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| Type = Cultural
| Criteria = ii, iv
| ID = 164
|Region = Europe and North America
| Year = 1981
| Session = 5th
| Link =

"Arles" (; Provençal Occitan: ""Arle"" in both classical and Mistralian norms) is a city in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.

The Rhône river forks into two branches just upstream of Arles, forming the Camargue delta. Because the Camargue is administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only slightly more than 50,000. Its area is , which is more than seven times the area of Paris.

:"For the Ecclesiastical history see Archbishopric of Arles"
re-Roman time

The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Later Celtic influences have been discovered. The city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans.

oman Arle
The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia (Marseille) further along the coast.

Its chance came when it sided with Julius Caesar against Pompey, providing military support. Massalia backed Pompey; when Caesar emerged victorious, Massalia was stripped of its possessions, which were transferred to Arelate as a reward. The town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI "Ferrata", which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was "Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum", "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth."

Roman Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 99 acres (400,000 m²) and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, theatre, and a full circuit of walls. Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it is now and served as a major port. It also had (and still has) the southernmost bridge on the Rhone. Very unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end. The boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river"s frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing now remains of the Roman bridge, which has been replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot.

The city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors frequently used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395 it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania (Spain) and Armorica (Brittany).

It became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing. His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West (407–411) and made Arles his capital in 408.

Arles became renowned as a cultural and religious centre during the late Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was also a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul. The city"s bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoré, then Saint Hilary in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, who was suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, and was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine, and again in 512 when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great, Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.)

The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the ism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy, even heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian burned alive for heresy (Manichaean in his case, see also Cathars, Camisards). Despite this tension and the city"s decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils (see Council of Arles), the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years.

Cloister of Saint Trophimus.

edieval Arle
Arles was badly affected by the invasion of Provence by the Muslim Saracens and the Franks, who took control of the region in the 8th century. In 855 it was made the capital of a Frankish Kingdom of Arles, which included Burgundy and part of Provence, but was frequently terrorised by Saracen and Viking raiders. In 888, Rodolphe, Count of Auxerre (now in north-western Burgundy), founded the kingdom of Bourgogne Transjurane (literally, beyond the Jura mountains), which included western Switzerland as far as the river Reuss, Valais, Geneva, Chablais and Bugey.

In 933, Hugh of Arles ("Hugues de Provence") gave his kingdom up to Rodolphe II, who merged the two kingdoms into a new Kingdom of Arles. In 1032, King Rodolphe III died, and the Kingdom was inherited by Emperor Conrad II the Salic. Though his successors counted themselves kings of Arles, few went to be crowned in the cathedral. Most of the territory of the Kingdom was progressively incorporated into France. During these troubled times, the amphitheatre was converted into a fortress, with watchtowers built at each of the four quadrants and a minuscule walled town being constructed within. The population was by now only a fraction of what it had been in Roman times, with much of old Arles lying in ruins.

The town regained political and economic prominence in the 12th century, with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa traveling there in 1178 for his coronation. In the 12th century, it became a free city governed by an elected "podestat" (chief magistrate; literally "power"), who appointed the consuls and other magistrates. It retained this status until the French Revolution of 1789.

Arles joined the countship of Provence in 1239 but suffered its prominence being eclipsed once more by Marseille. In 1378, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV ceded the remnants of the Kingdom of Arles to the Dauphin of France (later King Charles VI of France) and the Kingdom ceased to exist even on paper.

odern Arle
Place de la République
Arles remained economically important for many years as a major port on the Rhône. The arrival of the railway in the 19th century eventually killed off much of the river trade, leading to the town becoming something of a backwater.
"Cafe Terrace at Night" by Vincent Van Gogh (September 1888). It depicts the warmth of a café in Arles.

