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"Bosnia and Herzegovina" ("Bosna i Hercegovina", Босна и Херцеговина, usually shortened to "BiH") is a European country located on the Balkan peninsula. It was formerly part of Yugoslavia but gained independence in 1992. It borders Croatia to the north, west and southwest, Serbia to the east and Montenegro to the southeast. Mostly mountainous, it has access to a tiny portion of the Adriatic Sea coastline in the south.
GALLERY
Understand
Until recently, the idea of a Bosnian nationality mainly applied to the nation"s Muslims, also referred to as Bosniaks. Bosnia"s Croatians and Serbs looked to Serbia and Croatia for guidance and as the mother country and both had aspiratons for political union with either Serbia or Croatia once the Yugoslav state began to fall apart in the early 1990s. This of course spelled disaster for the state of Bosnia and as a result a bloody civil war was fought between all three groups. In the end the CroatianMuslim alliance fought the Serbian forces on the ground whilst NATO attacked the Bosnian Serbs from the air creating a military defeat for the Serbs. A peace treaty followed with a heavy handled role of the U.S. Clinton Administration helping seal the deal. The result was that Bosnia would be a federation comprising a CroatMuslim unit alongside a Serb autonomous entity. Things have rapidly improved since then but the two regions of Bosnia still have a long way to go towards complete political and social union. As of now, it could be said Bosnia functions as one country with two or even three different parts. However, the central government lies in Sarajevo and there is one common currency, the Mark (KM).

History

; "National holiday" : National Day, 25 November
Bosnia and Herzegovina"s declaration of sovereignty in October 1991, was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs.

; "Independence" : 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)

The Bosnian Serbs supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serbheld areas together to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint BosniakCroat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt the three bloody years of ethnoreligious civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).

; "Constitution" : the Dayton Agreement, signed 14 December 1995, included a new constitution now in force; note each of the entities also has its own constitution.

The Dayton Agreement retained Bosnia and Herzegovina"s international boundaries and created a joint multiethnic and democratic government. This national government was charged with conducting foreign, economic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the BosniakCroat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serbled Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing internal functions.

In 199596, a NATOled international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller, NATOled Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission is to deter renewed hostilities. SFOR remains in place although troop levels were reduced to approximately 12,000 by the close of 2002.

Economy
Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture is almost all in private hands, farms are small and inefficient, and the republic traditionally is a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the socialist economic structure of Yugoslavia. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia"s defense plants. The bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet by 80% from 1990 to 1995, unemployment to soar, and human misery to multiply. With an uneasy peace in place, output recovered in 199699 at high percentage rates from a low base; but output growth slowed in 2000 and 2001. GDP remains far below the 1990 level. Economic data are of limited use because, although both entities issue figures, nationallevel statistics are limited. Moreover, official data do not capture the large share of activity that occurs on the black market. The konvertibilna marka the national currency introduced in 1998 is now pegged to the euro, and the Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina has dramatically increased its reserve holdings. Implementation of privatization, however, has been slow, and local entities only reluctantly support nationallevel institutions. Banking reform accelerated in 2001 as all the communistera payments bureaus were shut down. The country receives substantial amounts of reconstruction assistance and humanitarian aid from the international community but will have to prepare for an era of declining assistance.

Culture

Bosniaks (48% of the population), Serbs (37.1%), and Croats (14.3%) form the largest ethnic groups in the country. Since the breakup of Yugoslavia, Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim — an adherent of Islam. Also note that ethnicity and religion mostly overlap; with Muslims (45% of the population, mostly Bosniaks), Orthodox Christians (36%, mostly Serbs), and Catholic Christians (15%, mostly Croats) being the three main faith groups of the country. There are also some Protestants and Jews as well.

Climate
Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

Terrain==
Mountains and valleys.
; "Natural hazards" : destructive earthquakes.
; "Highest point" : Maglic 2,386 m

Regions
While the country is politically divided into two "entities"; the "Federation of Bosnia and Hercegovina" with a predominant MuslimCroat majority population (about 51% of the territory) and the "Republika Srpska" (i.e. "Republic of Serbs" or "RS") with a Serb majority population (about 49% of the territory), here is a "travellerfriendly" division of the country based on traditional regions.

Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina with travel regions colourcoded

Cities
* Sarajevo the national capital; a cosmopolitan European city with a unique Eastern twist as can be seen in its vast diversity of architectural styles

* Banja Luka the second largest city, serving as the capital of "Republika Srpska", with some historical sights and a rich nightlife
* Bihać city on Croatian border, surrounded by an impressive nature
* Fojnica near the Fransiscan monastery, the heart of Bosnian catholicism
* Međugorje inland town between mountains with a mild Mediterranean climate, but perhaps best known due to claims of apparitions of the Virgin Mary to six locals
* Mostar nice old town on Neretva River, symbolized by its medieval bridge
* Neum the only coastal town, with sandy beaches backed by steep hills
* Tuzla third largest city with much industry, though has a lovely old town and monuments to the brutal war too
* Teslic а health spa resort with the biggest tourist capacity in the country
* Zenica city with an Ottoman old quarter
* Trebinje a picturesque town in Herzegovina with impressive surroundings

Other destinations
*Kozara national park in the northwest with dense forests and hilly meadows, a hiking and hunting destination
*Igman Ski resort
*Jahorina Ski Resort
*Bjelasnica Ski Resort

Get in
Entering Brčko from Croatia
No visa is needed for entry by citizens of the US, Brazil, Canada, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, regional Balkan countries except Albania and probably Kosovo, and the European Union. Another thing to remember is that citizens of Croatia and Serbia can enter Bosnia and Herzegovina with an ID only.

You can check on the website of the ministry of foreign affairs if you need a visa,

By plane
"Sarajevo Airport" () is in the suburb of Butmir and is relatively close to the city centre. There is no direct public transportation, and taxi fares tofrom the airport are surprisingly expensive for the short distance your best bet is to take a taxi to the tram terminus at "Ilidža" and board the tram for the last part of your journey, cost 1,80KM)

The national carrier of Bosnia & Herzegovina is BH Airlines (formerly known as "Air Bosna"). The airline serves destinations primarily around Europe. Their website has flight information and a booking facility. Their destinations include Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Istanbul, Prague and Skopje.

Croatia Airlines connects Sarajevo via Zagreb at least twice daily, and from there connections are possible to Brussels, Frankfurt, London, Munich, Paris, Zurich and several other European cities.

Serbia"s Jat Airways connects Sarajevo daily via Belgrade (with a late nightearly morning service), and from there one can connect with other JAT domestic and international flights.

Some of the other airlines which operate regular (daily) services into Sarajevo include:
* Adria Airways to Ljubljana
* Lufthansa to Munich
* Austrian Airways to Vienna
* MALEV to Budapest
* Turkish Airlines to Istanbul

Norwegian opens new routes from Sarajevo to OsloRygge and StockholmArlanda in MayJune 2009. There will be two flights a week to each destination.
For other services, check the Sarajevo Airport website.

"Mostar" , "Tuzla" and "Banja Luka" also have international airports, with services from Istanbul, Frankfurt, Zurich, Ljubljana and Belgrade.

Many travellers choose to fly into Croatia, continuing travel by bus to BiH, on Zagreb, Split or Dubrovnik, the latter two being serviced by seasonal cheap tourist charter flights.

By train

Train services across the country are slowly improving once again, though speeds and frequencies are still low. Much of the rail infrastructure was damaged during the recent conflict, and lines have been opened on a priority basis, though not to the high level of service prewar. The train services are operated by the two separate entities (based on the political division of the country), which results in the locomotives being changed rather often.

* "Tofrom Croatia"
There are two daily trains running from Sarajevo to Zagreb (10 hours), the capital of Croatia, and onwards to the rest of Europe.

The "day" train leaves from Zagreb at 08:55AM and arrives in Sarajevo at 18:30h, before continuing on to Mostar and Ploce. The return journey departs Sarajevo around 10AM. Ticket costs 24 EUR one way (return ticket holds some discount). A "night" train now operates with sleeping facilities on board leaving both Zagreb and Sarajevo at 2120 (9:20PM) from Sarajevo there is an illtimed passport check to ensure you won"t get a full night"s sleep! There is no buffet car on this route be advised to take supplies beforehand for the spectacular 9hr trip, though men with small trolleys will occasionally walk through the train selling overpriced soft drinks etc.

Trains also operate from Sarajevo heading towards Mostar and the Adriatic Sea terminating at Ploce in Croatia. Services operate a few times daily, are relatively empty and provide possibly the most stunning rail journey in all of Bosnia!

Aim to buy your ticket before you board the train. If you don"t buy before you board then buy from the conductor onboard but beware that heshe may only sell you a ticket for hisher part of the journey the staff and locomotives usually change when the train leaves Croatian territory and again when the train goes from the territory of Republika Srpska into the Federation.

* "Tofrom Hungary"
The night train service between Budapest and Sarajevo ended on December 15, 2006. A day train now leaves Budapest (Keleti station) daily at 9.30, arriving in Sarajevo at 21.39 via Osijek in Croatia. Oneway tickets cost €52 or the return ticket costs €48.10 (11,600 forint + 750 forint compulsory reservation). Note that this is cheaper than a single ticket. There is a dining car. You will be bothered at least four times for your passport, and around four times for your ticket, and once by very nosy and insistent EU customs staff.

