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Burnley

Great Britain, Burnley
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|official_name= Burnley
|shire_district= Burnley
|shire_county=
|region= North West England
|constituency_westminster= Burnley
|post_town= BURNLEY
|postcode_district= BB10-1
|postcode_area= BB
|dial_code= 018
|static_image= 70px
|static_image_caption= St James Street, Burnley
|os_grid_reference= SD83636
|london_distance= 181 mi (90 km) SSE
|website=
}}

"Burnley" is a large market town in the borough of Burnley in , England, with a population of around 73,500. It lies east of Blackburn and east of Preston, at the confluence of the River Calder and River Brun.
It began life in the early medieval period as a small market town, but its main period of expansion came during the Industrial Revolution, when it became one of the world"s largest producers of cotton cloth. Today, Burnley has lost much of its industry, and is increasingly a dormitory town for Manchester, Leeds and the M65 corridor. Accessed 7 October 007. The public sector is now the town"s largest employer.

istor
rigins

Queen Street Mill Textile Museum

Burnley"s origins are prehistoric, as shown by Stone Age flint tools and weapons that found on the moors around the town. Local place names Padiham and Habergham show the influence of the Angles, suggesting that some had settled in the area by the early 7th century, but there is no definitive record of settlement until 11, when a charter granted the church of Burnley to the monks of Pontefract Abbey. In its early days, Burnley was a small farming community, gaining a corn mill in 190 , a market in 194, and a fulling mill in 196. At this point, it was within the manor of Ightenhill, one of five that made up the Honour of Clitheroe, then a far more significant settlement, and consisted of no more than 50 families. Little survives of early Burnley – the name means ‘meadow by the River Brun’ – apart from the Market Cross, erected in 195, which now stands in the grounds of an annexe of Burnley College.
Over the next three centuries, Burnley grew in size to about 1,00 inhabitants by 1550, still centred around the church, St Peter’s, in what is now known as "Top o’ th’ Town". Prosperous residents built larger houses, including Gawthorpe Hall in Padiham and Towneley Hall, and in 153 St Peter"s Church was largely rebuilt. Burnley’s grammar school was founded in 1559, and moved into its own schoolhouse next to the church in 160 . Burnley began to develop in this period into a small market town. It is known that weaving was established in the town by the middle of the 17th century and in 1617 a new Market House was built. The town continued to be centred on St Peter’s Church until the market was moved to the bottom of what is today Manchester Road at the end of the 18th century.

ndustrial Revolution and afte
In the second half of the 18th century, the manufacture of cotton began to replace that of wool. Burnley’s earliest known factories – dating from the mid-century – stood on the banks of the River Calder close to where it is joined by the River Brun, and relied on water power to drive the spinning machines, but by 1830 there were 3 steam engines in cotton mills throughout the rapidly expanding town. By 1866, the town was the largest producer of cotton cloth in the world.. Accessed 6 September 007. The 18th century also saw the rapid development of coal mining: the drift mines and shallow bell-pits of earlier centuries were replaced by deeper shafts meeting industrial as well as domestic demand locally, and by 1800 there were over a dozen pits in the centre of the town alone. The first turnpike road through Burnley was begun in 1754, linking the town to Blackburn and Colne, and by the early 19th century there were daily stagecoach journeys to Blackburn, Skipton and Manchester, the last taking just over two hours.. For the transportation of goods in bulk, the Leeds and Liverpool Canal arrived in 1796, and in 1848 the East Railway Company’s extension from Accrington linked the town to the nation’s nascent railway network for the first time. By 1851, the town’s population had reached almost 1,000.The Weavers" Triangle, with the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in the foreground

Burnley became incorporated as a municipal borough in 1861, and became, under the Local Government Act 1888, a county borough outside the administrative county of . But from a population of over 100,000 in 1911, the town"s population has declined to today"s figure,. Accessed 6 September, 007. mirroring the decline in its traditional industries of textiles, mining and engineering. The Queen paid an official visit to the town in summer 1961, marking the 100th anniversary of Burnley"s borough status. Under the Local Government Act 197 Burnley"s county borough status was abolished, and it was incorporated with neighbouring areas into the non-metropolitan district of Burnley.

