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Braga

Portugal, Braga
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"Braga" (), a city in the Braga Municipality in northwestern Portugal, is the capital of the Braga District, the oldest archdiocese and one of the major cities of the country. With an urban population of 175,063, Braga is the seventh largest municipality in Portugal by population (including the city and suburban parishes, the municipality had a total of 62 parishes and 175,063 inhabitants as of 2007). Braga is also the center of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Minho with a population of 826,833 (2007) one of the fastest growing urban areas in the European Union. Under the Roman Empire, as "Bracara Augusta", it was capital of the province Gallaecia. The urban area extends from the (river) Cavado to the (river) Este. Braga is serviced by regional and fast trains to Porto and Lisbon. The city of Oporto (Porto) is about 53 km. The present Mayor is Francisco Soares Mesquita Machado, elected from the Socialist Party.

History
:"For the Ecclesiastical history see Archbishopric of Braga"

Antiquity
Cathedral of Braga. The Palace of the Archbishops, with many courtyards, can be seen over the cathedral. The structure with many towers at the right corner of the walls is the ancient Castle of Braga, from which a tower has survived.
The region of Braga has been inhabited since pre-historic times, and in the Iron Age the "Bracari" people occupied the region and built their characteristic fortified villages (castrum). It was the capital of the Callaici Bracarii, or Bracarenses, a tribe who occupied what is now Galicia and northern Portugal. The Romans began their conquest of the region around 136 BC, and during the times of Emperor Augustus (around the year 20 BC) the city of "Bracara Augusta" was founded in the context of the administrative needs of the new Roman territory. Bracara was dedicated to the Emperor, hence its name Augusta.

The city of Bracara Augusta developed greatly during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension in the 2nd century. Towards the end of the 3rd century, Emperor Diocletianus promoted the city to the status of capital of the newly-founded province of Gallaecia.

During the times of the Germanic Invasions of the Iberian Peninsula, Roman power was dissolved and Bracara Augusta and the whole region of Gallaecia fell into the hands of the Sueves, a Germanic people from Central Europe. In 410, the Sueves established a Kingdom in the Northwest of Iberia and chose Bracara as capital. But about 584 it passed into the hands of the Visigothic conquerors of Hispania, whose renunciation of the Arian and Priscillianist heresies, at two synods held here in the 6th century, marks the origin of its ecclesiastical greatness. The archbishops of Braga retain the title of primate of Portugal, and long claimed supremacy over the Hispanic church also; but their authority was never accepted throughout Hispania.

Braga had an important role in the Christianisation of the Iberian Peninsula. The first known bishop of Braga, "Paternus", lived in the end of the 4th century, although Saint Ovidius (d. 135 AD) is sometimes considered one of the first bishops of this city. In the early 5th century, Paulus Orosius, a friend of Saint Augustine born in Braga, wrote several theological and historical works of great importance. In the 6th century a great figure was Saint Martin of Braga, a bishop of Braga who converted the Sueves from Arianism to Catholicism. He also founded an important monastery near Braga, in Dumio ("Dume"), now an archaeological site. Several Councils were held in Braga during this period, a sign of the religious importance of the city.

Mediaeval wing (14th century) of the Archbishop"s Palace of Braga with Saint Barbara"s Garden.

iddle Age
The history of Braga during Visigothic and Arab times is very obscure and represents periods of decadence for the city. From the Moors, who captured Braga early in the 8th century, the city was retaken in 1040 by king Ferdinand I of León and Castile. From 1093 to 1147 it was the residence of the Portuguese court. The bishopric was restored in 1070, and the first new bishop, "Pedro", started rebuilding the Cathedral, many times modified in the following centuries. In the early 12th century, Count Henry of Portugal and bishop "Gerald of Moissac" managed to turn Braga into an archbishopric seat, with power over a large area in Iberia. The medieval city developed around the cathedral and covers only a fraction of the ancient Roman city. The maximum authority in the city remained that of the archbishop.

odern Ag
Saint Michael"s church, Braga
In the 16th century, Braga did not profit from the Age of Portuguese Discoveries, that favoured cities like Lisbon, Évora and Coimbra. This situation was changed by Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals and new churches. He also modernised the cathedral by adding a new main chapel in the fashion of the time, the manueline style. Diogo de Sousa turned the mediaeval town into a renaissance city, and many of his improvements can still be seen in modern Braga.

Another golden age for the city was the 18th century, in which archbishops and architects like André Soares and Carlos Amarante dotted the city and surrounding region with beautiful baroque churches and civil buildings. The Municipality, the Public Library building, the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte and many urban palaces date from this period.

The 19th century was a difficult period for the city and the country, which had been invaded by Napoleonic troops. In the second half of that century, the influence of Portuguese immigrants who had lived in Brazil introduced new tastes and improvements in the city architecture and infrastructure.

