczyk (born 1985), canoer
* Filip Zadru偶y艅ski (born 1988), kickboxer
* Pawe艂 Wojciechowski (born 1989), pole vaulter
* Marcin Jaskulski, journalist
* Tomasz Sekielski, journalist
* Michal.J.R.Woroniecki (born 1983),photo model

International Relations
Twin towns and Sister cities
Bydgoszcz Twin Cities sign on the Theatre Square
Bydgoszcz is twinned with:


riendship relation
Bydgoszcz also maintains friendship relations with these cities:



Gallery

File:Bydgoszcz Mostowa noc.jpg|View of Brda river
File:Bydgoszcz kamienica Pl Wolno艣ci.jpg|Wolnosci (Freedom) Square
File:Bydgoszcz katedra wn臋trze.jpg|Cathedral of St. Nicholas and Martin (circa 1466), interior
File:Bydgoszcz Plac Solny impreza.jpg|Solny Square with the Bobola Church
File:Bydgoszcz - Bazylika.jpg|Vincent de Paul Basilica, begun in 1924
File:Bydgoszcz kosciol Bernardynow.jpg|Bernardine Church, 1552-1557
File:Kolegium jezuickie w Bydg.jpg|City House (former Jesuit college)
File:Bydgoszcz Ko艣ci贸艂 NSPJ front.jpg|Church of the Holy Heart of Jesus


See also

* Bromberg-Ost, a female subcamp of the German concentration camp Stutthof, located in Bydgoszcz.
* Bydgoszcz Department (), a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Warsaw from 1806-1815.
* Bydgoszcz Synagogue, former synagogue in the city
* Roman Catholic Diocese of Bydgoszcz

References



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Category:Cities and towns in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
Category:City counties of Poland

af:Bydgoszcz
be-x-old:袘褘写谐邪褕褔
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bg:袘懈写谐芯褕褔
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lv:Bidgo拧膷a
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ja:銉栥偅銉夈偞銈枫儱銉併儱
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nn:Bydgoszcz
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pl:Bydgoszcz
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crh:B谋dgo艧莽
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vo:Bydgoszcz
zh:姣斿緱鍝ヤ粈
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 14.10.2019 01:37 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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|national_anthem = File:Mazurek Dabrowskiego.ogg"Mazurek D膮browskiego"("D膮browski"s Mazurka")|official_languages = Polish|capital = Warsaw|latd=52 |latm=13 |latNS=N |longd=21 |longm=02 |longEW=E|largest_city
"Bydgoszcz" (, ) is a city located in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 358,029 (June 2009), agglomeration more than 460 000, which makes it the 8th biggest city in Poland. It has been the co-capital with Toru艅
"Tychy" (, ) is a city in Silesia, Poland, approximately 20 kilometres (12 miles) south of Katowice. Situated on the southern edge of the Upper Silesian industrial district, the city borders Katowice to the north, Miko艂贸w to the west, Bieru艅 to
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" ReferencesExternal links*** Category:Cities and towns in Subcarpathian
"Bydgoszcz" (, ) is a city located in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 358,029 (June 2009), agglomeration more than 460 000, which makes it the 8th biggest city in Poland. It has been the co-capital with Toru艅
 
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