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Bonn

Germany, Bonn
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"Bonn" is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 20 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the Federal State of North RhineWestphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999. Starting in 1998, many national government institutions were moved from Bonn to Berlin. Both houses of the German national parliament, the Bundestag and the Bundesrat, were moved along with the Chancellery and the residence of German head of state, the Bundespräsident.

Bonn remains a centre of politics and administration, however. Roughly half of all government jobs were retained as many government departments remained in Bonn and numerous subministerial level government agencies relocated to the former capital from Berlin and other parts of Germany. In recognition of this, the former capital now holds the title of Federal City ("Bundesstadt").

Bonn has developed into a hub of international cooperation in particular in the area of environment and sustainable development. In addition to a number of other international organizations and institutions, such as, for instance, the IUCN Environmental Law Center (IUCN ELC) the City currently hosts 17 United Nations institutions. Among these are two of the socalled Rio Conventions, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). The number of UN agencies in Bonn, most of which are based at the newly established United Nations Campus in the city"s former parliamentary quarter on the banks of the Rhine, continues to grow. The most recent agency was started in 2007 in Bonn as the United Nations Platform for Spacebased Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UNSPIDER).

Bonn is the seat of some of Germany"s largest corporate players, chiefly in the areas of telecommunications and logistics. Simultaneously, Bonn is establishing itself as an important national and international centre of meetings, conventions and conferences, many of which are directly related to the work of the United Nations. A new conference centre capable of hosting thousands of participants is currently under construction in the immediate vicinity of the UN Campus.

From 1597 to 1794, it was the residence of the Archbishops and Princeelectors of Cologne, and is the birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven (born 1770).

istor


|Langer Eugen, centre of the United Nations Campus (view from the Rheinaue park).
|
|Sterntor ("star gate"), a reconstruction of a gate of the medieval city wall
|
|Historic Town Hall of Bonn (view from the market square).
|}
Beethovenhalle

The history of the city dates back to Roman times. In about 11 BC, the Roman Army appears to have stationed a small unit in what is presently the historical centre of the town. Even earlier, the Army had resettled members of a Germanic tribal group allied with Rome, the Ubii, in Bonn. The Latin name for that settlement, "Bonna", may stem from the original population of this and many other settlements in the area, the Eburoni. The Eburoni were members of a large tribal coalition effectively wiped out during the final phase of Caesar"s War in Gaul. After several decades, the Army gave up the small camp linked to the Ubiisettlement. During the 1st century AD, the Army then chose a site to the North of the emerging town in what is now the section of BonnCastell to build a large military installation dubbed Castra Bonnensis, i.e., literally, "Fort Bonn". Initially built from wood, the fort was eventually rebuilt in stone. With additions, changes and new construction, the fort remained in use by the Army into the waning days of the Western Roman Empire, possibly the mid5th century AD. The structures themselves remained standing well into the Middle Ages, when they were called the Bonnburg. They were used by Frankish kings until they fell in disuse. Eventually, much of the building materials seem to have been reused in the construction of Bonn"s 13th century city wall. The Sterntor ("star gate") in the center of town is a reconstruction using the last remnants of the medieval city wall.

To date, Bonn"s Roman fort remains the largest fort of its type known from the ancient world, i.e. a fort built for one fullsize Imperial Legion and its auxiliaries. The fort covered an area of approximately 250,000 square meters. Between its walls it contained a dense grid of streets and a multitude of buildings, ranging from spacious headquarters and large officers" houses to barracks, stables and a military jail. Among the legions stationed in Bonn, the "1st", i.e. the Prima Legio Minervia, seems to have served here the longest. Units of the Bonn legion were deployed to theaters of wars ranging from modernday Algeria to what is now the Russian republic of Chechnya.

The chief Roman road linking the provincial capitals of Cologne and Mainz cut right through the fort where it joined the fort"s main road (now, Römerstraße). Once past the South Gate, the CologneMainz road continued along what are now streets named Belderberg, Adenauerallee et al. To both sides of the road, the local settlement, Bonna, grew into a sizeable Roman town.

In late antiquity, much of the town seems to have been destroyed by marauding invaders. The remaining civilian population then holed up inside the fort along with the remnants of the troops stationed here. During the final decades of imperial rule, the troops were supplied by Germanic chieftains employed by the Roman administration. When the end came, these troops simply shifted their allegiances to the new barbarian rulers. From the fort, the Bonnburg, as well as from a new, medieval settlement to the South centred around what later became the minster, grew the medieval city of Bonn.

