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Augsburg

Germany, Augsburg
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"Reichsfreiheit"
|date_start =   "ca" 888
|event1 = City gained "Reichsfreiheit"
|date_event1 = 1276
|event2 = Diet of Augsburg: "Confessio Augustana"
|date_event2 =   1530
|event3 = Joined Schmalkadic League
|date_event3 =   1537
|event4 = Peace of Augsburg
|date_event4 = 1555
|event_end = Occupied by Sweden
|date_end = 1632–1635
|event_post = Mediatised to Bavaria
|date_post = 1803
|p1 = Duchy of Swabia
|image_p1 = Duchy of Swabia
|s1 = Electorate of Bavaria
|flag_s1 = Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg
|capital = Augsburg
|footnotes =
}}
"Augsburg" is a city in the south-west of Bavaria in Germany. It is a College town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is, as of 2008, the third-largest city in Bavaria with a population exceeding 264,000 citizens. After Trier, Augsburg is Germany"s second oldest city.

Augsburg is the only German city with its own legal holiday, the Peace of Augsburg, celebrated on August 8 of every year. This gives Augsburg more legal holidays than any other region or city in Germany.http://www2.augsburg.de/

History

The city was founded in 15 BC by Drusus and Tiberius as ""Augusta Vindelicorum"", under the orders of their stepfather Emperor Augustus. This garrison camp soon became capital of the Roman province of Raetia.

Early development was due to a 400-year affiliation with the Roman Empire, especially because of its excellent military, economic and geographic position at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach, and with direct access to most important Alpine passes. Thus, Augsburg was the intersection of many important European east-west and north-south connections, which later evolved as major trade routes of the Middle Ages.http://www2.augsburg.de/index.php?id=12356

Around 120 AD Augsburg became the capital of the Roman province Raetia. Augsburg was sacked by the Huns in the 5th century AD, by Charlemagne in the 8th century, and by Welf of Bavaria in the 11th century, but arose each time to greater prosperity.

ugsburg Confessio
Augsburg was decreed an Imperial Free City on March 9, 1276. Augsburg also held its own bishop at this time. With a strategic location as intersection of trade routes to Italy, it became a major trading centre. Augsburg produced large quantities of woven goods, cloth and textiles. Augsburg became the base for the Fugger banking empire, who donated the Fuggerei part of the city devoted to housing for needy citizens in 1516 and remains in use today.

In 1530, the Augsburg Confession was presented to the Holy Roman Emperor at the Diet of Augsburg. Following the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, after which the rights of religious minorities in imperial cities were to be legally protected, a mixed Catholic–Protestant city council presided over a majority Protestant population; "see Paritätische Reichsstadt".

hirty Years" Wa
Religious peace in the city was largely maintained despite increasing Confessional tensions until the Thirty Years" War (1618–1648). In 1629, Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which restored the legal situation of 1552 which again curtailed the rights of the Protestant citizens. The inequality of the Edict of Restitution was rescinded when in April 1632, the Swedish army under Gustavus Adolphus captured Augsburg without resistance.

In 1631, the Swedish army was routed at nearby Nördlingen. By October 1634, Catholic troops had surrounded Augsburg. The Swedish garrison refused to surrender and a siege ensued through the winter of 1634/35 and thousands died from hunger and disease. This ruinous siege, followed by the discovery and available travel to the America and a new route to India via the Cape, resulted in a rapid decline in Augsburg"s prosperity.

ine Years" Wa
In 1686, Emperor Leopold I, formed the "League of Augsburg", termed by the English as the "Grand Alliance" after England joined in 1689: a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Savoy, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. It was formed to defend the Palatinate from France. This organization fought the War of the Grand Alliance against France in the Nine Years War.

Augsburg"s peak boom years occurred during the 15th and 16th centuries via the bank and metal businesses of the merchant families Fugger and Welser, who held a local near total monopoly on their respective industries. Augsburg"s wealth attracted artists seeking patrons and rapidly became a creative center for famous painters, sculptors and musicians notably birthplace of : the Holbein painter family, the composer Leopold Mozart and the playwright Berthold Brecht. Rococo became so prevalent that it became known as “Augsburg style” throughout Germany.

ndustrial Revolution Reviva
In 1806, when the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, Augsburg lost its independence to become part of the Kingdom of Bavaria. In 1817 Augsburg became an administrative capital of the "Oberdonaukreis", then administrative capital in 1837 for the district Swabia and Neuburg.

