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Slovakia, Bratislava
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On February 12, 1919 the German and Hungarian population started a protest against the Czechoslovak occupation, but the Czechoslovak Legions opened fire upon the unarmed demonstrators.Marcel Jankovics, "Húsz esztendő Pozsonyban", p. 6567 (Hungarian) On March 27, 1919, the name "Bratislava" was officially adopted for the first time. Left without any protection after the retreat of the Hungarian army, many Hungarians were expelled or fled and Czechs and Slovaks took their houses and moved to Bratislava. Education in Hungarian and German was radically reduced. In the 1930 Czechoslovakian census the Hungarian population of Bratislava had decreased to 15.8% (see the Demographics of Bratislava article for more details).

In 1938, Nazi Germany annexed neighbouring Austria in the Anschluss; later that year it also annexed the stillindependent Petržalka and Devín boroughs on ethnic grounds.Kováč et al., "Bratislava 1939–1945", pp. 16–17 Bratislava was declared the capital of the first independent Slovak Republic on March 14, 1939, but the new state quickly fell under Nazi influence. In 1941–1942 and 1944–1945, the new Slovak government expelled most of Bratislava"s approximately 15,000 Jews,Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 43. Kováč et al., "Bratislava 1939–1945, pp. 174–177 with most of them being sent into concentration camps. Bratislava was bombarded by the Allies, occupied by German troops in 1944 and eventually taken by the Soviet Red Army on April 4, 1945.Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 2", p. 300 At the end of World War II, most Bratislava Germans were evacuated by German authorities; a few returned after the war, but were expelled without their properties under the Beneš decrees.Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 2", pp. 307–308

Slavín war memorial commemorates fallen soldiers during the liberation of Slovakia in World War II

After the Communist Party seized power in Czechoslovakia in February 1948, the city became part of the Eastern Bloc. The city annexed new land, and the population rose significantly, becoming 90% Slovak. Large residential areas consisting of highrise prefabricated panel buildings, such as those in the Petržalka borough, were built. The Communist government also built several new grandiose buildings, such as the "Nový Most" bridge and the Slovak Radio headquarters, sometimes at the expense of the historical cityscape.

In 1968, after the unsuccessful Czechoslovak attempt to liberalize the Communist regime, the city was occupied by Warsaw Pact troops. Shortly thereafter, it became capital of the Slovak Socialist Republic, one of the two states of the federalized Czechoslovakia.
Bratislava"s dissidents anticipated the fall of Communism with the Bratislava candle demonstration in 1988, and the city became one of the foremost centres of the antiCommunist Velvet Revolution in 1989.Kováč et al., "Kronika Slovenska 2" p. 498

In 1993, the city became the capital of the newly formed Slovak Republic following the Velvet Divorce. In the 1990s and the early 21st century, its economy boomed due to foreign investment. The flourishing city also hosted several important cultural and political events, including the Slovakia Summit 2005 between George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin.


Map of Bratislava
SPOT satelliteBratislava is situated in southwestern Slovakia, within the Bratislava Region. Its location on the borders with Austria and Hungary makes it the only national capital that borders two countries. It is only 62 kilometres (38.5 mi) from the border with the Czech Republic and only 60 kilometres (37 mi) from the Austrian capital Vienna.

The city has a total area of , making it the secondlargest city in Slovakia by area (after the township of Vysoké Tatry). Bratislava straddles the Danube River, which crosses the city from the west to the southeast. The Middle Danube basin begins at Devín Gate in western Bratislava. Other rivers are the Morava River, which forms the northwestern border of the city and enters the Danube at Devín, the Little Danube, and the Vydrica, which enters the Danube in the borough of Karlova Ves.

The Carpathian mountain range begins in city territory with the Little Carpathians ("Malé Karpaty"). The Záhorie and Danubian lowlands stretch into Bratislava. The city"s lowest point is at the Danube"s surface at AMSL, and the highest point is Devínska Kobyla at . The average altitude is .