Between the 11th and 13th centuries, the Romanesque style Bonn Minster was built, and in 1597 Bonn became the seat of the Archdiocese of Cologne. The town gained more influence and grew considerably. The elector Clemens August (ruled 17231761) ordered the construction of a series of Baroque buildings which still give the city its character. Another memorable ruler was Max Franz (ruled 17841794), who founded the university and the spa quarter of Bad Godesberg. In addition he was a patron of the young Ludwig van Beethoven, who was born in Bonn in 1770; the elector financed the composer"s first journey to Vienna.

In 1794, the town was seized by French troops, becoming a part of the First French Empire. In 1815 following the Napoleonic Wars, Bonn became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. Administered within the Prussian Rhine Province, the town became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussianled unification of Germany. Bonn was of little relevance in these years.

odern histor
During World War II, Bonn had some military significance due to its population.

Following World War II, Bonn was in the British zone of occupation, and in 1949 became the capital of West Germany. The choice of Bonn was made mainly due to the advocacy of Konrad Adenauer, a former Cologne Mayor and Chancellor of West Germany after World War II, who came from that area, despite the fact that Frankfurt already had most of the required facilities and using Bonn was estimated to be 95 Mill DM more expensive than using Frankfurt. Because of its relatively small size for a capital city, Bonn was sometimes referred to, jokingly, as the "Bundeshauptstadt ohne nennenswertes Nachtleben" "(Federal capital without noteworthy nightlife)" "or the" "Bundesdorf" "(Federal Village)". At one point in the postWWll/Cold War era, the Embassy in Bonn was America"s largest, "comparable, with its thousands of staff, to the Baghdad embassy today." by Roger Cohen, "The New York Times", "Published 25 January 2009." Retrieved 12609.

German reunification in 1990 made Berlin the nominal capital of Germany again. This decision did not mandate that the republic"s political institutions would also move. There was heated debate about whether the capital of the newly reconstituted Germany should be in Berlin, Bonn, or another city. Berlin"s history as Germany"s capital was strongly connected with Imperial Germany, and more ominously with Nazi Germany. It was felt that a new peacefully united Germany shouldn"t be governed from a city connected to such overtones of war. The debate was concluded by the "Bundestag" (Germany"s parliament) only on 20 June 1991, concluding that Berlin should be the capital city of the reunified republic. While the government and parliament moved, as a compromise, some of the ministries largely remained in Bonn, with only the top officials in Berlin. There was no plan to move these departments, and so Bonn remained a second, unofficial capital with the new title "Federal City" (Bundesstadt). Because of the necessary construction work, the move took until 1999 to complete.

At present, the private sector plays a major role in Bonn"s economy. With 5 stock listed companies, Bonn has the 4th highest market capitalisation amongst German towns. With headquarters of DHL, TMobile and other renowned companies, managers have replaced the public sector.



ain sight

|Godesburg Fortress.
|
|Hofgarten (Court Garden) with Kurfürstliches Schloss (Electoral Prince"s Castle), which serves as the main building of the University of Bonn. The church steeple of the Bonn Minster can be seen in the background.
|
|Post Tower, headquarters of Deutsche Post/DHL.
|
|Langer Eugen, centre of the UN Campus at the River Rhine in Bonn (view from the Post Tower).
|}

Beethoven"s birth place is located at Bonngasse. Next to the market place is the Old Town Hall, built in 1737 in Rococo style, under the rule of Clemens August of Bavaria. It"s used for receptions of guests of the town, and as a bureau for the mayor. Nearby is the "Kurfürstliches Schloss", built as a residence for the princeelector and now the main building of the University of Bonn.

The "Poppelsdorfer Allee" is an alley flanked by chestnut trees which had the first horsecar of the town. It connects the "Kurfürstliches Schloss" with the "Poppelsdorfer Schloss", a palace that was built as a resort to princeelectors in the first half of the 18th century, and whose grounds are now a botanical garden (the Botanischer Garten Bonn). This axis is interrupted by a railway line and Bonn Central Station, a building erected in 1883/84.

The three highest buildings in the city are the radio mast of WDR in BonnVenusberg (180 m), the headquarters of the Deutsche Post called "Post Tower" (162.5 m) and the former building for the German members of parliament "Langer Eugen" (114.7 m) now the new location of the UNCampus.