The return train departs at 7:14 every morning for Budapest and costs 96 KM arriving at Keleti station at 19:03.

* "Tofrom Serbia"
A direct train from Belgrade to Sarajevo is in operation, taking 9 hours and passing through a small sliver of Croatia. As such, expect to be bothered four times for your passport and three for your ticket.

Special tickets
* Travelling to Bosnia is possible with an Interrailpass.
* The railways of the Republika Srpska offer the Münchenspecial: 198 BAM (€100) for Banja Luka München .

By car

Bosnia is a beautiful country to drive in as the scenery is often spectacular.

However, due to the mountainous terrain, atrocious driving by many road users (including dangerous overtaking on narrow highways), and generally poor condition of the road around the country, do not expect speeds will be fast especially given the relatively short distance "as the crow flies".

The US State Department"s advisory on Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2008:

: "Road travel is possible throughout most of the country. However, some roads are still damaged from the war, and poorly maintained. Roads are sometimes blocked due to landslides, demining activity, and traffic accidents. "Bosnia and Herzegovina is among the rare countries in Europe that has fewer than ten kilometers of fourlane highway." The existing, twolane roads between major cities are quite narrow at places, lack guardrails, and are full of curves. Travel by road can be risky due to poorly maintained roads, and morning and evening fog in the mountains. Driving in winter is hazardous due to fog, snow, and ice."

As of 2009, the main routes from the coast via Mostar to Sarajevo, and north from Sarajevo to the Croatian Border at Slavonski BrodSlavonski Samad, have been restored and are of excellent quality.
A new highway which follows this path is under construction, with the first part north of Sarajevo readily available, although some construction may slow down traffic at each end of this projected highway. From Sarajevo side you will have to pay toll of 2 km for passenger car. Toll booths at the opposite end currently (as of 2011 august) are being installed and not functioning.

When finished, this highway will connect the northern part of Croatia with the coast as well as the new highway from Zagreb to Split, which eventually will extend to Dubrovnik.

Petrol stations can be hard to find in some spots often the best place to fill up is on the edge of towns and cities rather than in them.

Border crossings normally pose few problems.

Mechanics who speak English may be hard to find, and licensing may be an issue so ensure that you are allowed to actually drive there. Police regularly set up road blocks on the road and don"t be surprised to be pulled over to check your papers and have a chat!

Renting a car is also an option, especially if you are visiting remote destinations outside of Sarajevo. You can book Online at IzziCarHireBosniandHerzegovina.com .

By bus

Buses are plentiful in and around Bosnia. A list of bus stations and timetables in Bosnia can be found here

Most international buses arrive at the Sarajevo bus station "(autobuska stanica)" which is located next to the railway station close to the centre of Sarajevo. However, buses from Belgrade, the Republika Srpska entity and Montenegro mostly use the "Lukavica" bus station in Istočno, or Eastern Sarajevo (a Serbian neighbourhood of Sarajevo).

Frequent coach services run from Sarajevo to:
* CROATIA: Zagreb (4 daily), Split (4 daily), Rijeka and Pula (daily), and Dubrovnik (daily at 6.30AM)
* SERBIA: between Belgrade and Istočno Sarajevo there are 5 daily services
* SLOVENIA: Ljubljana (daily)
* MONTENEGRO: Kotor daily (the trip is 7 hours and has spectacular views)
in addition to the longerdistance buses further afield to the Republic of Macedonia, Austria and Germany.

From Mostar, Banja Luka and Tuzla there are also frequent international services. Herzegovina also has many bus services from the Dalmatian coastal cities of Croatia.

International bus services are nearly always in modern, luxurious 5star coaches the only exceptions to this are normally the local buses operating slightly over the border (max. 3 hour trips).

Companies
Due to the Bosnian war in the 1990"ies there are bus companies serving the Bosnian diaspora, which provide a cheap and clean way of getting to the other side of the European continent.

* Weekly buses from and to Nordic European countries (eg. Denmark, Sweden)
* Several buses per week to Belgium and The Netherlands
* To the federation by bus from Switzerland.

By boat
Ferries are available from Neum to other cities on the Adriatic connecting to Croatia and other countries. There are no international ferries across the Adriatic to Italy, but these do operate from Dubrovnik and Split.

Similarly transport is available along the inland rivers and lakes, some of which is privately run.

Get around
The interentity border between the Federation and Republika Srpska is not controlled and is essentially not very different from U.S. state borders considering its impact on travel.