Bratislava lies in the north temperate zone and has a continental climate with four distinct seasons. It is often windy with a marked variation between hot summers and cold, humid winters. The city is in one of the warmest and driest parts of Slovakia.Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 10 Recently, the transitions from winter to summer and summer to winter have been rapid, with short autumn and spring periods. Snow occurs less frequently than previously. Some areas, particularly Devín and Devínska Nová Ves, are vulnerable to floods from the Danube and Morava rivers. New flood protection is being built on both banks.


ityscape and architectur
Nový Most bridge with UFO restaurant, the most famous modern landmark of Bratislava
St. Martin"s Cathedral

The cityscape of Bratislava is characterized by medieval towers and grandiose 20thcentury buildings, but it has undergone profound changes in a construction boom at the start of the 21st century.

Kamzík TV Tower
Bratislava Castle at night
Most historical buildings are concentrated in the Old Town. Bratislava"s Town Hall is a complex of three buildings erected in the 14th–15th centuries and now hosts the Bratislava City Museum. Michael"s Gate is the only gate that has been preserved from the medieval fortifications, and it ranks among the oldest of the town"s buildings; the narrowest house in Europe is nearby. The University Library building, erected in 1756, was used by the Diet of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1802 to 1848. Much of the significant legislation of the Hungarian Reform Era (such as the abolition of serfdom and the foundation of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences) was enacted there.

The historic centre is characterised by many baroque palaces. The Grassalkovich Palace, built around 1760, is now the residence of the Slovak president, and the Slovak government now has its seat in the former Archiepiscopal Palace.Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 147 In 1805, diplomats of emperors Napoleon and Francis II signed the fourth Peace of Pressburg in the Primate"s Palace, after Napoleon"s victory in the Battle of Austerlitz.Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 112 Some smaller houses are historically significant; composer Johann Nepomuk Hummel was born in an 18thcentury house in the Old Town.

Notable cathedrals and churches include the Gothic St. Martin"s Cathedral built in the 13th–16th centuries, which served as the coronation church of the Kingdom of Hungary between 1563 and 1830. The Franciscan Church, dating to the 13th century, has been a place of knighting ceremonies and is the oldest preserved sacral building in the city. The Church of St. Elisabeth, better known as the Blue Church due to its colour, is built entirely in the Hungarian Secessionist style.

A curiosity is the underground (formerly groundlevel) restored portion of the Jewish cemetery where 19thcentury Rabbi Moses Sofer is buried, located at the base of the castle hill near the entrance to a tram tunnel.Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 179 The only military cemetery in Bratislava is Slavín, unveiled in 1960 in honour of Soviet Army soldiers who fell during the liberation of Bratislava in April 1945. It offers an excellent view of the city and the Little Carpathians.Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 135

Other prominent 20thcentury structures include the Nový Most (New Bridge) across the Danube featuring a UFOlike tower restaurant, Slovak Radio"s invertedpyramidshaped headquarters, and the uniquely designed Kamzík TV Tower with an observation deck and rotating restaurant. In the early 21st century, new edifices have transformed the traditional cityscape. The construction boom has spawned new public buildings, such as the Most Apollo and a new building of the Slovak National Theatre, as well as private realestate development.

ratislava Castl

One of the most prominent structures in the city is Bratislava Castle, on a plateau above the Danube. The castle hill site has been inhabited since the transition period between the Stone and Bronze agesLacika, "Bratislava", pp. 11–12 and has been the acropolis of a Celtic town, part of the Roman Limes Romanus, a huge Slavic fortified settlement, and a political, military and religious centre for Great Moravia.Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 121 A stone castle was not constructed until the 10th century, when the area was part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The castle was converted into a Gothic antiHussite fortress under Sigismund of Luxemburg in 1430, became a Renaissance castle in 1562,Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 124 and was rebuilt in 1649 in the baroque style. Under Queen Maria Theresa, the castle became a prestigious royal seat. In 1811, the castle was inadvertently destroyed by fire and lay in ruins until the 1950s,Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 128 when it was rebuilt mostly in its former Theresan style. The castle is temporarily closed for reconstruction at the moment.

