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Ankara

Turkey, Ankara
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istor

Hittite artifacts on display at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.

The region"s history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hatti civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, and later by the Lydians, Persians, Greeks, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, and Turks (the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, the Ottoman Empire and Turkey.)

ncient histor
The oldest settlements in and around the city centre of Ankara belong to the Hatti civilization which existed during the Bronze Age. The city grew significantly in size and importance under the Phrygians starting around 1000 BC, and experienced a large expansion following the mass migration from Gordion, (the capital of Phrygia), after an earthquake which severely damaged that city around that time. In Phrygian tradition, King Midas was venerated as the founder of Ancyra, but Pausanias mentions that the city was actually far older, which accords with present archaeological knowledge.Pausanias, "Description of Greece, 1.4.1., "Ancyra was actually older even than that."

Phrygian rule was succeeded first by Lydian and later by Persian rule, though the strongly Phrygian character of the peasantry remained, as evidenced by the gravestones of the much later Roman period. Persian sovereignty lasted until the Persians" defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great who conquered the city in 333 BC. Alexander came from Gordion to Ankara and stayed in the city for a short period. After his death at Babylon in 323 BC and the subsequent division of his empire amongst his generals, Ankara and its environs fell into the share of Antigonus.

Another important expansion took place under the Greeks of Pontos who came there around 300 BC and developed the city as a trading centre for the commerce of goods between the Black Sea ports and Crimea to the north; Assyria, Cyprus, and Lebanon to the south; and Georgia, Armenia and Persia to the east. By that time the city also took its name "Áγκυρα" ("Ànkyra", meaning "Anchor" in Greek) which in slightly modified form provides the modern name of "Ankara".

eltic histor
The "Dying Gaul" was a famous statue commissioned in some time between 230 BC and 220 BC by King Attalos I of Pergamon to honor his victory over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia. Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late third century BCE. Capitoline Museums, Rome.

In 278 BC, the city, along with the rest of central Anatolia, was occupied by the Celtic race of Galatians, who were the first to make Ankara one of their main tribal centres, the headquarters of the Tectosages tribe. Other centres were Pessinos, today"s "Balhisar", for the Trocmi tribe, and Tavium, to the east of Ankara, for the "Tolstibogii" tribe. The city was then known as "Ancyra". The Celtic element was probably relatively small in numbers; a warrior aristocracy which ruled over Phrygian-speaking peasants. However, the Celtic language continued to be spoken in Galatia for many centuries. At the end of the 4th century AD, St. Jerome, a native of Galatia, observed that the language spoken around Ankara was very similar to that being spoken in the northwest of the Roman world near Trier.

oman histor
The city was subsequently conquered by Augustus in 25 BC and passed under the control of the Roman Empire. Now the capital city of the Roman province of Galatia, Ancyra continued to be a center of great commercial importance. Ankara is also famous for the "Monumentum Ancyranum" ("Temple of Augustus and Rome") which contains the official record of the "Acts of Augustus", known as the "Res Gestae Divi Augusti", an inscription cut in marble on the walls of this temple. The ruins of Ancyra still furnish today valuable bas-reliefs, inscriptions and other architectural fragments.

Augustus decided to make Ancyra one of three main administrative centres in central Anatolia. The town was then populated by Phrygians and Celts—the "Galatians" who spoke a language closely related to Welsh and Gaelic. Ancyra was the center of a tribe known as the "Tectosages", and Augustus upgraded it into a major provincial capital for his empire. Two other Galatian tribal centres, Tavium near Yozgat, and Pessinus (Balhisar) to the west, near Sivrihisar, continued to be reasonably important settlements in the Roman period, but it was Ancyra that grew into a grand metropolis.

Ancyra was the capital of the Celtic kingdom of Galatia, and later of the Roman province with the same name, after its conquest by Augustus in 25 BC.

An estimated 200,000 people lived in Ancyra in good times during the Roman Empire, a far greater number than was to be the case from after the fall of the Roman Empire until the early twentieth century. A small river, the Ankara Çayı, ran through the centre of the Roman town. It has now been covered over and diverted, but it formed the northern boundary of the old town during the Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. Çankaya, the rim of the majestic hill to the south of the present city center, stood well outside the Roman city, but may have been a summer resort. In the 19th century, the remains of at least one Roman villa or large house were still standing not far from where the Çankaya Presidential Residence stands today. To the west, the Roman city extended until the area of the Gençlik Park and Railway Station, while on the southern side of the hill, it may have extended downwards as far as the site presently occupied by Hacettepe University. It was thus a sizeable city by any standards and much larger than the Roman towns of Gaul or Britannia.

