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Braunschweig

Germany, Braunschweig
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The German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Investigation
"Braunschweig" (), (known as "Brunswiek" in Low German and "Brunswick" in English), is a city of 245,810 people (as of 31 December 2007), located in the federal-state of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river, which connects to the North Sea via the rivers Aller and Weser. The English name for Braunschweig is "Brunswick"."Brunswick" (definition 2), "The American Heritage Dictionary" p. 245 3d. ed. 1992)

The offices of the German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Investigation (BFU) are located in Braunschweig."." German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Investigation. Retrieved on 21 February 2009.

History
The date and circumstances of the town"s foundation are unknown. Tradition maintains that Braunschweig was created through the merger of two settlements, one founded by Bruno II, a Saxon count who died before 1017 on one side of the river Oker - the legend gives the year 861 for the foundation - and the other the settlement of Count Dankward, after whom the still surviving Castle Dankwarderode "(Dankward"s clearing)" is named. The town"s original name of "Brunswik" is a combination of the name Bruno and "wik", a place where merchants rested and stored their goods. The town"s name therefore indicates an ideal resting-place, as it lay by a ford across the Oker River. Documents from the St. Magni Church from 1031 give the city"s name as "Brunesguik". Another explanation of the city"s name is that it comes from "Brand", or burning, indicating a place which developed after the landscape was cleared through burning.

Braunschweig around 1900.
Dankwarderode Castle
In the 12th century Duke Henry the Lion made Braunschweig the capital of his state and built the Cathedral, St. Blasius. He became so powerful that he dared to refuse military aid to emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, which led to his condemnation and fall.

Braunschweig was a member of the from the 13th century to the middle of the 17th century. In the 18th century Braunschweig was not only a political, but also a cultural centre. "Emilia Galotti" by Lessing and Goethe"s "Faust" were performed for the first time in Braunschweig.

Braunschweig was the main residence of the rulers of the Duchy of Brunswick, which was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire until 1806 and of the German Empire from 1871. At the end of World War I the Duchy became the Free State of Brunswick within the Weimar Republic.
Brunswick Cathedral, St. Blasius, with Lion statue.

During World War II thousands of forced Eastern workers were brought to the city. During the years 1943-1945 at least 360 children taken away from the workers died in the Entbindungsheim für Ostarbeiterinnen.

In World War II, Braunschweig was a Sub-area Headquarters (Untergebiet Hauptquartier) of Military District (Wehrkreis) XI. It was also the garrison city of the 31st Infanterie Division, which took part in the invasions of Poland, Belgium, France, and Russia, and was largely destroyed during the German withdrawal from Russia. The city was severely damaged by Anglo-American aerial attacks. The air raid on 15 October, 1944 destroyed most of the "Altstadt" (old town), which had been the largest ensemble of half-timbered framework houses in Germany, as well as most of the churches. The Cathedral, which had been converted to a "National shrine" (German: "Nationale Weihestätte") by the Nazi-Government, still stood.

After the war, Braunschweig ceased to be a capital when the Free State of Brunswick was dissolved by the Allied occupying authorities (most of its lands were incorporated in the newly formed state of Lower Saxony). The Cathedral was restored to its function as a Protestant church. The rebuilding of the city was intended to make it modern and automobile-oriented. A small section of the Altstadt survived the bombing and remains quite distinctive. In the 1990s efforts increased to reconstruct historic buildings that had been destroyed in the air raid. Buildings such as the "Alte Waage" (originally built in 1534) now stand again in their pre-war glory.



ain sight
Rizzi-Haus
Andreaskirche
Schloss Richmond (Richmond Palace)
State Theatre
Pedestrian zone in the city centre
Church of St. Aegidien, Braunschweig
* The "Burgplatz" (Castle Square), comprising a group of buildings of great historical and cultural significance: the Cathedral (St. Blasius, built at the end of the 12th century), the "Burg Dankwarderode" (a 19th-century reconstruction of the old castle of Henry the Lion), the Neo-Gothic Town Hall (built in 1893-1900), as well as some picturesque half-timbered houses, such as the "Gildehaus" (Guild House), today the seat of the Craftsman"s Association. On the centre of the square stands a copy of the "Burglöwe", a Romanesque statue of a Lion, cast in bronze in 1166. The original statue can be seen in the museum of the Castle Dankwarderode. Today the lion has become the true symbol of Braunschweig.
* The "Altstadtmarkt" ("old town market"), surrounded by old town hall (built between the 13th and the 15th centuries in Gothic style), and the "Martinikirche" (church of Saint Martin, from 1195).
* The "Kohlmarkt" ("coal market"), a market with many historical houses and a fountain from 1869.
* The "Magniviertel" (St Magnus" Quarter), a remainder of ancient Braunschweig, lined with cobblestoned streets, little shops and cafés, centered around the 13th-century "Magnikirche" (St Magnus" Church). Here is also the "Rizzi-Haus", a highly distinctive, cartoonish office building designed by architect James Rizzi for the Expo 2000.
* The Romanesque and Gothic "Andreaskirche" (church of Saint Andrew), built mainly between the 13th and 16th centuries. The church was heavily damaged in World War II, and is expected to enter into its final stage of restoration in 2009 after some sixty years of intermittent work.
* The Gothic "Aegidienkirche" (church of Saint Giles), built in the 13th century, with an adjoining monastery, which is today a museum.
* The "Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum", a world renowed art museum and the oldest public museum in Germany (founded 1754).
* The "Staatstheater" (State Theater), newly built in the 19th century, goes back to the first standing public theater in Germany, founded in 1690 by Duke Anton Ulrich.
* The royal palace of Braunschweig was bombed in World War II and demolished in 1960. The exterior was rebuilt to contain a palace museum and shopping centre, which opened in 2007.