evín Castl

The ruined and recently renovated Devín Castle is in the borough of Devín, on top of a rock where the Morava River, which forms the border between Austria and Slovakia, enters the Danube. It is one of the most important Slovak archaeological sites and contains a museum dedicated to its history. Due to its strategic location, Devín Castle was a very important frontier castle of Great Moravia and the early Hungarian state. It was destroyed by Napoleon"s troops in 1809. It is an important symbol of Slovak and Slavic history.Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 191

Rusovce mansion, with its English park, is in the Rusovce borough. The house was originally built in the 17th century and was turned into an English neoGothicstyle mansion in 1841–1844. The borough is also known for the ruins of the Roman military camp Gerulata, part of Limes Romanus, a border defence system. Gerulata was built and used between the 1st and 4th centuries AD.

arks and lake
Sad Janka Kráľa in Petržalka
Due to its location in the foothills of the Little Carpathians and its riparian vegetation on the Danubian floodplains, Bratislava has forests close to the city centre. The total amount of public green space is , or per inhabitant.
The largest city park is Horský park (literally, Mountainous Park), in the Old Town. Bratislavský lesný park (Bratislava Forest Park) is located in the Little Carpathians and includes many locales popular among visitors, such as "Železná studienka" and Koliba. The Forest Park covers an area of , of which 96% is forested, and contains original flora and fauna such as European badgers, red foxes and mouflons. On the right bank of the Danube, in the borough of Petržalka, is Janko Kráľ Park founded in 1774–76. A new city park is planned for Petržalka between the Malý Draždiak and Veľký Draždiak lakes.

Bratislava"s zoological park is located in Mlynská dolina, near the headquarters of Slovak Television. The zoo, founded in 1960, currently houses 152 species of animals, including the rare white lion and white tiger. The Botanical Gardens, which belong to Comenius University, can be found on the Danube riverfront and house more than 120 species of domestic and foreign origin.

The city has a number of natural and manmade lakes, most of which are used for recreation. Examples include Štrkovec lake in Ružinov, Kuchajda in Nové Mesto, Zlaté Piesky and the Vajnory lakes in the northeast, and Rusovce lake in the south, which is popular with nudists.


From the city"s origin until the nineteenth century, Germans were the dominant ethnic group. However, after the AustroHungarian Compromise of 1867, active Magyarisation took place, and by the end of World War I 40% of the population of Pressburg spoke Hungarian as native language, 42% German, and 15% Slovak. After the formation of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918, Bratislava remained a multiethnic city, but with a different demographic trend. Thanks to Slovakization,Iris Engemann (European University Viadrina, Frankfurt/Oder)
The Slovakization of Bratislava 19181948. Processes of national appropriation in the interwarperiod.
CEU 07.03.2008 the proportion of Slovaks and Czechs increased in the city, while the proportion of Germans and Hungarians fell. In 1938, 59% of population were Slovaks or Czechs, while Germans represented 22% and Hungarians 13% of the city"s population.Lacika, "Bratislava", p. 43 The creation of the first Slovak Republic in 1939 brought other changes, most notably the expulsion of many Czechs and Jews. In 1945, most of the Germans were evacuated. After the restoration of Czechoslovakia, the Beneš decrees (partly revoked in 1948) collectively punished ethnic German and Hungarian minorities by expropriation and deportation to Germany, Austria, and Hungary for their alleged collaborationism with Nazi Germany and Hungary against Czechoslovakia.
The city thereby obtained its clearly Slovak character. Hundreds of citizens were expelled during the communist oppression of the 1950s, with the aim of replacing "reactionary" people with the proletarian class. Since the 1950s, the Slovaks have been the dominant ethnicity in the town, making up around 90% of the city"s population.