During the end of the 18th century, Augsburg"s textile industry again rose to prominence followed by the attached machine manufacturing industry.

ilitar
Augsburg was historically a militarily important city due to strategic locale.
During the German re-armament prior to World War Two, the Wehrmacht enlarged Augsburg"s one original Kaserne (barracks) to three: Somme Kaserne ((housing Wehrmacht Artillerie-Regiment 27)); Arras Kaserne ((housing Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 27)) and Panzerjäger Kaserne (housing Panzerabwehr-Abteilung 27 (later Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27). Wehrmacht Panzerjäger-Abteilung 27 was later moved to Füssen.

Reichswehr Infanterie Regiment 19 were located in Augsburg and became the base unit for the Wehrmacht Infanterie Regiment 40, a subset of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27 (ehich later became Wehrmacht Panzerdivision 17). Elements of Wehrmacht II Battalion of Gebirgs-Jäger-Regiment 99 (especially Wehrmacht Panzerjäger Kompanie 14) was composed of parts of the Wehrmacht Infanterie Division 27. Infanterie Regiment 40 remained in Augsburg until the end of the war surrendering to the United States.

The three Kaserne changed hands confusingly between the Soviet Red Army, American and Germans, finally ending in US hands for the duration of the Cold War.

During World War II, one subcamp of the Dachau concentration camp was located outside Augsburg, supplying approximately 1300 forced labourers to local military-related industry, most especially Messerschmidt.Wolfgang Sofsky, William Templer, "The Order of Terror: The Concentration Camp": Princeton University Press: 1999, ISBN 0691006857: 352 pages: pp 183Edward Victor. "Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps." http://www.edwardvictor.com/Holocaust/List%20of%20camps.htm

In 1941 Rudolf Hess without Hitler"s permission secretly took off from a local airport and flew to Scotland to meet the Duke of Hamilton, and crashed in Eaglesham in an attempt to mediate the end of the European front of World War II and join sides for the upcoming Russian Campaign.

In 1945, the U.S. Army occupied the heavily damaged city. An American military presence in the city started with the 11th Airborne Division, followed by the 24th Infantry Division, US Army Seventh Corps Artillery, and finally the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade, which returned the former Kaserne to German hands in 1998. Originally the Heeresverpflegungshauptamt Südbayern and a Officers" caisson existed on or near the location of Reese-Kaserne, but was demolished by the occupying Americans. The former Wehrmacht Kaserne became the three main US barracks in Augsburg: Reese;, Sheridan and FLAK. US Base FLAK was an anti-aircraft barracks since 1936 and US Base Sheridan "united" the former infantry barracks with a smaller Kaserne for former Luftwaffe communications units.

Politics
Municipality

From 1266 until 1548, the terms "Stadtpfleger" (head of town council) and "Mayor" were used interchangeably, or occasionally, simultaneously.
In 1548 the title was finally fixed to "Stadtpfleger", whom officiated for several years and then awarded the title for life (though no longer governing), thus resulting confusingly, in records of two or more simultaneous "Stadtpfleger".

After the transfer to Bavaria in 1806, Augsburg was ruled by a Magistrate with two mayors, supported by an additional council of "Community Commissioners": the "Gemeindebevollmächtige".

As of 1907, the Mayor was entitled Oberbürgermeister, as Augsburg had attained a population of 100,000, as per the Bavarian Gemeindeordnung.

Town Council

1 Local elections on March 2, 2008     22008: Die Linke     3 Pro Augsburg: 6, Freie Wähler: 1

Members of the Bundestag
Augsburg is located in the "Wahlkreis 253 Augsburg-Stadt" constituency, which includes Königsbrunn and the District of Augsburg (Landkreis Augsburg).

Christian Ruck of the CSU was directly elected to the Bundestag with 49.2% of the vote in the 16th German Bundestag.

Indirectly elected to the Bundestag to adhere to the Landesliste were Miriam Gruß for the FDP, Heinz Paula for the SPD and Claudia Roth for Bündnis 90/Die Grünen.

Main sights
The "Goldene Saal" (Golden Hall)
"Fünfgratturm" tower.
Ring of Mercy on the Dom (Cathedral) St. Maria.