The best way to get around with public transport is with bus and train (Federation , RS ). There is a dense network of bus lines, all run by reltively small private companies. Be aware that if you buy a return ticket for a line which is served by more companies, you can only make the return trip with the company you bought the ticket at.

Trains are infrequent and slow. Many train lines were damaged in the war, and have not yet been rebuilt. There is also a lack of carriages and trains to provide frequent services even on the busy lines like MostarSarajevo, TuzlaBanja Luka and SarajevoBanja Luka. However, the rides are scenic, especially that MostarSarajevo stretch

Hitchhiking is fun in Bosnia as you will get rides from local people who you won"t much encounter through hospitality exchange networks as couhsurfing. Be carefull though for landmines, and if you"re not sure, stay on the paved road, and ask locals ("MEEne?").

Cycling is beautiful in Bosnia. Other traffic is not so much used to how to relate to bikes on their way, though.

Google Maps, an online mapping resource, is very rudimentary present in Bosnia. However, volunteers are mapping Bosnia in , and at least the maps of the main towns in Bonia have a lot more detail than those of the maps of the USbased company.

Talk

The official languages in the Bosnia and Herzegovina are Bosnian, Serbian and Croatian, all three known as SerboCroatian as they are practically the same language. SerboCroatian is written in both Latin and in Cyrillic, making it the only Slavic language to officially use both scripts. In the Republika Srpska you"ll see signs in Cyrillic, so a SerbianEnglish dictionary would be helpful there.

Variants among the SerboCroatian language differ only in the most academic of venues and also in traditional homes. There are different versions of the language throughout the area and spoken language changes between regions. However, the vocabulary differences are only cosmetic and do not hinder communication between Orthodox Serbs, Catholic Croats and Bosnian Muslims.

A lot of Bosnians, especially the younger generation will speak English. A surprising number of young people will also know at least some German, because many people from Bosnia sought refuge in Germany during the war, or visited relatives in Germany during or after the war. The older generations tended to have studied English, French or German in school.

Many Bosnians speak excellent English, but these are professionals and none of them work in hotels, restaurants, bus stations, or drive taxis. Stated positively, every day Bosnians will insist upon buying you coffee and cakes while engaging you in long and deep intellectual discussions, in perfect English. You"ll need to learn a little Bosnian to buy a snack at a bakery and tell a taxi driver where you"re staying, but this is easy enough.

See
* The Tito bunker near Konjic.
* The Zelenkovac ecovillage near Mrkonjić Grad,

Do
Rafting
Rafting on the Neretva river, the Una river and the Tara with the Drina river, with some shorter courses on the Krivaja river, the Vrbas river and the Sana river.

2009 World championship of rafting was held in Banja Luka on the Vrbas river and in Foča on the Drina, both in RS.

Kayaking and canoing
The Neretva river and its tributary the Trebižat, the Unac river, also the Krivaja river and its tributary Bioštica river are great kayaking destinations with a lot of whitewater on the Krivaja river. The Pliva river and its lakes Veliko and Malo are great canoing destinations, also the middle and lower Una river, the Trebižat river.

Canyoning
The famous Rakitnica canyon of the Rakitnica river, tributary of the Neretva river, offer great canyoning adventure, but even extreme canyoning route can be found in the Bjela river another tributary of the Neretva river. The Unac river and its canyon offer great canyoning route.

Also close to Banja Luka you can explore the canyons of Svrakava and Cvrckarivers.

Winter sports
Bosnia and Herzegovina was the 1984 host for the Winter Olympics, and it still takes pride of its winter sports potential. Especially around Sarajevo there are challenging venues. During the war of the 1990s many Olympic venues were severely affected, but at present all is put in place to give the skier a great experience.

Close to Sarajevo there are the Bjelasnica, with over 8km of ski trails, the Jahorina (20km) and Igman mountains. Close to Travnik is the Vlasic Mountain with 14km. Other resorts are Blidinje, Vlasenica in the east and Kupres in Western Bosnia.

Bjelacnica and Jajhorina are also beautiful for hikes during summer.

Hiking

Hiking is great in the unspoiled nature of BiH. A good guidebook is by Matias Gomez.

Flyfishing
The most flyfishing areas in Bosnia are in the NorthWest of the Bosanska Krajina, around the river Sana.
Flyfishing fanatics can go on a tour by the different trouthotspots; Bihać, Martin Brod, Ribnik, Sanica and Sanski Most. In several of those towns there are resorts specially geared towards the needs of the angler.