In June 001, the town received national attention following a series of violent disturbances arising from racial tension between elements of its white and immigrant communities.. Accessed 6 September 007

overnanc
Burnley has three tiers of government, Burnley Borough Council and County Council ("local"), the United Kingdom parliament ("national") and the European Parliament ("Europe"). While the town itself is unparished, the rest of the borough has one further, bottom tier of government, the parish or town council.. Accessed 18 September 007.

oca


Burnley Borough Council has been governed since 008 by the Liberal Democrats, led by Gordon Birtwistle. The mayor – a ceremonial post, which rotates annually – is currently Ida Carmichael (Conservative). The borough comprises 15 wards, 1 of which – Bank Hall, Briercliffe, Brunshaw, Coal Clough with Deerplay, Daneshouse with Stoneyholme, Gannow, Lanehead, Queensgate, Rosegrove with Lowerhouse, Rosehill with Burnley Wood, Trinity, and Whittlefield with Ightenhill – fall within the town itself.. Accessed 6 November 007.

County Council was controlled by Labour from 1981 until the Conservative Party won control in the local council elections in June 009. County Council - URL accessed 5 June 009] bbc.co.uk URL accessed 5 June 009. The borough is represented on the council in 6 divisions: Burnley Central East, Burnley Central West, Burnley North East, Burnley Rural, Burnley South West, and Padiham & Burnley West.. Accessed 6 November 007. In 009 Liberal Democrats won five of the six county seats and the British National Party has a single councillor. The election of BNP candidate Sharon Wilkinson to the council seat of Padiham and Burnley West made her the BNP"s first County Councillor. bbc.co.uk URL accessed 5 June 009

ationa
All but one of the seven MPs elected by Burnley since the first World War have been from the Labour party. The Member of Parliament for the town since the election in 005 has been Kitty Ussher (Labour).

urop
Burnley lies within the North West England European Parliament constituency, which elects 9 MEPs by proportional representation - currently 3 Conservative, Labour, 1 Liberal Democrat, 1 UKIP and 1 BNP.

eograph
The River Brun as it flows through Burnley

The town lies in a natural three-forked valley at the confluence of the River Brun and the River Calder, surrounded by open fields which evolve into wild moorland at higher altitudes. There are several large parks in the town, including Towneley Park, once the deer park for the 15th century Towneley Hall and three winners of the Green Flag Award, including Queens Park, which hosts a summer season of brass band concerts each year, and Thompson Park, which has a boating lake and miniature railway.. Accessed 10 September 007. The landmark RIBA-award winning Panopticon "Singing Ringing Tree", overlooking the town from the hills at Crown Point, was installed in 006.. Accessed 6 September 007.

To the west of Burnley lie the towns of Padiham, Accrington and Blackburn, with Nelson and Colne to the north. To the north west of the town lies the imposing and visually dramatic Pendle Hill, home of the Pendle Witches, whose summit stands 1,87 feet (557 m) above sea level. To the east of the town lie the hills of the South Pennines, and to the south, the Forest of Rossendale.

The Pennine Way passes six miles east of Burnley; the Mary Towneley Loop, part of the Pennine Bridleway, and the Burnley Way offer riders and walkers clearly-signed routes through the countryside immediately surrounding the town.

The Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes through the town on a 60 foot high embankment known as the "Straight Mile", built between 1796 and 1801 to avoid the need for locks and is today regarded as one of the seven wonders of the British waterways.. Accessed 6 November 007.

emograph

The United Kingdom Census 001 showed a total resident population for Burnley of 73,01. The town is the main population centre in the Burnley-Nelson urban area, which has an estimated population of 149,796; for comparison purposes, this is about the same size as Huddersfield, Oxford or Poole.. Accessed 6 September 007.