ranspor
utomobil
Two main autobahns serve Braunschweig, the A2 (Berlin—Hannover—Dortmund) and the A39 (Salzgitter—Wolfsburg). City roads are generally wide, built after World War II to support the anticipated use of the automobile. There are several car parks in the city.

icycl
Many residents travel around town via bicycle using an extensive system of bicycle-only lanes. The main train station includes a bicycle parking area.

rai
The city is on the main rail line between Frankfurt and Berlin. Deutsche Bahn (German Railways) serves the city with local, inter-city and high-speed InterCityExpress (ICE) trains, with frequent stops at the Hauptbahnhof (main train station).

ra
The city has an inexpensive and extensive 35 km electric tram system. First opened in 1897, it has been modernized, including a 3.2 km extension in 2007.

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Braunschweig has 8 sister cities:
* Bandung, Indonesia (since 1960)
* Nîmes, France (since 1962)
* Bath, United Kingdom (since 1971)
* Sousse, Tunisia (since 1980)
* Qiryat Tivon, Israel (since 1985/1986)
* Magdeburg, Germany (since 1987)
* Kazan, Russian Federation (since 1988)
* Omaha, Nebraska, United States (since 1992)

iscellaneou


Many other geographical names are named after Braunschweig such as New Brunswick in Canada due to the personal union of the Duchy of Hanover with Great Britain from 1714 to 1837 (see House of Hanover, also referred to as the House of Brunswick, Hanover line). For a list of places named after Braunschweig see Brunswick (disambiguation).
esearch and Scienc
Braunschweig has been an important industrial area.
Today it is known for its University and research institutes, mainly the "Johann Heinrich von Thuenen Institute", until the end of 2007 named "Federal Agricultural Research Centre", and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The PTB Braunschweig maintains the atomic clock responsible for the DCF77 time signal and the official German time. The region of Braunschweig is the most R&D-intensive area in the whole European Economic Area investing a whopping 7.1% of its GDP for research & technology. . Braunschweig was named Germany"s "City of Science 2007" ().
ducatio
Also located in Braunschweig is the "Martino-Katharineum", a secondary school founded in 1415. It had such famous pupils as Carl Friedrich Gauss, Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Richard Dedekind and Louis Spohr. Since 2005, Braunschweig has an "international school".
Lower Saxony"s only university of art, founded in 1963, can be found in Braunschweig. Its German name is "Hochschule für Bildende Künste Braunschweig"http://www.hbk-bs.de.

conom
Braunschweig is the home of two piano companies, both known worldwide for the high quality of their instruments: Schimmel and Grotrian-Steinweg (cf. Steinway). Both companies were founded in the 19th century.

ultur
Braunschweig is famous for "Till Eulenspiegel", a medieval jester who played many practical jokes on its citizens.
It also had — and still has — many breweries, and still a very peculiar kind of beer is made called "Mumme" (see :de:Braunschweiger Mumme), first quoted in 1390, a malt-extract that was shipped all over the world.

Near Braunschweig at Cremlingen-Abbenrode, there is a large medium wave transmitter, which transmits the program of "Deutschlandfunk" on 756 kHz, the Cremlingen transmitter.

The Braunschweig-Wolfsburg Regional Airport (BWE / EDVE) is located north of the city at , elev. 295 ft.

Braunschweiger liverwurst is named after the city.

usi
The "Braunschweig Classix Festival" is an annual classical music festival. It is the largest promoter of classical music in the region and one of the most prominent music festivals in Lower Saxony.

port
Braunschweig"s local football team is Eintracht Braunschweig. Founded in 1895, the club can look back on a long and chequered history. It won the German football championship in 1967. Despite playing the German 3rd Soccer division now (2008-2009 season), the club still attracts a large number of supporters.

The Braunschweig Lions is the city"s American football team, seven times German Bowl Defender and two times Eurobowl champion.

ee als
*Metropolitan region Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg

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ar:براونشفايغ
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bg:Брауншвайг
ca:Braunschweig
cs:Braunschweig
da:Braunschweig
de:Braunschweig
et:Braunschweig
el:Μπράουνσβαϊκ
es:Brunswick
eo:Braunschweig
fa:براونشوایگ
fr:Brunswick (Basse-Saxe)
ko:브라운슈바이크
hr:Braunschweig
id:Braunschweig
is:Brúnsvík
it:Braunschweig
he:בראונשווייג
jv:Braunschweig
ka:ბრაუნშვაიგი
kk:Брауншвайг
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lb:Braunschweig
lt:Braunšveigas
hu:Braunschweig
nl:Braunschweig (stad)
nds-nl:Broenswiek (stad)
ja:ブラウンシュヴァイク
no:Braunschweig
nn:Braunschweig
oc:Brunswick (Bassa Saxònia)
nds:Bronswiek
pl:Brunszwik
pt:Braunschweig
ro:Braunschweig
ru:Брауншвейг
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sl:Braunschweig
sr:Брауншвајг
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uk:Брауншвейг
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vi:Braunschweig
vo:Braunschweig
zh:不伦瑞克
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 15.10.2019 16:58 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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