Buy
The official currency is the konvertibilna marka (convertible Mark), at a fixed rate of 1.95 towards the Euro (1 EUR = 1.95 KM). Be sure to get small bills, as anything above 20 KM will most likely get you into trouble when you want to pay due to lack of small change.

There are two sets of KM banknotes, with distinct designs for the Federation and the Republic of Srpska. However, both sets are valid anywhere in the country.

Before you leave the country, be sure to convert back any unused KM into something common (Euros, dollars) as most other countries will not exchange KM.

Credit cards are not widely accepted ATMs are available in the most cities (VISA and Maestro). Try to not pay with 100 KM bills, as smaller shops might not have enough change.

Most towns and cities will have markets and fares where any number of artisans, sellers, and dealers will offer any kind of stock. Different foods are readily available, both fresh and cooked, as well as clothing, jewellery and souvenirs. At the markets you are able to negotiate with the seller, although that may take some practice. Like in most such venues prices may be inflated for foreigners based on a quick "means test" made by the seller. Often those who look like they can afford more will be asked to pay more.

Large shopping centres you"ll find in most cities and towns.

Sarajevo is fine for buying clothes and shoes of cheap quality and relatively cheap price. The main shopping streets of Sarajevo are also great for black market products including the latest DVDs, video games and music CDs. Most tourists who visit Sarajevo no doubt leave with a few DVDs to take back home.

Visoko and the central Bosnia region are very well known for their leather work.

Banjaluka has seven big shopping malls, as well many small businesses, and you will be able to find a large variety of goods.

Mostar has an excellent shopping mall on the Croatian side with some typical Europeanstyle clothes shops and jewelers.

Taxfree shopping
If you have a temporal (tourist) residency status and you buy goods worth more than 100 KM you are entitled to a PDV (VAT) tax refund. PDV consist of 17% of the purchase price. The refund applies to all goods bought within three months before leaving, except petroleum, alcohol or tobacco. At the shop, ask the staff for a taxrefund form (PDVSL2). Have it filled out and have stamped (you need your identity cardpassport). Upon leaving BiH, the Bosnian customs can verify (stamp) the form if you show them the goods you bought. A PDV refund in Marks can be obtained within three months, either at the same shop where you bought the goods (in that case the tax will be refunded to you immediately), or by posting the verified receipt back to the shop, together with the account number into which the refund should be paid.

Be aware that upon entering another country you might be obliged to pay VAT over the goods exported from Bosnia. But there is always a free amount, mostly a few hundred Euro"s; EU: €430. Also, the procedure at the border might take a bit of time, so it is not wise to try this when travelling by train or bus, unless the driver agrees to wait.

Eat

The most available food in Sarajevo is "Cevapi" (normally 24 KM), the ubiquitous Balkan kebab. Two prominent variations exist the "Banja Luka" Cevap, a larger kebab with a square shape, and the Sarajevo Cevap, smaller and round. If not had before, every visitor should try an order of Cevapi at least once. There are several variations of "pita" (around 2KM). A cheap, tasty and readily available snack is "Burek", a pastry made of filo dough and stuffed with meat (simply "Burek"), cheese ("Sirnica"), spinach ("Zeljanica"), potatoes ("Krompirusa") or apple ("Jabukovaca"). Some examples are better than others, however, and it can be a greasy affair. If you get to Mostar, however, try to grab a plate of trout ("pastrmka," which sounds like "pastrami"), which is the local specialty (a particularly fine restaurant serving locally farmed trout lies by the wonderful Blagaj monastery, a short bus ride from Mostar).

Local food is heavy on meat and fish, and light on vegetarian alternatives. Even traditional socalled vegetarian dishes like beans or "Grah" are cooked with bacon or smoked meats. Stews often contain meat but can be created without. Rice and pasta dishes are readily available and a traditional sourdough soup filling called Trahana is hand made in most regions and a staple during the fasting month of Ramadan. Fast food, with the exceptions of cevapi and pita (or burek) consists of, like in other parts of Europe, pizza, hamburgers and hot dogs. Pannini sandwiches are served in most coffee shops popular with the youth, and Bosnian coffee, reminiscent of Turkish coffee, is a musttry for any coffee aficionado. Oddly, apart from these fast food options, Bosnian restaurants serve few Bosnian specialities what people eat in their homes is very different from what they will eat if they go to a restaurant.

All along Bosnian roads and recreational places, you will notice advertisements for "janjetina" or "lamb on a spit." This is a very tasty treat, usually reserved for special occasions. A whole lamb is cooked on a spit, by rotating over a coal fire for a long time. When you order, you pay by the kilogram, which costs around 25KM (not bad since this is enough for several people). Families, on special occasions, make such roasts at home.