The racial composition of the borough is 91.77% White and 7.16% South Asian or South Asian / British, predominantly from Pakistan. The largest religious groups are Christian (74.46%) and Muslim (6.58%). 59.0% of adults between the ages of 16 and 74 are classed as economically active and in work. Accessed 6 September 007.

ranspor
oa
Burnley is served by Junctions 9, 10 and 11 of the M65 motorway, which runs west to Accrington, Blackburn and Preston, and northeast to Nelson and Colne. From the town centre, the A646 runs to Todmorden, the A679 to Accrington, the A671 to Clitheroe, and the A68 – Britain"s most dangerous road, 4 June 007. Accessed 6 September 007. – south to Rawtenstall and northeast to Nelson and the Yorkshire Dales.

ai
Rail services to and from Burnley are provided by Northern Rail. The town has three railway stations, Burnley Manchester Road, Burnley Central and, on the western outskirts of the town centre, Burnley Barracks (A fourth station, Rose Grove, serves the Rose Grove district west of Burnley). Manchester Road station has an hourly semi-fast service west to Preston and Blackpool North and east to Leeds and York, whilst the Central and Barracks stations provide an hourly stopping service west to Blackpool South and Preston, and east to Nelson and Colne.

us and coac
Burnley Bus Station
The main bus operator in Burnley is Transdev Burnley & Pendle, although Transdev Northern Blue operate some local and coastal services and Tyrer Bus operate some tendered town services. Other services are provided by Coastlinks Express (X7 to Southport), First (589 to Rochdale, 59 to Halifax), Transdev United (15 to Preston), Pennine (15 to Skipton), and Rossendale Transport (483 to Bury). National Express operates three coach services to London each day, and one to Birmingham.

The town has good bus links into Manchester, compensating for the lack of a direct rail link: the X43/X44 Witch Way service (operated by Burnley & Pendle) runs from Nelson to Manchester, via Burnley and Rawtenstall, using a fleet of specially-branded double-decker buses with leather seats. The fastest journeys take 59 minutes.

The town"s futuristic bus station, designed by Manchester-based , won the UK Bus Award for Infrastructure in 003.. Accessed 10 September 007.

conomy and industr

Burnley"s traditional employment base has been in decline for several decades. The last deep coal mine, Hapton Valley Colliery, closed in February 1981 and the last steam-powered mill, Queen Street Mill, in 198. Over the next two decades, Burnley"s two largest manufacturers both closed their factories: Prestige in July 1997 and Michelin in April 00.. " Evening Telegraph", 5 July 1997. Accessed 11 September 007.. " Evening Telegraph", 30 December 00. Accessed 11 September 007. The town has struggled to recover: its employment growth between 1995 and 004 placed it 55th of England"s 56 largest towns and cities,. Accessed 6 September 007. and as of 007 it was the 1st most deprived local authority (out of 354) in the United Kingdom.. Accessed 6 January 008. 13% of its working age population currently claims incapacity benefit (national average 7%).. Accessed 1 April 008.

The largest employment sector in the town is now public administration, education and health (31.%), followed by manufacturing (1.9%).. Accessed 11 September 007. Key manufacturing employers today are in highly specialised fields: Gardner Aerospace, Safran Aircelle and TRW Automotive "(automotive components)".. Accessed 11 September 007. In 004, the was established on land formerly occupied by the now-closed Michelin factory to provide support and incubation space for start-up technology companies.

The town"s main shopping street is St James Street, onto which Charter Walk Shopping Centre opens. The town centre is home to a good number of major high street multiples, including Marks and Spencer, Next and W H Smith, and a healthy mix of other shops, including specialist food shops, independent record shops and an independent bookshop. A large council-run is open six days a week. On the edge of the town centre, three retail parks house big box stores, including Currys, Homebase and PC World; there are also a number of mill shops. A second town centre shopping centre, "The Oval", housing 3 further units, is scheduled for construction in 008-010, but has yet to secure the anchor tenant needed for the project to proceed., "Burnley Express", 19 December 006. Accessed 7 September 007.

por
Burnley has good sporting facilities for a town of its size. The new £9m St Peter"s Centre offers swimming, squash courts and a fitness suite, while the nearby Spirit of Sport complex includes a large sports hall, and several indoor courts and synthetic pitches.. Accessed 7 September 007. There is an outdoor athletics track at Barden Lane, where the meets. For golfers, there are both 9 hole and 18 hole municipal golf courses at Towneley Park, along with an 18-hole pitch and putt course.. Accessed 4 December 007. (The private also welcomes visiting players.) There are tennis courts at Towneley Park, as well as at the , eleven bowling greens around the town,. Accessed 7 September 007. and a £35,000 skate park at Queens Park, which opened in 003. There are also , and clubs in the town.