Ancyra"s importance rested on the fact was that it was the junction point where the roads in northern Anatolia running north-south and east-west intersected. The great imperial road running east passed through Ankara and a succession of emperors and their armies came this way. They were not the only ones to use the Roman highway network, which was equally convenient for invaders. In the second half of the 3rd century, Ancyra was invaded in rapid succession by the Goths coming from the west (who rode far into the heart of Cappadocia, taking slaves and pillaging) and later by the Arabs. For about a decade, the town was one of the western outposts of one of the most brilliant queens of the ancient world, the Arab empress Zenobia from Palmyra in the Syrian desert, who took advantage of a period of weakness and disorder in the Roman Empire to set up a short-lived state of her own.

Res Gestae written by the first Roman Emperor Augustus survives.

The town was reincorporated into the Roman Empire under the Emperor Aurelian in 272. The tetrarchy, a system of multiple (up to four) emperors introduced by Diocletian (284-305), seems to have engaged in a substantial programme of rebuilding and of road construction from Ankara westwards to Germe and Dorylaeum (now Eskişehir).

In its heyday, Roman Ankara was a large market and trading center but it also functioned as a major administrative capital, where a high official ruled from the city"s Praetorium, a large administrative palace or office. During the 3rd century, life in Ancyra, as in other Anatolian towns, seems to have become somewhat militarised in response to the invasions and instability of the town. In this period, like other cities of central Anatolia, Ankara was also undergoing Christianisation.

Early martyrs, about whom little is known, included Proklos and Hilarios who were natives of the otherwise unknown village of Kallippi, near Ancyra, and suffered repression under the emperor Trajan (98-117). In the 280s AD we hear of Philumenos, a Christian corn merchant from southern Anatolia, being captured and martyred in Ankara, and Eustathius.

As in other Roman towns, the reign of Diocletian marked the culmination of the persecution of the Christians. In 303, Ancyra was one of the towns where the co-Emperors Diocletian and his deputy Galerius launched their anti-Christian persecution. In Ancyra, their first target was the 38-year-old Bishop of the town, whose name was Clement. Clement"s life describes how he was taken to Rome, then sent back, and forced to undergo many interrogations and hardship before he, and his brother, and various companions were put to death. The remains of the church of St. Clement can be found today in a building just off Işıklar Caddesi in the Ulus district. Quite possibly this marks the site where Clement was originally buried. Four years later, a doctor of the town named Plato and his brother Antiochus also became celebrated martyrs under Galerius. Theodotus of Ancyra is also venerated as a saint.

The "Column of Julianus", now in the Ulus district, was erected in honor of the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate"s visit to Ancyra in 362.

However, the persecution proved unsuccessful and in 314 Ancyra was the center of an important council of the early church; which considered ecclesiastical policy for the reconstruction of the Christian church after the persecutions, and in particular the treatment of "lapsi"—Christians who had given in and conformed to paganism during these persecutions.

Three councils were held in the former capital of Galatia in Asia Minor, during the 4th century. The first, an orthodox plenary synod, was held in 314, and its 25 disciplinary canons constitute one of the most important documents in the early history of the administration of the Sacrament of Penance. Nine of them deal with conditions for the reconciliation of the lapsi; the others, with marriage, alienations of church property, etc.

Though paganism was probably tottering in Ancyra in Clement"s day, it may still have been the majority religion. Twenty years later, Christianity and monotheism had taken its place. Ancyra quickly turned into a Christian city, with a life dominated by monks and priests and theological disputes. The town council or senate gave way to the bishop as the main local figurehead. During the middle of the 4th century, Ancyra was involved in the complex theological disputes over the nature of Christ, and a form of Arianism seems to have originated there.

The synod of 358 was a Semi-Arian conciliabulum, presided over by Basil of Ancyra. It condemned the grosser Arian blasphemies, but set forth an equally heretical doctrine in the proposition that the Son was in all things similar to the Father, but not identical in substance.
In 362-363, the Emperor Julian the Apostate passed through Ancyra on his way to an ill-fated campaign against the Persians, and according to Christian sources, engaged in a persecution of various holy men. The stone base for a statue, with an inscription describing Julian as "Lord of the whole world from the British Ocean to the barbarian nations", can still be seen, built into the eastern side of the inner circuit of the walls of Ankara Castle. The Column of Julian which was erected in honor of the emperor"s visit to the city in 362 still stands today. In 375, Arian bishops met at Ancyra and deposed several bishops, among them St. Gregory of Nyssa. The modern Ankara, also known in some Western texts as "Angora", remains a Roman Catholic titular see in the former Roman province of Galatia in Asia Minor, suffragan of Laodicea. Its episcopal list is given in Gams, "Series episc. Eccl. cath."; also that of another Ancyra in Phrygia Pacatiana.