No matter what food you order, you are bound to be served bread, commonly consumed throughout some parts of Europe with all savory foods. Both soup and salad are commonly served with entrees, chicken & beef soup with noodles or egg dumplings being the most common. Salads are typically composed of mixed tomatoes, lettuce, onions and bell peppers, often with feta cheese. A Caesar salad is unheard of in Bosnia, and generally most vinaigrettes are of the Italian variety, balsamic vinegar and olive or corn oil. You may also come across many condiments. "Ajvar" is a canned (or home made if you are lucky) spread, something like a bruchetta spread, made of roasted peppers & eggplant, which are ground and seasoned with pepper and salt and slow cooked. Many pickled foods are also served as condiments, such as pickled peppers, onions, cucumbers , and tomatoes. "Kajmak" is a dairy spread, with consistency and taste like cream cheese. It is made of milk fat, which is removed, salted and canned. It has a smoky, salty cheese taste, with a texture slightly drier than cream cheese. Kajmak from Travnik is a local specialty and is exported as far as Australia.

Bosnian food generally does not combine sweet & savory foods, and you will never encounter such a thing as a Caesar salad with mandarin oranges. On the other hand, many a fine chef will experiment with sweet and savory tastes like the "Medeno Meso" (Honeyed Meat) made in prewar Banja Luka by a well known chef. The delineation between fruit and vegetables is strong, with fruit used only for desserttype dishes. You will never encounter any dish where sugar is added unless it"s a dessert. The food is generally heavy on fresh produce, which needs little or no added spice. As such, there are few spicy or hot dishes, and dishes advertised as "spicy", such as stews like "paprikas" or "gulash" are usually spiced with paprika and not chillies, and do not carry overt pungency. In some regions, and depending on whether it is restaurant or home food, textures and colors can be important also.

Smoked meats are a staple of Bosnian cuisine, more so than the stereotypical foods of pita & cevapi. Amongst the nonMuslim populations, pork rules, and prosciutto, smoked neck, smoked ribs, bacon and hundreds of varieties of smoked sausage make this a real BBQ country. The Muslims, of course, have equallytasty lamb or beef alternatives. The meat is prepared by first curing in salt for several days, which removes water & dehydrates the meat, while the highconcentrations of salt preserve the meat from spoiling. After being rubbed with spices (a Bosnian dry rub is usually very simple, and includes some combination of highquality fresh peppercorns, hot paprika, salt, onions & garlic, and a few spoons of "Vegeta," a powdered chicken soup mix similar to an Oxo flavor cube), the meat is then hung over a heavy smoke made by a wood fire. Fruit trees are wellknown by BBQ aficionados around the world to produce the most flavorful smoke, and apple, cherry and walnut trees are the most commonly used in Bosnia. Whereas commercially produced deli meats (of the sort you may buy at your local deli) are most often drycured or hung in dehydrating fridges and only then pressuresmoked for a few hours to allow some flavor to permeate the meat, Bosnian smoked meat is painstakingly smoked up to three months. The meat hangs in a "smoke house," a tiny wooden shed usually only big enough to light a fire and hang the meat. Bosnians will only smoke meat in the fall or winter, because the low temperatures, together with the salt curation, allow the meat to hang for months without spoiling. During this time, it is smoked up to 4 times a week, for 810 hours at a time, which infuses the meat with the flavor of the smoke and removes any remaining water. The finished product has an incredibly strong aroma and flavor of smoke, with the texture of chewy beef jerky. Depending on the cut of meat, the most noticeable difference between smoked meat produced this way and the commercially produced meat available in North America, is the color inside the meat. Whereas commercial deli meat is usually soft, red, a little wet and fairly raw, Bosnian smoked meat is black throughout with only a slight tinge of pink. Larger cuts of meat, like the Dalmatian prosciutto, do tend to be a bit more pink & softer inside, but the difference is still dramatic, since the Balkanmade prosciutto has much less water, is chewier and overall better smoked. Such meat is most often consumed at breakfast time, in sandwiches, or as "meza," a snack commonly brought out to greet guests. For the visitor, smoked meats are a cheap and incredibly flavorful lunch meat, and can be bought at Bosnian marketplaces from people who usually prepare it themselves. Have a pork neck sandwich with some Bosnian smoked cheese and a salad of fresh tomatos in a bun of fresh and crisp homemade bread, and you"ll never want to leave.