The town"s sporting scene is dominated by Burnley Football Club, which was founded in 188, and has played its home matches at Turf Moor since 1883, where attendance currently averages 0,000.. Accessed 1 February 008. The club was one of the 1 founder members of the Football League in 1888. Nicknamed the Clarets, they will play the 009/10 season in the Premier League, 33 years since they last played in the top flight of English football and are one of the few English league clubs to have been champions of all four professional league divisions.

There are two members of the Cricket League in the town. Burnley Cricket Club play their home matches at Turf Moor, their ground being adjacent to the football ground, while Lowerhouse Cricket Club play at Liverpool Road.

ulture and nightlif

National Trust

Burnley is well-served for a town of its size. There is a modern 4 lane Ten pin bowling centre on Finsley Gate, operated by AMF Bowling. A 9-screen multiplex cinema in the town centre, operated by Apollo Cinemas, and a theatre named for the building"s former use as the , which plays host to touring comedians and musical acts, as well as staging amateur dramatics. A second performance space, the purpose-built £1.5m , opened nearby in 005. For art lovers, there is a small contemporary visual arts gallery, the , and - on the outskirts of Burnley - larger galleries in the town"s two stately homes, Towneley Hall, which was bought by Burnley Corporation in 1901,. Accessed 4 September, 008. and Gawthorpe Hall, bequeathed to the National Trust in 1970. There are also two local museums: the Weavers" Triangle Trust operates the Visitor Centre and Museum of Local History in the historic surroundings of the , while the celebrates Burnley"s weaving past.

Once a year, Burnley hosts the two-day , one of the largest Blues festivals in the country, drawing fans from all over Britain to venues spread across the town. In the 1970s, it was also an important venue for Northern Soul;Roberts, "Northern Soul Top 500", p.369 several local pubs still hold regular Northern Soul nights. In recent years, the town has also hosted an annual balloon festival in the setting of Towneley Park.

Burnley has a lively nightlife, drawing clubbers from all over the north-west. The town is dominated by the club ; other major bars and nightclubs include Barcode, Calamity Jane"s (cowboy-themed), (electro, retro, ghetto, house and techno), , The Mix, Pharaoh"s, Posh, Red Room, and . Burnley has a small gay scene, centred on the Guys as Dolls bar in St James Street. There are also chain-owned bars, such as Wetherspoons and Walkabout.

The local brewery, Moorhouse"s, was founded in 1865, produces a range of award winning beers - including the very popular Pride of Pendle and Blond Witch - and currently operates six pubs in the area, while more Bénédictine is drunk in one local working men"s club, the Burnley Miners" Club, than anywhere else in the world, after a local regiment stationed in Normandy during World War I brought back a taste for the drink., "Manchester Evening News", August 00. Accessed 3 October 007.

edi
Local radio for Burnley and its surrounding area is currently provided by BR and BBC Radio .

There are two local newspapers: the Burnley Express, published on Tuesdays and Fridays, and the daily Telegraph, which publishes a local edition for Burnley and Pendle. There are also two free advertisement supported newspapers called and The Reporter, both of which are posted to homes throughout the town.
Police Station & Magistrates" Court by Bradshaw Gass & Hope

Burnley was one of seven sites chosen to be part of Channel 4"s The Big Art project in which a group of 15 young people from all over the entire town commissioned artist Greyworld to create a piece of public art in the town. The artwork , named "Invisible" is a series of UV paintings placed all around the town centre displaying "public heroes". The bright spectacles are best seen at the night time.