In the later 4th century Ancyra became something of an imperial holiday resort. After Constantinople became the East Roman capital, emperors in the 4th and 5th centuries would retire from the humid summer weather on the Bosporus to the drier mountain atmosphere of Ancyra. Theodosius II (408-450) kept his court in Ancyra in the summers. Laws issued in Ancyra testify to the time they spent there. The city"s military as well as logistical significance lasted well into the long Byzantine rule. Although Ancyra temporarily fell into the hands of several Arab Muslim armies numerous times after the seventh century, it remained an important crossroads polis within the Byzantine Empire until the late 11th century. It was also the capital of the powerful Opsician Theme, and after ca. 750 of the Bucellarian Theme.

urkish histor
In 1071, the Turkish Seljuk Sultan Alparslan conquered much of eastern and central Anatolia after his victory at the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt). He then annexed Ankara, an important location for military transportation and natural resources, to his territory in 1073. After Battle of Kösedağ in 1243 which Mongols defeated Seljuks, most of Anatolia became dominion of Mongols. Taking advantage of Seljuk decline, a semi religious cast of craftsmen and trade people named "Ahiler" chose Ankara as their independent city state in 1290. Orhan I, the second Bey of the Ottoman Empire, captured the city in 1356. Timur defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and took the city, but in 1403 Ankara was again under Ottoman control.

Dikmen Valley Towers.
Armada Tower in the center and Halkbank Tower in the background.

Following the Ottoman defeat at World War I, the Ottoman capital Istanbul and much of Anatolia were occupied by the Allies, who planned to share these lands between Armenia, France, Greece, Italy and the United Kingdom, leaving for the Turks the core piece of land in central Anatolia. In response, the leader of the Turkish nationalist movement, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, established the headquarters of his resistance movement in Ankara in 1920 (see the Treaty of Sèvres and the Turkish War of Independence.) After the War of Independence was won and the Treaty of Sèvres was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne, the Turkish nationalists replaced the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. A few days earlier, Ankara had officially replaced Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) as the new Turkish capital city, on 13 October 1923.

After Ankara became the capital of the newly founded Republic of Turkey, new development divided the city into an old section, called "Ulus", and a new section, called "Yenişehir". Ancient buildings reflecting Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman history and narrow winding streets mark the old section. The new section, now centered around "Kızılay", has the trappings of a more modern city: wide streets, hotels, theaters, shopping malls, and high-rises. Government offices and foreign embassies are also located in the new section.

Ankara has experienced a phenomenal growth since it was made Turkey"s capital. It was "a small town of no importance"Columbia Lippincott Gazeteer when it was made the capital of Turkey. In 1924, the year after the government had moved there, Ankara had about 35,000 residents. By 1927 there were 44,553 residents and by 1950 the population had grown to 286,781.



opulatio
Central Ankara has a population of 3,763,591 (2007) of which 1,870,831 are men and 1,892,760 are women. The metropolitan municipality, containing the central part of the city and the remaining balance of the 8 districts under its jurisdiction, had a total population of 3,901,201 the same year.



ttraction
useum
Atatürk"s mausoleum.
A Hattian artifact,Ceremonial standard, bronze, Alacahöyük, second half of the third millenium BC. Height . The Guide Book to the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 2006, p.71 from the 3rd millennium BC, in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.