* Town Hall, built in 1620 in Renaissance style
* Perlachturm, a bell tower built in 1182
* "Fuggerei" (see above)
* Bishop"s Residence, built about 1750 in order to replace the older bishop palace; today the administrative seat of Swabia
*Cathedral, founded in the 9th century
*Augsburger Puppenkiste, a very famous marionette theater
*Eiskanal, the world"s first artificial whitewater course (venue for the whitewater events of the 1972 Munich Olympics).
*Dorint Hotel Tower
*Der Goldene Saal
*St. Ulrich and St. Afra—one church is Roman Catholic, the other Lutheran, the duality a result of the Peace of Augsburg concluded in 1555 between Catholics and Protestants
* Mozart Haus Augsburg (where composer father Leopold Mozart was born there and Mozart visited several times)
* Childhood home of Bertolt Brecht
* The Augsburg Botanical Gardens Botanischer Garten Augsburg

ncorporation


Historical population development


¹ Census result

artner citie
* Inverness, United Kingdom since 1956
* Amagasaki, Japan, since 1959
* Nagahama, Japan, since 1959
* Bourges, France, since 1963
* Dayton Ohio, United States, since 1964
* Liberec, Czech Republic, since 2001
* Jinan, People"s Republic of China, since 2004

Information on the partner cities can also be found at

Transport
Road
The main road link is autobahn A 8 between Munich and Stuttgart.

ublic transpor
Public transport is very well catered for. It is controlled by the Augsburger Verkehrsverbund (Augsburg transport union, AVV) extended over central Swabia. There are seven rail Regionalbahn lines, four tram lines, 27 city bus lines and six night bus lines, as well as, several taxi companies.

The tram network is now 35.5 km-long after the opening of new lines to the university in 1996, the northern city boundary in 2001 and to the Klinikum Augsburg (Augsburg hospital) in 2002. Two more tram lines are under construction, planned to be completed in 2011.

Rail services
The front of the station
Augsburg has seven stations. The Hauptbahnhof (main station) built from 1843 to 1846 is Germany’s oldest main station in a large city still providing services in the original building. It is currently being modernized and an underground tram station is built underneath it. Hauptbahnhof is on the Ulm–München line and is connected by ICE and IC services to Munich, Berlin, Dortmund, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Stuttgart. As of December 2007, the French TGV connected Augsburg with a direct High Speed Connection to Paris. In addition EC and night train services connect to Amsterdam, Paris and Vienna and connections will be substantially improved by the creation of the planned Magistrale for Europe.

The AVV operates seven Regionalbahn lines from the main station to:
*Mammendorf
*Schmiechen
*Aichach/Radersdorf
*Meitingen/Donauwörth
*Dinkelscherben
*Schwabmünchen
*Klosterlechfeld
Starting in 2008, the regional services are planned to be altered to S-Bahn frequencies and developed long term as integrated into the Augsburg S-Bahn.

Air transport
Until 2005 Augsburg was served by nearby Augsburg Airport (AGB). In that year all air passenger transport has been relocated to Munich Airport. Since then the Airport only serves for General aviation and business aviation.

Economy
Statue of Archangel Michael in Augsburg
Augsburg is a vibrant industrial city. Many global market leaders namely MAN, EADS or KUKA produce high technology products like printing systems, large diesel engines, industrial robots or components for the Airbus A380 and the Ariane carrier rocket. After Munich, Augsburg is considered the high-tech centre for Information and Communication in Bavaria and takes advantage of its lower operating costs, yet close proximity to Munich and potential customers.

ajor Companie
* Boewe Systec
* EADS
* EMCON Technologies (former Zeuna-Staerker)
* Fujitsu Technology Solutions
* KUKA Robotics / Systems
* MAN (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg)
* manroland
* MT-Aerospace
* NCR
* Osram
* Premium Aerotec
* Siemens
* UPM-Kymmene (former Haindl)
* Verlagsgruppe Weltbild
* WashTec (former Kleindienst)

Education
Augsburg is home to the following universities and colleges:

*University of Augsburg, founded in 1970http://www.uni-augsburg.de
*Fachhochschule Augsburg

edi
The local newspaper is the "Augsburger Allgemeine" first published in 1807. Besides, there are several local radio stations.