ilmograph

Parts of the film Whistle Down the Wind (1961) and the television series All Quiet on the Preston Front and Juliet Bravo were filmed in the town. (For example, Burnley Fire Station was the location of Social Services in the first series of Juliet Bravo, and was used for exterior shots of the magistrates" court in the same series.)

ducatio
A boys" grammar school was first founded in St Peter"s Church in 1559, its first headmaster a former chantry priest, Gilbert Fairbank. In 160, one of the governors, John Towneley, paid for a new schoolhouse to be built in the churchyard;Hall & Spencer, "Burnley: A Pictorial History", p. the school moved again in 1876 to a new building on Bank Parade, which can still be seen today.. Accessed 6 November 007.
The equivalent school for girls, Burnley Girls" High School, was established in 1909 on a site in Ormerod Road,. Accessed 6 November 007 and moved on Kiddrow Lane in the 1960s.

The borough moved to comprehensive education in 1981,. Accessed 13 November 007. and today has five 11-16 secondary schools:
*Blessed Trinity RC College
*Hameldon Community College
*Shuttleworth College
*Sir John Thursby Community College
*Unity College

These opened in September 006 as part of the first wave of a nationwide 10-15 year programme of capital investment funded by the Department for Education and Skills called . Shuttleworth College moved into new buildings in September 008; the remaining schools, which currently occupy the buildings of five former secondary schools in the town, are to be completely rebuilt over the next three years. Thomas Whitham Sixth Form, which forms a sixth element of the BSF programme, offers sixth form provision on a newly-built campus on Barden Lane.

Burnley College is the borough"s main tertiary education provider, offering vocational and professional training, adult education, and a small number of degree courses, as well as some GCSE courses and a full range of A levels. It is scheduled to move to a new £70million campus off Princess Way in September 009.

ttainmen
The town"s educational attainment is significantly below the national average at all levels. In 007, 7% of children at the end of Key Stage achieved at least Level 4 in English (national average 80%), and 70% in Mathematics (national average 77%).. Accessed 6 February 008. At the end of Key Stage 3, the figures achieving at least Level 5 were 66% in English (national average 74%), and 66% in Mathematics (national average 76%).. Accessed 11 March 008. 41.1% of students at the end of Key Stage 4 achieved at least 5 A*-C grades at GCSE (national average 6.0%).. Accessed 6 February 008. Three of the town"s five secondary schools are currently in the bottom 5% nationally for adding value between the end of Key Stage and the end of Key Stage 4;. Accessed 10 January 008. two of the five schools are currently in special measures., " Telegraph", 4 March 008. Accessed 4 March 008.

Twin towns
Burnley is twinned with:

* Vitry-sur-Seine, France ("since 1958")
, 14 February 007. Accessed 1 August 007.

eopl
ntertainmen
Probably the best-known Burnley figure in the field of entertainment is actor and gay rights activist Sir Ian McKellen,Barratt, "Ian McKellen: An Unofficial Biography", p.1 who was born in the town in 1939. Other actors born in the town include Julia Haworth. Accessed October 007. "(Coronation Street)", Richard Moore. Accessed October 007. and Lisa Riley. Accessed October 007. "(Emmerdale)", Alice Barry. Accessed October 007. and Jody Latham. Accessed October 007. "(Shameless)", Hannah Hobley Accessed 1 December 008. "(Benidorm)" and film actor Lee Ingleby.. Accessed October 007. Paul Abbott,. Accessed October 007., "The Guardian", 1 July 008. Accessed 14 July 008. creator of "Shameless", is another native of the town. Television producer and executive Peter Salmon, "The Guardian", 11 December 006. Accessed October 007. was also born in Burnley.

Musicians born in the town include Danbert Nobacon, Alice Nutter, Lou Watts and Boff Whalley "(Chumbawamba)",. Accessed October 007. as well as classical composer John Pickard.Rickards, "Icarus Soaring: The Music of John Pickard", p.