*Anıtkabir
:is located on an imposing hill, "Anıttepe" quarter of the city, where the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of the Republic of Turkey, stands. Completed in 1953, it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural styles. An adjacent museum houses a wax statue of Atatürk, his writings, letters and personal items, as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and during the establishment of the Republic. Anıtkabir is open every day, while the adjacent museum is open every day except Mondays.
*Ankara Ethnography Museum ("Etnoğrafya Müzesi")
:This museum is opposite the Opera House on Talat Paşa Boulevard, in the Ulus district. There is a fine collection of folkloric as well as Seljuk- and Ottoman-era artifacts.
*Museum of Anatolian Civilizations ("Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi")
:Situated at the entrance of Ankara Castle, it is an old "bedesten" (covered bazaar) that has been beautifully restored and now houses a unique collection of Paleolithic, Neolithic, Hatti, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartian, and Roman works as well as a major section dedicated to Lydian treasures.
*State Art and Sculpture Museum ("Resim-Heykel Müzesi")
:This museum is close to the Ethnography Museum and houses a rich collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present day. There are also galleries which host guest exhibitions.
*War of Independence Museum ("Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi")
:This building, located on Ulus Square, was originally the first Parliament building (TBMM) of the Republic of Turkey. The War of Independence was planned and directed here as recorded in various photographs and items presently on exhibition. In another display, wax figures of former presidents of the Republic of Turkey are on exhibit.
*TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum - An open-air museum which traces the history of steam locomotives.
*Ankara Aviation Museum (Hava Kuvvetieri Müzesi Komutanliği)
:The museum is near the Istanbul Road in Etimesgut. It is home to various missiles, avionics, aviation materials and aircraft that have served in the Turkish Air Force (e.g. combat aircraft such as the F-86 Sabre, F-100 Super Sabre, F-102 Delta Dagger, F-104 Starfighter, F-5 Freedom Fighter, F-4 Phantom; and cargo planes such as the Transall C-160.) Also, a Hungarian MiG-21, a Pakistani MiG-19, and a Bulgarian MiG-17 are on display in the museum.

rcheological site
nkara Citade
Ankara Citadel walls.

The foundations of the citadel or castle were laid by the Galatians on a prominent lava outcrop, and the rest was completed by the Romans. The Byzantines and Seljuks further made restorations and additions. The area around and inside the citadel, being the oldest part of Ankara, contains many fine examples of traditional architecture. There are also recreational areas to relax. Many restored traditional Turkish houses inside the citadel area have found new life as restaurants, serving local cuisine.

The citadel was depicted in various Turkish banknotes during 1927-1952 and 1983-1989.The citadel was depicted in the following Turkish banknotes:
*On the obverse of the 1 lira banknote of 1927-1939 (1. Emission Group - One Turkish Lira - ).
*On the obverse of the 5 lira banknote of 1927-1937 (1. Emission Group - Five Turkish Lira - ).
*On the reverse of the 10 lira banknote of 1927-1938 (1. Emission Group - Ten Turkish Lira - ).
*On the reverse of the 10 lira banknote of 1938-1952 (2. Emission Group - Ten Turkish Lira - ).
*On the reverse of the 100 lira banknotes of 1983-1989 (7. Emission Group - One Hundred Turkish Lira - & ).
. Banknote Museum. – Links retrieved on 20 April 2009.

oman Theatr
The remains, the stage, and the backstage can be seen outside the castle. Roman statues that were found here are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (see above). The seating area is still under excavation.

emple of Augustus and Rom
The temple, also known as the Monumentum Ancyranum, was built between 25 BC - 20 BC following the conquest of Central Anatolia by the Roman Empire and the formation of the Roman province of Galatia, with Ancyra (modern Ankara) as its administrative capital. After the death of Augustus in 14 AD, a copy of the text of Res Gestae Divi Augusti was inscribed on the interior of the "pronaos" in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the "cella". The temple, on the ancient Acropolis of Ancyra, was enlarged by the Romans in the 2nd century. In the 5th century it was converted into a church by the Byzantines. It is located in the Ulus quarter of the city.

oman Bat
This bath has all the typical features of a classical Roman bath: a "frigidarium" (cold room), "tepidarium" (warm room) and "caldarium" (hot room). The bath was built during the reign of Emperor Caracalla in the 3rd century AD to honour Asclepios, the God of Medicine. Today, only the basement and first floors remain. It is situated in the Ulus quarter.

olumn of Julia
The column, popularly known among the locals as the "Belkıs Minaresi" (literally the "Queen of Sheba Column", for reasons unknown), was erected to commemorate a visit to Ancyra by the Roman emperor Julian in A.D. 362. The Corinthian capital dates to the 6th century; the stork"s nest, a permanent crowning feature, is of more recent vintage.

osque
Kocatepe Mosque.

*"The Alaaddin Mosque"
:It has a carved walnut mimber, the inscription on which records that the mosque was built in the 12th century by the Seljuk ruler, Mesut.

*"Ahi Elvan Mosque"
:The mosque was founded in the Ulus quarter near the Ankara Citadel and was constructed during the late 14th and early 15th centuries. The finely carved walnut mimber (pulpit) is of particular interest.

*"Hacı Bayram Mosque"
:This mosque, in the Ulus quarter next to the Temple of Augustus, was built in the early 15th century in Seljuk style by an unknown architect. It was subsequently restored by architect Sinan in the 16th century, with Kütahya tiles being added in the 18th century. The mosque was built in honor of Hacı Bayram Veli, whose tomb is next to the mosque, two years before his death (1427-28). The usable space inside this mosque is on the first floor and on the second floor.