Primate"s Palace, the seat of the city"s mayor
Grassalkovich Palace, seat of the president of Slovakia

Bratislava is the seat of the Slovak parliament, presidency, ministries, supreme court (), and central bank. It is the seat of the Bratislava Region and, since 2002, also of the Bratislava SelfGoverning Region. The city also has many foreign embassies and consulates.

The current local government ("Mestská samospráva") structure has been in place since 1990. It is composed of a mayor ("primátor"), a city board ("Mestská rada"), a city council ("Mestské zastupiteľstvo"), city commissions ("Komisie mestského zastupiteľstva"), and a city magistrate"s office ("Magistrát").

The mayor, based at the Primate"s Palace, is the city"s top executive officer and is elected to a fouryear term of office. The current mayor of Bratislava is Andrej Ďurkovský, who won the election in 2006 as a candidate of the KDH–SDKÚ coalition and is serving his second term in the office. The city council is the city"s legislative body, responsible for issues such as budget, local ordinances, city planning, road maintenance, education, and culture. The Council usually convenes once a month and consists of 80 members elected to fouryear terms concurrent with the mayor"s. Many of the council"s executive functions are carried out by the city commission at the council"s direction. The city board is a 28member body composed of the mayor and his deputies, the borough mayors, and up to ten city council members. The board is an executive and supervisory arm of the city council and also serves in an advisory role to the mayor.

Administratively, Bratislava is divided into five districts: Bratislava I (the city centre), Bratislava II (eastern parts), Bratislava III (northeastern parts), Bratislava IV (western and northern parts) and Bratislava V (southern parts on the right bank of the Danube, including Petržalka, the most densely populated residential area in Central Europe).

For selfgovernance purposes, the city is divided into 17 boroughs, each of which has its own mayor ("starosta") and council. The number of councillors in each depends on the size and population of the borough. Each of the boroughs coincides with the city"s 20 cadastral areas, except for two cases: Nové Mesto is further divided into the Nové Mesto and Vinohrady cadastral areas and Ružinov is divided into Ružinov, Nivy and Trnávka. Further unofficial division recognizes additional quarters and localities.


Highrise buildings at "Mlynské Nivy", one of Bratislava"s main business districts
National Bank of Slovakia
The Bratislava Region is the wealthiest and economically most prosperous region in Slovakia as of 2007, despite being the smallest by area and having the second smallest population of the eight Slovak regions. It accounts for about 26% of the Slovak GDP. The GDP per capita (PPP), valued at €33,124 (2005), is 147.9% of the EU average and is the secondhighest level (after Prague) of all regions in the new EU member states and higher than all regions of France except Paris.

The average brutto salary in Bratislava region in first three quarters of 2008 was € 1015.47 (30,592 Sk).

The unemployment rate in Bratislava was 1.83% in December 2007. Many governmental institutions and private companies have their headquarters in Bratislava. More than 75% of Bratislava"s population works in the service sector, mainly composed of trade, banking, IT, telecommunications, and tourism. The Bratislava Stock Exchange (BSSE), the organiser of the public securities market, was founded on March 15, 1991.

The automaker Volkswagen built a factory in Bratislava in 1991 and has expanded since. Currently, its production focuses on SUVs, which represent 68% of all production. The VW Touareg is produced in Bratislava, and the Porsche Cayenne and Audi Q7 are partially built there.. .

In recent years, service and hightechoriented businesses have prospered in Bratislava. Many global companies, including IBM, Dell, Lenovo, AT&T, SAP, and Accenture, have built outsourcing and service centres here or plan to do so soon.. Reasons for the influx of multinational corporations include proximity to the Western Europe, skilled labour force and the high density of universities and research facilities.

Other large companies and employers with headquarters in Bratislava include Slovak Telekom, Orange Slovensko, Slovenská sporiteľňa, Tatra banka, Doprastav, HewlettPackard Slovakia, Slovnaft, Henkel Slovensko, Slovenský plynárenský priemysel, Kraft Foods Slovakia, Whirlpool Slovakia, Železnice Slovenskej republiky, and Tesco Stores Slovak Republic.