When you visit a Bosnian at home, the hospitality offered can be rather overwhelming. Coffee is almost always served with some homemade sweet, such as cookies or cakes, together with "Meza." Meza is a large platter of arranged smoked meats, which usually includes some type of smoked ham (in traditional nonMuslim homes) and sausage thinly cut and beautifully presented with cheese, ajvar, hardboiled eggs and freshly cut tomatoes, cucumbers or other salad vegetables. Bread is always served. Most cookbooks on South Slavonic cooking are packed with hundreds of varieties of breads, this being one of the most breadcrazy regions in the whole world. Yet, just about the only type of bread in most Bosnians" homes is the storebought French variety, which the Bosnians , of course, would never dream of calling "French." To them, it is simply "Hljeb" or "Kruh".

However, more of an effort is made at special occasions to produce traditional Slavonic breads, and each family usually bakes its own variation of a traditional recipe. At Christmas & Easter, Orthodox Serb & Croatian Catholic families typically make a butterbread called "Pogaca", which is often braided and brushed with an eggwash, giving it a glistening finish perfect for impressive holiday tables. During the month of Ramadan, the Bosniak (Muslim) populations bake countless varieties of breads, and the unique and Turkishinspired varieties are generally more numerous, diverse and dependent on regions and villages than amongst Christian populations, where specialevent recipes are more homogeneous and fewer selections exist. "Lepinja" or "Somun" (the bread served with Cevapi) is a type of flat bread, probably introduced in some form to Bosnia by the Turks, but has since developed independently and is only vaguely reminiscent of Turkish or Middle Eastern flat "pita" breads. Unlike the Greek or Lebanese "pita", the Bosnian "Lepinja" is chewy and stretchy on the inside and pleasantly textured on the outside, making it a perfect spongy companion to oily meats and barbecue flavors. The Turks may have begun this recipe, but the Bosnians have taken it to a whole new high.

In everyday cooking, Bosnians eat lots of stewtype meals, like "Kupus", a boiled cabbage dish; "Grah", beans prepared in a similar fashion, and a fairlyrunny variation of Hungarian goulash. All are made with garlic, onions, celery and carrots, followed by a vegetable, smoked meat and several cups of water. This is then cooked until the vegetables are falling apart. A local spice called "Vegeta" is incorporated into almost every dish, and the same spice is used throughout the region, as far as Poland. It is the North American equivalent of a chicken Oxo cube, or, in other words, condensed chicken broth mix. These type of stew meals will cost you next to nothing, and are very hearty filling meals.

As for desserts, you will drool over ice cream sold in most former Yugoslav countries. There are several varieties, but regional milk and cream must be a contributing factor to their wonderful taste. You can buy ice cream either by the scoop or from an icedmilk swirl machine, packaged in stores or from a sidewalk vendor with a freezer right on the street. Recommended is the "Egypt" Ice Creamery in Sarajevo, famous in the region for their caramel ice cream. Also try "Ledo," a type of packaged ice cream made in Croatia but sold throughout the region. You should also try some local desserts, such as "Krempita," a type of a custardpudding dessert that tastes something like a creamy cheesecake, and "Sampita," a similar dessert made with egg whites. Traditional Bosnian desserts are also something to try. "Hurmasice" or "Hurme", is a small fingershaped wet sweet with walnuts; "Tulumbe" are something like a tubular doughnut, crispy on the outside and soft and sweet on the inside. And of course, don"t forget to try Bosnia"s take on the worldfamous "Baklava", which tends to be somewhat more syrupy than its Turkish counterpart and usually does not contain any rum, like its Greek counterpart. Much of the traditional cooking has Turkish undertones, a colorful consequence of six hundred years of Ottoman rule over most of Bosnia & Herzegovina, and desserts are no different.

Whatever you eat in Bosnia, you will notice the richness of the flavors you thought you knew. The cuisine of the country has not yet been ruined by commerciallygrown produce, so most foods are (uncertified) organically or semiorganically grown, using fewer chemicals and are picked when ripe. The vegetable markets sell only seasonal and locallygrown vegetables, and you are bound to have some of the best tasting fruit you"ve ever tried in the Neretva Valley region of Herzegovina (close to the Croatian border, between Mostar and Metkovic). The region is famous for peaches, mandarin oranges, peppers & tomatoes, cherries (both the sweet and the sour variety), watermelons and most recently Kiwi fruits. Cheese is also incredibly flavorful and rich all across Bosnia & Herzegovina, and generally all foods are as fresh as it gets. Enjoy!

Drink

The legal drinking age in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 18 years(changed in 2005). Popular beers are Banjalucko ( Nektar beer ), Sarajevsko, Tuzlanski, Karlovacka and Preminger. Even in more heavily Islamic areas alcohol is available in abundance to those who choose to drink and almost every bar is fully stocked.