hurche
* Bonn Minster
* Doppelkirche (Double Church) Schwarzrheindorf built in 1151 |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=20090505}}
* Old Cemetery Bonn, one of the best known ones in Germany |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date=20090429 |accessdate=20090505}}
* Kreuzbergkirche built in 1627 with Johann Balthasar Neumann"s "Heilige Stiege", a stairway for Christian pilgrims |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=20090505}}

astles and residence
* Godesburg fortress ruins |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=20090505}}

odern building
* Beethovenhalle
* Bundesviertel (federal quarter) with lots of government structures including
** Post Tower, the tallest building in the state North RhineWestphalia, housing the headquarters of Deutsche Post/DHL
** Maritim Bonn, 5 star hotel and convention centre
** SchürmannBau, headquarters of Deutsche Welle
** Langer Eugen, since 2006 the centre of the United Nations Campus, formerly housing the offices of the members of the German parliament
* Deutsche Telekom headquarters
* TMobile headquarters

useum
* Museum Mile with
** Kunst und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany) showing the Guggenheim Collection in 20062007
** Kunstmuseum Bonn (Bonn Museum of Modern Art)
** Haus der Geschichte (Museum of the History of the Federal Republic of Germany)
** Museum Koenig where the Parlamentarischer Rat first met |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=20090505}}
* Beethoven House, birthplace of Ludwig van Beethoven
* Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn (Rhinish Regional Museum Bonn) |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=20090505}}
*Αrithmeum

atur
* Arboretum Park Härle, an arboretum with specimens dating to 1870
* Botanischer Garten (Botanical Garden), where Titan arum set a world record |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=20090505}}
* Rheinaue (Bonn), a leisure park on the banks of the Rhine |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=20090505}}
* Kottenforst, a large area of protected woods on the hills west of the city center |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=20090505}}
* Rhine promenade and the "Alter Zoll" (Old Toll Station)
* In the very south of the city, on the border with Wachtberg and RhinelandPalatinate, is the extinct volcano Rodderberg

ducatio
DFG in Bonn, Germany

The Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universität Bonn (University of Bonn) is one of the largest universities in Germany. It is also the location of the German research institute Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) offices.

rivate school
* Bonn International School (BIS), a private Englishspeaking school set in the former American Compound in the Rheinaue, which offers places from Kindergarten to 12th grade. It follows the curriculum of the International Baccalaureate.
* Aloisiuskolleg, a Jesuit private school in Bad Godesberg with boarding facilities
* AmosComeniusGymnasium, a Protestant private school in Bad Godesberg
* King Fahd Academy, a private school in Mehlem, Bad Godesberg, which also includes a mosque
* LibyschArabische ElFateh Schule, private Arabic high school
* Independent Bonn International School, private primary school (serving from kindergarten, reception, and years 1 to 6)
* École de Gaulle Adenauer, private Frenchspeaking school serving grades 1 to 12
* ErnstKalkuhlGymnasium, private boarding and day school
* OttoKühneSchule Godesberg ("PÄDA"), private boarding and day school
* Akademie fuer Internationale Bildung, private higher educational facility offering programs for international students

Additionally there are six private Catholic schools.

istrict

|Districts of Bonn.
|
|Bonn City Hall, called "Stadthaus".
|
|Carnival in Bonn.
|
|Beethoven Monument.
|
|BeethovenHaus in Bonn, birthplace of the composer Ludwig van Beethoven.
|
|Stieler"s famous portrait hangs on the wall.
|}

In 1969, the independent towns of Bad Godesberg and Beuel as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before. Bad Godesberg and Beuel became districts ("Stadtbezirke") of Bonn with some independence and populations of about 70,000 each.

Each district has its own quarters:
* "Bad Godesberg": AltGodesberg, Friesdorf, GodesbergNord, GodesbergVillenviertel, Heiderhof, Hochkreuz, Lannesdorf, Mehlem, Muffendorf, Pennenfeld, Plittersdorf, Rüngsdorf, Schweinheim
* "Beuel": BeuelMitte, BeuelOst, Geislar, Hoholz, Holtorf, Holzlar, Küdinghoven, Limperich, Oberkassel, Pützchen/Bechlinghoven, Ramersdorf, Schwarzrheindorf/VilichRheindorf, Vilich, VilichMüldorf
* "Bonn": Auerberg, BonnCastell "(until 2003: BonnNord)", BonnZentrum, Buschdorf, Dottendorf, Dransdorf, Endenich, Graurheindorf, Gronau, Ippendorf, Kessenich, Nordstadt, Poppelsdorf, Röttgen, Südstadt, Tannenbusch, Ückesdorf, Venusberg, Weststadt
* "Hardtberg": Brüser Berg, Duisdorf, Hardthöhe, Lengsdorf, Lessenich/Meßdorf

ranspor
Bonn is connected to three autobahns (federal motorways) and the German rail network. Some InterCityExpress and most InterCity trains call at Bonn Hauptbahnhof whilst the Siegburg/Bonn railway station is situated on the CologneFrankfurt highspeed rail line outside of Bonn and serviced by InterCityExpress trains. Local transport is provided by a Stadtbahn (light rail), which also features two lines to Cologne.