The Slovak economy"s strong growth in the 2000s has led to a boom in the construction industry, and several major projects have been completed or are planned in Bratislava. Areas attracting developers include the Danube riverfront, where two major projects already under construction: River Park in the Old Town, and Eurovea near the Apollo Bridge. Other locations under development include the areas around the main railway and bus stations, around the former industrial zone near the Old Town and in the boroughs of Petržalka, Nové Mesto and Ružinov. It is expected that investors will spend €1.2 billion on new projects by 2010.
The city has a balanced budget of almost six billion Slovak korunas (€182 million, as of 2007), with one fifth used for investment. Bratislava holds shares in 17 companies directly, for example, in the public transport company (Dopravný podnik Bratislava), the waste collection and disposal company, and the water utility. The city also manages municipal organisations such as the City Police ("Mestská polícia"), Bratislava City Museum and ZOO Bratislava.

:"For the list of sights in the city, see cityscape and architecture above."

New Year"s Eve celebration in 2006, which attracts about 100.000 people every year
Tourist train Prešporáčik in the Old Town

In 2006, Bratislava had 77 commercial accommodation facilities (of which 45 were hotels) with a total capacity of 9,940 beds. A total of 686,201 visitors, 454,870 of whom were foreigners, stayed overnight. Altogether, visitors made 1,338,497 overnight stays. However, a considerable share of visits is made by those who visit Bratislava for a single day, and their exact number is not known. Largest numbers of foreign visitors come from the Czech Republic, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, Poland, and Austria.

Among other factors, the growth of lowcost airline flights to Bratislava, led by SkyEurope, has led to conspicuous stag parties, primarily from the UK. While these are a boon to the city"s tourist industry, cultural differences and vandalism have led to concern by local officials.

Bratislava is the cultural heart of Slovakia. Owing to its historical multicultural character, local culture is influenced by various ethnic groups, including Germans, Slovaks, Hungarians, and Jews. Bratislava enjoys numerous theatres, museums, galleries, concert halls, cinemas, film clubs, and foreign cultural institutions.

erforming art
Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra
The old Slovak National Theatre building on Hviezdoslav Square

Bratislava is the seat of the Slovak National Theatre, housed in two buildings. The first is a NeoRenaissance theatre building situated in the Old Town at the end of Hviezdoslav Square. The new building, opened to the public in 2007, is on the riverfront. The theatre has three ensembles: opera, ballet and drama. Smaller theatres include the Bratislava Puppet Theatre, the Astorka Korzo "90 theatre, the Arena Theatre, L+S Studio, and the Naive Theatre of Radošina.

Music in Bratislava flourished in the 18th century and was closely linked to Viennese musical life. Mozart visited the town at the age of six. Among other notable composers who visited the town were Haydn, Liszt, Bartók and Beethoven, who played his "Missa Solemnis" for the first time in Bratislava. It is also the birthplace of the composer Johann Nepomuk Hummel. Bratislava is home to the Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra. The city hosts several annual festivals, such as the Bratislava Music Festival and Bratislava Jazz Days. The Wilsonic Festival, held annually since 2000, brings dozens of international musical acts to the city each year. During the summer, various musical events take place as part of the Bratislava Cultural Summer. Apart from musical festivals, it is possible to hear music ranging from underground to well known pop stars.

useums and gallerie

The Rococostyle "House of the Good Shepherd", home to the Museum of Clocks
Slovak National Museum

The Slovak National Museum ("Slovenské národné múzeum"), founded in 1961, has its headquarters in Bratislava on the riverfront in the Old Town, along with the Natural History Museum, which is one of its subdivisions. It is the largest museum and cultural institution in Slovakia. The museum manages 16 specialised museums in Bratislava and beyond. The Bratislava City Museum ("Múzeum mesta Bratislavy"), established in 1868, is the oldest museum in continuous operation in Slovakia. Its primary goal is to chronicle Bratislava"s history in various forms from the earliest periods using historical and archaeological collections. It offers permanent displays in eight specialised museums.