This made it an attractive destination for the painter Vincent van Gogh, who arrived there on 21 February 1888. He was fascinated by the Provençal landscapes, producing over 300 paintings and drawings during his time in Arles. Many of his most famous paintings were completed there, including "The Night Cafe", the "Yellow Room", "Starry Night Over the Rhone", and "L"Arlésienne". Paul Gauguin visited van Gogh in Arles. However, van Gogh"s mental health deteriorated and he became alarmingly eccentric, culminating in the infamous ear-severing incident in December 1888. The concerned Arlesians circulated a petition the following February demanding that van Gogh be confined. In May 1889 he took the hint and left Arles for the asylum at nearby Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.

ain sight

Arles has important remains of Roman times, which have been listed as World Heritage Sites since 1981. They include:
* The "Roman theater"
* The arena or "amphitheater"
* The "Alyscamps" (Roman necropolis)
* The "Thermae of Constantine"
* The "cryptoporticus "(open to the public - €3.50 Dec 2008)
* The "obelisk"

The "Church of St. Trophime" (Saint Trophimus), formerly a cathedral, is a major work of Romanesque architecture, and the representation of the Last Judgment on its portal is considered one of the finest examples of Romanesque sculpture, as are the columns in the adjacent cloister.
Capital of column in St. Trophime cloister.

The town also has an outstanding museum of ancient history, the Musée de l"Arles et de la Provence antiques, with one of the best collections of Roman sarcophagi to be found anywhere outside Rome itself. Another museum is the Museon Arlaten. However, perhaps surprisingly given the town"s importance to van Gogh, none of his works are on display in Arles.


In September-October 2007 divers led by Luc Long from the French Department of Subaquatic Archaeological Research, headed by Michel L"Hour, discovered a life-sized marble bust of an apparently important Roman person in the Rhone River near Arles, together with smaller statues of Marsyas in Hellenistic style and of the god Neptune from the third century AD. The larger bust was tentatively dated to 46 BC. Since the bust displayed several characteristics of an ageing person with wrinkles, deep naso-labial creases and hollows in his face, and since the archaeologists believed that Julius Caesar had founded the colony "Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelate Sextanorum" in 46 BC, the scientists came to the preliminary conclusion that the bust depicted a life-portrait of the Roman dictator: France"s Minister of Culture Christine Albanel reported on May 13, 2008, that the bust would be the oldest representation of Caesar known today. (May 13, 2008); (May 20, 2008); (May 20, 2008) The story was picked up by all larger media outlets.E.g. , CNN-Online "et al." on the archaeological find (France 3) The realism of the portrait was said to place it in the tradition of late Republican portrait and genre sculptures. The archaeologists further claimed that a bust of Julius Caesar might have been thrown away or discreetly disposed of, because Caesar"s portraits could have been viewed as politically dangerous possessions after the dictator"s assassination.

Historians and archaeologists not affiliated with the French administration, among them the renowned archaeologist and expert on Caesar and Augustus Paul Zanker, were quick to question whether the bust is a portrait of Caesar.Paul Zanker, , "Sueddeutsche Zeitung", May 25, 2008, on-lineMary Beard, Nathan T. Elkins, , May 14, 2008, on-line Many noted the lack of resemblances to Caesar"s likenesses issued on coins during the last years of the dictator"s life, and to the Tusculum bust of Caesar,Cp. this at the "AERIA" library which depicts Julius Caesar in his lifetime, either as a so-called "zeitgesicht" or as a direct portrait. After a further stylistic assessment Zanker dated the Arles-bust to the Augustan period. Elkins argued for the third century AD as the "terminus post quem" for the deposition of the statues, refuting the claim that the bust was thrown away due to feared repercussions from Caesar"s assassination in 44 BC.A different approach was presented by Mary Beard in that members of a military Caesarian colony would not have discarded portraits of Caesar, whom they worshipped as god, although statues were in fact destroyed by the Anti-Caesarians in the city of Rome after Caesar"s assassination (Appian, "BC" III.1.9). The main argument by the French archaeologists that Caesar had founded the colony in 46 BC proved to be incorrect, as the colony was founded by Caesar"s former quaestor Tiberius Claudius Nero on the dictator"s orders in his absence.Konrat Ziegler & Walther Sontheimer (eds.), "Arelate", in "Der Kleine Pauly: Lexikon der Antike", Vol. 1, col. 525, Munich 1979; in 46 BC Caesar himself was campaigning in Africa, before later returning to Rome. Mary Beard has accused the persons involved in the find to have wilfully invented their claims for publicity reasons. The French ministry of culture has not yet responded to the criticism and negative reviews.