In the 20th century Braga faced great demographic and urbanistic pressures, and the infrastructure of the city had to be greatly improved to meet the new needs.

ain sight
The city of Braga and surrounding region have many historical monuments,including:the Cathedral(Se),Bom Jesus and Sameiro(Sanctuaries).

n the historic city (centro
hurche
Saint Paul Church in Braga ("Igreja de São Paulo"), 16th century.
*Braga Cathedral ("Sé de Braga", 12th-18th centuries): The most important historical monument of the city. Rich mix of architectural and artistic styles.
*Populo Church (16th century): Neo-classical church.
*Misericordia Church (Igreja da Misericórdia) A church, renaissance style.
*Saint Paul Church in Braga (Igreja de São Paulo)
*Saint Vicent Church (Igreja de São Vicente)
*Carmo Church (Igreja do Carmo)
*Congregados Church (Igreja dos Congregados)
*Holly Cross Church (Igreja de Santa Cruz)

Museums
*Biscainhos Museum
*Museum Medina
*Nogueira da Silva Museum
*D. Diogo de Sousa Museum
*Cathedral Treasure
*Pius XII Museum
*Image Museum
*Stringed Instruments Museum

Others
*Idol"s Fountain ("Fonte do Ídolo", 1st century AD): Roman fountain dedicated to an indigenous god, Tongoenabiagus. Bears reliefs and inscriptions.
*Tower of Braga Castle (14th century): Gothic tower left from the ancient castle of the city.
*Coimbras Chapel ("Capela dos Coimbras", early 16th century): Richly decorated chapel in Renaissance and Manueline styles.
*Archbishop"s Palace or Archiepiscopal Court (Paço Arquiepiscopal) (14th-18th centuries): Gothic, Mannerist and Baroque wings. Houses the Library of the City.
Municipality of Braga and Fountain of the Pelican. Both were built in the 18th century.
*Arco da Porta Nova ("New City Gate", 18th century): Beautiful baroque-style city gate that substituted an earlier Gothic gate.
*Braga Town Hall (18th century): Baroque building.
*Raio Palace" (18th century): Outstanding Baroque-Rococo urban palace with richly decorated façade.
*Theatro Circo (20th century) the most famous theater in Braga
*Santa Barbara Garden (Jardim de Santa Bárbara)
*Aguas Ferreas Fountain
*Sieves House (Casa dos Crivos)

utside the city centr
*Bom Jesus do Monte Sanctuary (18th-early 19th century): Neoclassic church with a magnificent Baroque stairway and Bom Jesus funicular, the oldest in Iberian Peninsula. Located in the city surroundings.
*Falperra Church (18th century): Good example of Baroque architecture with pentagonal floorplan and Rococo façade.
*Monastery of Tibães (17th-18th centuries): Benedictine monastery of great artistic importance in Portugal. Notable inner gilt work.
*Sameiro Sanctuary (19th-20th centuries): Important pilgrimage centre dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
*Braga Municipal Stadium, carved out of the Monte Castro hill that overlooks the city.
*Saint Frutuoso Chapel, pre-Romanesque Chapel built in the 7th Century.
*Saint Eulalia Church, Romanesque church, near Bom Jesus.
*Chamor Hill, with a monument to the Sacred Heart which is 20 meters high.
*Sete Fontes (Braga), the old potable water supply system.
*Dona Chica Castle, a romantic Castle in Palmeira, from the architect Ernesto Korrodi.

ommerce, business and transportatio
Bank of Portugal building in Braga.
The major industries in the municipality are construction, metallurgy and mechanics, software development and web design. The computer industry is growing rapidly.

ducation, science and technolog
The city is the headquarters and main campus for the Universidade do Minho (Minho University), a public university founded in 1973. In the city was established also, in 1967, a branch of the oldest private university of Portugal, the Universidade Católica Portuguesa at Braga.

In the late 2000s a major international research centre was founded in the city - the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory.
irpor
Aerodromo de Braga / Palmeira

port
Braga"s football team, S.C. Braga were founded in 1921 and play in the top division of the Portuguese Liga Sagres.

amous citizen
* Paulus Orosius (c.385–c.420): Important historian and theologue from the Braga diocese, friend of St. Augustine.
* Martin of Braga (c.520 – 580): Bishop of Braga that converted the Suevi to Catholicism.
* Diogo de Sousa (c.1461-1532): Archbishop of Braga after 1505. A great sponsor of the arts, he remodelled the Cathedral and promoted the urbanisation of the city following Renaissance models. He also founded several churches and an important school (the São Paulo School).
* Francisco Sanches (1550-1623): 16th-century physician born in the Braga diocese and educated in universities in France and Italy.
* André Soares (1720-1769): 18th century architect, designed several important Rococo buildings in Braga and Northern Portugal.
* Domingos Leite Pereira: Portuguese politician of the Portuguese First Republic.
* Marie Myriam (born Myriam Lopes in Braga,8 of May 1957) french singer of Portuguese origens,winner of 1977
Eurovision Song Festival with "L`Oiseau et L`Enfant" ("The Bird and the Child"), written by Jean Paul Cara and Joe Grace.

Populo Church

se in popular cultur
Braga is the home of a professional Quidditch team, the Braga Broomfleet, operating within the fictional Harry Potter universe.

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Braga is twinned with:
* Astorga, Spain
* Bissorã, Guinea-Bissau
* Clermont-Ferrand, France
* Puteaux, France
* Santo André, Brazil
* São Nicolau, Cape Verde

ee als

* A Brasileira one of the oldest and most famous cafés in Braga.
* Escola Secundária Sá de Miranda the oldest Secondary school in Braga

References





External links
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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 19.09.2019 15:51 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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