The Slovak National Gallery, founded in 1948, offers the most extensive network of galleries in Slovakia. Two displays in Bratislava are next to one another at Esterházy Palace ("Esterházyho palác","Eszterházy palota") and the Water Barracks ("Vodné kasárne","Vizikaszárnya") on the Danube riverfront in the Old Town. The Bratislava City Gallery, founded in 1961, is the secondlargest Slovak gallery of its kind. The gallery offers permanent displays at Pálffy Palace ("Pálffyho palác","Pálffy palota") and Mirbach Palace ("Mirbachov palác","Mirbach palota"), in the Old Town. Danubiana Art Museum, one of the youngest art museums in Europe, is near Čunovo waterworks.

Slovak Radio headquarters building
As the national capital, Bratislava is home to national and many local media outlets. Notable TV stations based in the city include Slovak Television ("Slovenská televízia"), Markíza, JOJ and TA3. Slovak Radio ("Slovenský rozhlas") has its seat in the centre, and many Slovak commercial radio stations are based in the city. National newspapers based in Bratislava include "SME", "Pravda", "Nový čas", "Hospodárske noviny" and the Englishlanguage "The Slovak Spectator". Two news agencies are headquartered there: the News Agency of the Slovak Republic (TASR) and the Slovak News Agency (SITA).


Various sports and sports teams have a long tradition in Bratislava, with many teams and individuals competing in Slovak and international leagues and competitions.

Tehelné pole stadium in Nové Mesto, home to the ŠK Slovan Bratislava football club and the Slovakia national football team

Football is currently represented by two clubs playing in the top Slovak football league, the Corgoň Liga. ŠK Slovan Bratislava, founded in 1919, has its home ground at the Tehelné pole stadium. ŠK Slovan is the most successful football club in Slovak history, being the only club from the former Czechoslovakia to win the European football competition the Cup Winners" Cup, in 1969..
FC Artmedia Bratislava is the oldest of Bratislava"s football clubs, founded in 1898, and is based at Štadión Pasienky in Nové Mesto (formerly at Štadión Petržalka in Petržalka). Another known club from the city is FK Inter Bratislava. Founded in 1945, they have their home ground at Štadión Pasienky and currently play in the Slovak Second Division.

Bratislava is home to three winter sports arenas: Ondrej Nepela Winter Sports Stadium, V. Dzurilla Winter Sports Stadium, and Dúbravka Winter Sports Stadium. The HC Slovan Bratislava ice hockey team represents Bratislava in Slovakia"s top ice hockey league, the Slovak Extraliga. Samsung Arena, a part of Ondrej Nepela Winter Sports Stadium, is home to HC Slovan. The Ice Hockey World Championships in 1959 and 1992 were played in Bratislava, and the 2011 Men"s Ice Hockey World Championships will be held in Bratislava and Košice, for which a new arena is being planned.

The Water Sports Centre Čunovo is a whitewater slalom and rafting area, close to the Gabčíkovo dam. It hosts several international and national canoe and kayak competitions annually.

The National Tennis Centre, which includes Sibamac Arena, hosts various cultural, sporting and social events. Several Davis Cup matches have been played there, including the 2005 Davis Cup final. The city is represented in the top Slovak leagues in women"s and men"s basketball, women"s handball and volleyball, and men"s water polo. The Devín–Bratislava National run is the oldest athletic event in Slovakia, and the Bratislava City Marathon has been held annually since 2006. A race track is located in Petržalka, where horse racing and dog racing events and dog shows are held regularly.

Bratislava is also the centre of rugby union in Slovakia.

ducation and scienc
Universitas Istropolitana building
Comenius University headquarters at Šafárikovo námestie
The first university in Bratislava, in the Kingdom of Hungary (and also in the territory of presentday Slovakia) was Universitas Istropolitana, founded in 1465 by King Matthias Corvinus. It was closed in 1490 after his death.