Like most Slavs Bosnians make "Rakija" which comes in many a variety and is made both commercially and at home. Red wine is "Crno vino" (Black wine) and white wine is "bijelo vino". Alcohol is not taxed as heavily as in most Western nations and is often very affordable. Quality alcohol is sought after and valued.

Another popular drinking beverage is Turkish coffee, which can be bought in every bar, coffee shop or fast food place.

Sleep

In Bosnia and Herzegovina you can choose from the great number of hotels, hostels, motels and pensions. At the seaside town of Neum you can book hotels from 2 to 4 stars. In the other cities many hotels are 3 stars, 4 stars and some of them are 5 stars.

In Banjaluka the best hotels are: Cezar, Palas, Bosna, Atina, Cubic and Talija. Reservation is possible via internet or by contacting Zepter Passport Travel Agency, Banjaluka, for any accommodation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, or any service; contact: http:www.zepterpassport.com , phone number +387 51 213 394, +387 51 213 395, Fax +387 51 229 852.

In Sarajevo the best hotels are: Hollywood, Holiday Inn, Bosnia, Saraj, Park, Grand and Astra. Reservation is possible via the internet or by contacting CentrotransEurolines travel agency in Sarajevo, phone number: +387 33 205 481, languages spoken: English, German, French and Dutch.

Campsites are not very common. An overview of campsites in Bosnia is available at the . Wild camping is often no problem, but be careful for mines.

Work

With one of the highest unemployment rates in Europe (in some areas up to 40%, official rate 17%), it will be unlikely you will find legitimate employment in the country unless you are working for a multinational organisation.

Stay safe
If you plan on traveling off the beaten path in Bosnia, be aware that the nation is still in the process of clearing many of the estimated 5 million land mines left around the countryside during the war of 19921995. In rural areas try to stay on paved areas if possible, and never touch any armed explosive device. Houses and private property were often rigged with mines as their owners fled during the war. If an area or property looks abandoned, stay away from it until it has been cleared by a demining team.

Bosnia experiences very little violent crime, as long as you stay on paved roads and marked routes. Beware of pickpockets, however, in larger cities, especially Sarajevo.

There are approximately 600,000 land mines in Bosnia. Areas around Sarajevo and Brcko are extremely hazardous, so be careful. See "http:www.mine.ba"

Stay healthy

All Bosnian employees undergo regular health checks to ensure that they are physically capable to do their jobs and that they will not transmit any disease or injure anyone. People in the food industry are particularly checked and random health and safety checks for the premises are held often. Food providers are held to the highest standards. A Bosnian kitchen is expected to be spotless and food safety is very important.

If getting a tattoo then ensure that the instruments are sterilised. While this may be a common practice, one should still be careful.

Since the food is very rich, some extra exercise may help

And as above, never walk off dedicated paths in case of land mines.

Cope

"Smoking" is allowed nearly everywhere in the country, and over half the population use tobacco. Therefore, be prepared to endure very smoky restaurants, bars and shopping centers. Even bus drivers often smoke while driving.

Respect

Respect the religious differences of the people in the region and their effort to move past the Yugoslav civil war. It is important to be careful in areas where there is still tension and to ensure that one does not offend a particular group due to indifference or sheer ignorance.

Similarly, respect the environment. A lot of the country has been saved from pollution and it is important to be careful of one"s influences. Moreover, it is equally important to be careful as the rivers tend to be fierce, the mountains and valleys often unguarded and the footing unsure. Always have a tour guide with you or consult a local for advice on the natural dangers and land mines.

Contact
Do be aware that the two entities have their own seperate "postal services", so stamps bought in the Federation cannot be used in the RS and vice versa.

There are three mobile phone networks in Bosnia and Herzegovina: HT ERONET (Mostar), GSMBiH (Sarajevo) and m:tel (Republika Srpska, Banja Luka). You can buy a prepaid SIM card at any kiosk for 10 KM, but it is guaranteed to find credit for Federation providers in the RS or Mtel in the Federation..

ca:BòsniaHercegovina
de:Bosnien und Herzegowina
eo:Bosnio kaj Hercegovino
es:BosniaHerzegovina
fi:Bosnia ja Hertsegovina
fr:BosnieHerzégovine
hu:Bosznia és Hercegovina
it:Bosnia Erzegovina
ja:ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ
nl:Bosnië en Herzegovina
pl:Bośnia i Hercegowina
pt:BósniaHerzegovina
ro:Bosnia şi Herţegovina
ru:Босния и Герцеговина
sv:Bosnien och Hercegovina
wts:Category:Bosnia and Herzegovina

WikiPedia:Bosnia and Herzegovina
Dmoz:EuropeBosnia and Herzegovina
World66:europebosniaandherzegovina
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