Bonn"s international airport is Cologne Bonn Airport.

conom
Deutsche Telekom head office
Deutsche Telekom and subsidiary TMobile have their head office in Bonn."." "TMobile". Retrieved on 8 November 2009.

nternational relation

Since 1983, the City of Bonn has established friendship relations with the City of Tel Aviv, Israel, and since 1988 Bonn, in former times the residence of the Princes Electors of Cologne, and Potsdam, Germany, the formerly most important residential city of the Prussian rulers, have established a citytocity partnership.

Downtown Bonn is surrounded by a number of traditional towns and villages which were independent up to several decades ago. As many of those communities had already established their own contacts and partnerships before the regional and local reorganisation in 1969, the Federal City of Bonn now has a dense network of city district partnerships with European partner towns.

The city district of Bonn is a partner of the English university city of Oxford, England, UK (since 1947), of Budafok, District XXII of Budapest, Hungary (since 1991) and of Opole, Poland (officially since 1997; contacts were established 1954).

The district of Bad Godesberg has established partnerships with SaintCloud in France, Frascati in Italy, Windsor and Maidenhead in England, UK and Kortrijk in Belgium; a friendship agreement has been signed with the town of Yalova, Turkey.

The district of Beuel on the right bank of the Rhine and the city district of Hardtberg foster partnerships with towns in France: Mirecourt and Villemomble.

Moreover, the city of Bonn has developed a concept of international cooperation and maintains sustainability oriented project partnerships in addition to traditional city twinning, among others with Minsk in Belarus, Ulan Baatar in Mongolia, Bukhara in Usbekistan, Chengdu in China and La Paz in Bolivia.

win towns Sister citie
Bonn is twinned with:
} © 20072009 Urząd Miasta Opola}}"
* "Tel Aviv" in Israel
||
* "Minsk" in Belarus "(since 1993)"
* "Budafok" in Hungary
* "La Paz" in Bolivia
* "Aveiro" in Portugal
|}

amous resident

*Ludwig van Beethoven (* born 17 December 1770; died 26 March 1827 in Vienna) composer and virtuoso pianist
*Bushido (rapper) (born 28 September 1978 as Anis Mohamed Youssef Ferchichi) rapper
*Sonja Fuss (* born 5 November 1978) football defender, plays for the Germany women"s national football team
*Walter Gotell (15 March 1924 5 May 1997), GermanBritish actor, known for his role as General Gogol, head of the KGB, in the James Bond films
*Johannes B. Kerner (born 9 December 1964) TV presenter
*Johanna Kinkel (* born 8 July 1810; died 15 November 1858 in London) composer and writer
*Karlrobert Kreiten (born 26 June 1916; murdered by the Nazis 7 September 1943 BerlinPloetzensee) noted pianist
*Peter Joseph Lenné (* born 29 September 1789; died 23 January 1866) gardener and landscape architect
*Thomas de Maizière (born 21 January 1954) politician
*Norman Rentrop (born 1957) publisher, author and investor
*Robert Schumann (born 8 June 1810 – died 29 July 1856) Composer and virtuoso pianist
*Heide Simonis (* born 4 July 1943 as Heide Steinhardt) politician SPD
*Roger Willemsen (born 15 August 1955) author, essayist and TV presenter
*Natalie Horler (born 23 September 1981) singer, Cascada
*Alexandros Margaritis (1984), GreekGerman racing driver

ee als
* Bundeshaus


eference


xternal link

*
*
*
*
*
*
* local Phonenumbers and Addresses
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Category:Cities in North RhineWestphalia
Category:Roman legions" camps in Germany
Category:Settlements on the Rhine
Category:10s BC establishments
Category:Roman towns and cities in Germany
Category:Former national capitals
Category:Rheinsteig




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yi:באן, דייטשלאנד
zh:波恩
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 19.08.2022 17:20 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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|pop_date = 2008-12-31|pop_urban = 3700000|pop_metro = 5000000|elevation = 34 - 115|GDP = 81.7|GDP_year = 2007|Website = / |leader_title = Governing Mayor|leader = Klaus Wowereit|leader_party = SPD|ruling_party1 = SPD|ruling_party2 = Die Linke|votes
|pop_date = 2008-12-31|pop_urban = 3700000|pop_metro = 5000000|elevation = 34 - 115|GDP = 81.7|GDP_year = 2007|Website = / |leader_title = Governing Mayor|leader = Klaus Wowereit|leader_party = SPD|ruling_party1 = SPD|ruling_party2 = Die Linke|votes
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|pop_date = 2007-10-31|pop_metro = 4300000|GDP = 86.153|GDP_year = 2006|GDP_percent = 3.9|Website = |leader_title = First Mayor|leader = Ole von Beust|leader_party = CDU|ruling_party1 = CDU|ruling_party2 = Green
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