AC Arles is an amateur French football team. They will compete in Ligue 2 for the 2009-2010 season, having gained promotion from the Championnat National in the 2008-2009 season. They play at the Stade Fernand Fournier, which has a capacity of 2500.


Image:Place_de_la_Republique_Arles.JPG|Place de la Republique
Image:sttrophimeportal.png|Portal of Saint Trophimus cathedral.
Image:Alyscamps van gogh.jpg|"Les Alyscamps, Falling Autumn Leaves", Vincent van Gogh, 1888.
Image:Arlesmarketgarlicstand.jpg|Garlic stand in the Arles street market.
Image:ArlesiensInCostume.jpg|Arlésiennes in costume.
Image:arlesviewwithrhone.png|View of the city center, with the Rhone in the background.
Image:arlesarena.jpg|Roman arena, inside view.
Image:Arlesmarketspicestand.jpg|Spice stand in the Arles street market.
Image:arlesarenes.png|Arles amphitheatre
Image:Arles-PlaceDuForum.jpg|The Place Du Forum in Arles today.


The "Arlésiens" (citizens of Arles) were noted for distinctive traditional dress which is now worn publicly at certain festivals and occasions.

A famous photography festival takes place in Arles every year, and the French national school of photography is located there. The major French publishing house Actes Sud is also situated in Arles.

The film "Ronin" was partially filmed in Arles.

Bull fights are conducted in the amphitheatre, including Provencal-style bullfights ("courses camarguaises") in which the bull is not killed but rather a team of athletic men attempt to remove a tassle from the bull"s horn without getting injured. Every Easter and on the first weekend of September, Arles also holds Spanish-style "corridas" (in which the bulls "are" killed) with an "encierro" (bull-running in the streets) preceding each fight.

Arles"s open-air street market is a major market in the region. It occurs on Saturday and Wednesday mornings.

amous peopl

* The Provençal poet Frédéric Mistral (1830-1914) was born near Arles.
* Jeanne Calment (1875-1997), the oldest human being whose age is documented, was born, lived and died, at the age of 122 years and 164 days, in Arles.
* Anne-Marie David, singer (Eurovision winner in 1973)
* Christian Lacroix, fashion designer, was born in Arles.
* Lucien Clergue, photographer.
* Djibril Cissé, footballer for and France
* Genesius of Arles, a notary martyred under Maximianus in 303 or 308.
* Juan Bautista, matador.
* Mehdi Savalli, matador.
* The medieval writer Antoine de la Sale was probably born in Arles around 1386.
* Home of the Gipsy Kings, a music group from Arles.

nternational relation

win towns — sister citie
Arles is twinned with:
* Pskov, Russia
* Jerez de la Frontera, Spain
* Fulda, Germany
* York, Pennsylvania, USA
* Cubelles, Spain
* Vercelli, Italy
* Sagné, Mauritania
* Kalymnos, Greece
* Wisbech, United Kingdom
* Zhouzhuang, China
* Verviers, Belgium

ee als
* Archbishopric of Arles
* Montmajour Abbey
* Trinquetaille
* Saint-Martin-de-Crau

ources and external link

* (in French)
* (in French)


Category:Communes of Bouches-du-Rhône

sr:Арл (град)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 17.09.2021 23:36 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
"Marseille" (in English also "Marseilles", ; ; locally ; in Occitan "Marselha" or "Marsiho", pronounced ), formerly known as "Massalia" (from ), is the 2nd most populous French city as well as the oldest city in France. It forms the third-largest
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The 31-year-old man who drove a delivery truck down 2 kilometres of Nice's seaside promenade, killing 84 people celebrating Bastille Day, had envisaged such a terrorist attack for months before getting behind the wheel, a French prosecutor said Thursday.
French far-right leader and presidential hopeful Marine Le Pen was set to lay out her key policies in a speech to supporters on Sunday, ahead of elections beginning in April. Lyon, France (dpa) - On the first of two days of events in the city of Lyon
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