Bratislava is the seat of the largest university (Comenius University, 27,771 students), the largest technical university (Slovak University of Technology, 18,473 students), and the oldest art schools (the Academy of Performing Arts and the Academy of Fine Arts and Design) in Slovakia. Other institutions of tertiary education are the public University of Economics and the first private college in Slovakia, City University of Seattle. In total, about 56,000 students attend university in Bratislava.

There are 65 public primary schools, nine private primary schools and ten religious primary schools. Overall, they enroll 25,821 pupils. The city"s system of secondary education (some middle schools and all high schools) consists of 39 gymnasia with 16,048 students, 37 specialized high schools with 10,373 students, and 27 vocational schools with 8,863 students (data as of 2007).

The Slovak Academy of Sciences is also based in Bratislava. However, the city is one of the few European capitals to have neither an observatory nor a planetarium. The nearest observatory is in Modra, away, and the nearest planetarium is in Hlohovec, away. CEPIT, the Central European Park For Innovative Technologies, is slated for development in Vajnory. This science and technology park will combine public and private research and educational institutions. Construction is expected to begin in 2008.


Mercedes Benz CapaCity in Bratislava

The geographical position of Bratislava in Central Europe has long made it a natural crossroads for international trade traffic.

Public transport in Bratislava is managed by Dopravný podnik Bratislava, a cityowned company. The transport system is known as "Mestská hromadná doprava" (MHD, Municipal Mass Transit) and employs buses, trams, and trolleybuses. An additional service, "Bratislavská integrovaná doprava" (Bratislava Integrated Transport), links train and bus routes in the city with points beyond.

As a rail hub, the city has direct connections to Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Germany and the rest of Slovakia. The motorway system provides direct access to Brno in the Czech Republic, Trnava and other points in Slovakia, and Budapest in Hungary. The A6 motorway between Bratislava and Vienna was opened in November 2007. The Port of Bratislava provides access to the Black Sea via the Danube and to the North Sea through the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal. M. R. Štefánik Airport is northeast of the city centre. It served 2,024,000 passengers in 2007.

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Bratislava is twinned with:

* Numbers in brackets list the year of twinning. The first agreement was signed with the city of Perugia, Umbria in Italy on July 18, 1962.


* Kraków in Poland



xternal link

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On February 12, 1919 the German and Hungarian population started a protest against the Czechoslovak occupation, but the Czechoslovak Legions opened fire upon the unarmed demonstrators.Marcel Jankovics, "Húsz esztendő Pozsonyban", p. 6567
On February 12, 1919 the German and Hungarian population started a protest against the Czechoslovak occupation, but the Czechoslovak Legions opened fire upon the unarmed demonstrators.Marcel Jankovics, "Húsz esztendő Pozsonyban", p. 6567
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Hosts Brazil escaped Chile 3-2 on a penalty shoot-out to reach the World Cup quarter-finals Saturday, thanks to two saves from Julio Cesar, the goalpost and successful spot kicks from David Luiz, Marcelo and Neymar. Belo Horinzonte, Brazil (dpa) -
Germany became the first team in the history of the World Cup to reach four consecutive semi-finals with a 1-0 victory over France Friday and the media praised the men who achieved the feat. Berlin (dpa) - "Adieu, les Bleus!" screamed
Defenders Thiago Silva and David Luiz were both on target Friday in Fortaleza, where Brazil defeated Colombia 2-1 to book a place against Germany in the World Cup's semi-finals. Fortaleza, Brazil (dpa) - James Rodriguez pulled one back for Colombia
Germany dealt shell-shocked Brazil a remarkable 7-1 thrashing Tuesday to advance to the World Cup final, in a match that quickly turned into a nightmare for the host nation. Belo Horizonte, Brazil (dpa) - Thomas Mueller struck 11 minutes into the


(18.04.2021 04:50)

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