The 19th century author and clergyman Silas Hocking. Accessed 3 October 007. wrote his most famous work, "Her Benny" (1879), while living in Burnley. Crime writer Stephen Booth is another native of the town.. Accessed 8 April 008.

olitics and the churc
Phil Willis,. Accessed 3 October 007. Liberal Democrat MP for Harrogate & Knaresborough, and Sir Vincent Fean,. Accessed 4 October 007. HM ambassador to Libya, were born in Burnley, as were James Yorke Scarlett,Chapples, "General Scarlett: The Burnley Hero of Balaclava", p.6 commander of the Heavy Brigade at the Battle of Balaclava, and the 16th century Catholic martyr Robert Nutter.. Accessed 3 October 007. Suffragette Ada Nield Chew died in Burnley in 1945.

urnley and the Royal Famil

Charles, Prince of Wales occasionally visits the milltown to undertake inspections on the youth programme that the prince"s trust has in place there to help 350 disadvantaged 14–5 year olds get their lives back on track in the borough. And Prince Charles has set Burnley at the top of his priority list for his popular charity. The prince has focused his regeneration efforts on deprived parts of the country since a bid to improve Halifax in the 1980s. Prince Charles’ interest in Burnley stems from a visit in 005, when he saw first-hand the work being done to regenerate the town. At the time he described Burnley as a “remarkable town” and added: “Recent years have not been at all kind to Burnley and all sorts of difficulties and challenges are placed in its way.

“But I hope my charities can make what small contribution they can, in partnership with the borough council and the NWDA, in this really crucial project to give, I hope, Burnley the future it deserves.

cience and industr
Engineer Sir Willis Jackson. Accessed 3 October 007. wa s born and educated in the town.

por
Burnley"s sporting figures include England and cricketer James Anderson,. Accessed 4 October 007. England and Everton Women"s goalkeeper Rachel Brown,. Accessed 4 October 007. Pakistan and Tranmere Rovers midfielder Adnan Ahmed,. Accessed 3 October 007. Ex-Bury FC manager Chris Casper,. Accessed 4 October 007. Commonwealth Games Gold Medal-winning gymnast Craig Heap,, "Burnley Citizen", 8 August 00. Accessed 4 August 007. and Neil Hodgson, 003 World Superbike champion.. Accessed 4 October 007. Ron Greenwood,. Accessed 4 October 007. former manager of the England football team, was born in nearby Worsthorne.

ote


eference
*Mike Barratt, "Ian McKellen: An Unofficial Biography", Virgin Books, 006 ISBN 0-7535-1074-X
*Steve Chapples, "General Scarlett: The Burnley Hero of Balaclava", Arncliffe Press, 006
*Brian Hall, "Burnley: A Short History", Burnley Historical Society, 00
*Brian Hall & Ken Spencer, "Burnley: A Pictorial History", Phillimore, 1993 ISBN 0-85033-866-
*Guy Rickards, "Icarus Soaring: The Music of John Pickard" in "Tempo", n.s., 01 (July 1997), pp. –5
*Kev Roberts, "Northern Soul Top 500", Goldmine Publications, 000 ISBN 0-9539-910-8

urther readin
*Walter Bennett, "The History of Burnley", 4 vols., Burnley Corporation, 1946-1951
*Ken Bolton & Roger Frost, "Burnley", Francis Frith, 006 ISBN 1-84589-131-7
*Mike Townend, "Burnley", Tempus Publishing, 004 ISBN 0-754-1566-
*Mike Townend, "Burnley Revisited", Tempus Publishing, 006 ISBN 0-754-3996-0

xternal link


eneral informatio
* Official council site
* Official tourism site

aps and photograph
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Category:Burnley
Category:Towns in
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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 15.04.2021 09:14 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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DemographyPopulation of , 1801-2001The ornamental gate to Chinatown, As wh other major Brish cies, has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 UK Census the recorded population of was 441,900, whilst a mid-2007 estimate by the NS had the cy"s
DemographyPopulation of , 1801-2001The ornamental gate to Chinatown, As wh other major Brish cies, has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 UK Census the recorded population of was 441,900, whilst a mid-2007 estimate by the NS had the cy"s
 
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