otable citizen
*died 304 Saint Afra
*c.890-973 Saint Ulrich
*1070-1127 Saint Wolfhard
*1459–1525 Jakob Fugger Noted banker and financial broker. An area within the city, called the Fuggerei was set aside for the poor and needy. Founded in 1519.
*1460–1524 Hans Holbein the Elder, a pioneer in the transformation of German art from the Gothic to the Renaissance style.
Holbein"s house
*1497–1543 Hans Holbein the Younger, portrait and religious painter.
*1517–1579 Paulus Hector Mair, martial artist.
*1573–1646 Elias Holl, architect
*1580–1627 Julius Schiller, lawyer and astronomer.
*1704–1767 Johann Jakob Haid, engraver
*1719–1787 Leopold Mozart, father of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
*1898–1956 Bertolt Brecht, famous German writer.
*1858–1913 Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the diesel engine.
*1933 Ulrich Biesinger, a former German footballer, part of the team that won the 1954 FIFA World Cup.
*1939 Helmut Haller, a footballer who represented West Germany at three World Cups.
*1957 Bernhard Langer, famous professional golfer.
*1959 Bernd Schuster, a German football coach and former player.
*1983 Philipp Kohlschreiber, a German tennis player.
*1985 Bianca Voitek, a German female bodybuilder.
*1994 Safet Alesevic, a Bosnian Semi-Pro, football player.
*1994 Erwin Nuhanovic, a Bosnian youth, football player currently signed by FC Augsburg. Regarded as one of the best youth players ever to play for FC Augsburg.

Miscellaneous
Perlachtower with City Hall
The patron saints of Augsburg are Saint Ulrich and Saint Afra. Saint Afra was killed (either beheaded or burned at the stake, accounts differ) by the Romans at Augsburg in 304. An earlier patroness was Zisa, referenced in the 11th century, feast day September 28), possibly an early Germanic goddess and originally the consort of Tyr.

A key family tourist attraction is the large annual children"s party and festivities of 29 September (Michaelmas or St. Michael"s Day) held at the Turamichele, where (Archangel Michael) appears in a window on the west side of the city tower (Perlachturm) and fights with the devil.

Augsburg"s Lech River White Water Canoeing hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics events and are now open to the public.

Augsburg holds year-long German Mozart Festival concerts and hosts the International Leopold Mozart Violin Competition.

port
The city is home to a DEL (first-division) ice hockey team, the Augsburger Panther. The original club, AEV, was formed in 1878, the oldest German ice sport club and regularly draws around 4000 spectators, quite reasonable for German ice hockey. Home games are played at the Curt Frenzel Stadion: not truly an indoor rink as the sides are open, though a new stadium is in the process of planning.

For the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, a Lech River dam protective diversionary canal for river ice was converted into the world"s first artificial whitewater slalom course: the Eiskanal and remains a world-class venue for whitewater competition and served as prototype for two dozen similar foreign courses.

The FC Augsburg is a 2nd Bundesliga football team based in Augsburg and plays in the Impuls Arena. The new stadium (opened in July 2009) also hosts games of the 2011 FIFA Women"s World Cup.

ocal City Nickname
While commonly coined "Fuggerstadt" (Fuggers" city) due to the Fuggers residing there, within Swabia it"s also often referred to as "Datschiburg": which originated sometime in the 19th century refers to Augsburgs favorite sweet: the "Datschi" made from fruit, preferably prunes, and thin cake dough.. accessed: 18 November 2008
The "Datschiburger Kickers" charity football team (founded in 1965) reflects this in its choice of team name. accessed: 18 November 2008 accessed: 18 November 2008

ee als
*List of civic divisions of Augsburg
*League of Augsburg
*Augsburg College, a private Lutheran College in the United States that takes its name from the Augsburg Confession
*List of mayors of Augsburg
*Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the Diesel engine, who also used biodiesel

ote


eference
*"Die Chroniken der schwäbischen Städte, Augsburg", (Leipzig, 1865–1896).
* Werner, "Geschichte der Stadt Augsburg", (Augsburg, 1900).
* Lewis, "The Roman Antiquities of Augsburg and Ratisbon", in volume xlviii, "Archæological Journal", (London, 1891).

xternal link

* Official site (English version)
*
* An interactive set of pictures which allows you to explore Augsburg
*
*







Category:1803 disestablishments
Category:States and territories established in 1276
Category:1972 Summer Olympic venues

Category:Roman legions" camps in Germany
Category:Roman towns and cities in Germany
Category:15 BC establishments
Category:Cathedrals in Germany


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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 19.08.2022 15:47 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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|pop_date = 2008-12-31|pop_urban = 3700000|pop_metro = 5000000|elevation = 34 - 115|GDP = 81.7|GDP_year = 2007|Website = / |leader_title = Governing Mayor|leader = Klaus Wowereit|leader_party = SPD|ruling_party1 = SPD|ruling_party2 = Die Linke|votes
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