*"Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque"
:This the largest Ottoman mosque in Ankara and was built by the famous architect Sinan in the 16th century. The mimber (pulpit) and mihrap (prayer niche) are of white marble, and the mosque itself is of Ankara stone (red porphyry), an example of very fine workmanship. Yeni Cami is on Ulucanlar Avenue.

*"Kocatepe Mosque"
:This is the largest and most notable mosque in the city. Located in the Kocatepe quarter, it was constructed between 1967 and 1987 in classical Ottoman style with four minarets. Its size and prominent location have made it a landmark for the city.

istoric building
*"Çankaya Köşkü" - the residence of the President of Turkey
*"Pembe Köşk" - the residence of Turkish President Ismet Inönü from 1925 to 1973

odern monument
Kızılay Square is the heart of Ankara.

ictory Monumen
Erected in 1927 on Zafer Square in the Sıhhiye quarter, it depicts Atatürk in uniform.

onument to a Secure, Confident Futur
This monument, located in Güven Park near Kızılay Square, was erected in 1935 and bears Atatürk"s advice to his people: "Turk! Be proud, work hard, and believe in yourself."

The monument was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 5 lira banknote of 1937-1952. Banknote Museum: 2. Emission Group - Five Turkish Lira - . – Retrieved on 20 April 2009. and of the 1000 lira banknotes of 1939-1946.. Banknote Museum: 2. Emission Group - One Thousand Turkish Lira - & . – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.

atti Monumen
Built in the 1970s on Sıhhiye Square, this impressive monument symbolizes the Hatti gods and commemorates Anatolia"s earliest known civilization. The symbol derived from this monument has been used as the logo of the city for a long time.

ark
Göksu Park in Eryaman.
Gençlik Park in central Ankara.

Ankara has many parks and open spaces mainly established in the early years of the Republic and well maintained and expanded thereafter. The most important of these parks are: Gençlik Park (houses an amusement park with a large pond for rowing), the Botanical Garden, Seğmenler Park, Anayasa Park, Kuğulu Park (famous for the swans received as a gift from the Chinese government), Abdi İpekçi Park, Güven Park (see above for the monument), Kurtuluş Park (has an ice-skating rink), Altınpark (also a prominent exposition/fair area), Harikalar Diyarı (claimed to be Biggest Park of Europe inside city borders) and Göksu Park.

Gençlik Park was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 100 lira banknotes of 1952-1976.. Banknote Museum: 5. Emission Group - One Hundred Turkish Lira - , , , , & . – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.

Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo ("Atatürk Orman Çiftliği") is an expansive recreational farming area which houses a zoo, several small agricultural farms, greenhouses, restaurants, a dairy farm and a brewery. It is a pleasant place to spend a day with family, be it for having picnics, hiking, biking or simply enjoying good food and nature. There is also an exact replica of the house where Atatürk was born in 1881, in Thessaloniki, Greece. Visitors to the "Çiftlik" (farm) as it is affectionately called by Ankarans, can sample such famous products of the farm such as old-fashioned beer and ice cream, fresh dairy products and meat rolls/kebaps made on charcoal, at a traditional restaurant ("Merkez Lokantası", Central Restaurant), cafés and other establishments scattered around the farm.

hoppin
Interior view of Karum Shopping & Business Center.
ICSC in 2003, becoming the second mall in Turkey after Akmerkez in Istanbul (Europe"s Best 1995, World"s Best 1996) to win this prestigious award.

Foreign visitors to Ankara usually like to visit the old shops in "Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu" (Weavers" Road) near Ulus, where myriad things ranging from traditional fabrics, hand-woven carpets and leather products can be found at bargain prices. "Bakırcılar Çarşısı" (Bazaar of Coppersmiths) is particularly popular, and many interesting items, not just of copper, can be found here like jewelry, carpets, costumes, antiques and embroidery. Up the hill to the castle gate, there are many shops selling a huge and fresh collection of spices, dried fruits, nuts, and other produce.

Modern shopping areas are mostly found in Kızılay, or on Tunalı Hilmi Avenue, including the modern mall of Karum (named after the ancient Assyrian merchant colonies (Karum) that were established in central Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) which is located towards the end of the Avenue; and in the Atakule Tower at Çankaya, the quarter with the highest elevation in the city, which commands a magnificent view over the whole city and also has a revolving restaurant at the top where the complete panorama can be enjoyed in a more leisurely fashion. The symbol of the Armada Shopping Mall is an anchor, and there"s a large anchor monument at its entrance, as a reference to the ancient Greek name of the city, Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra), which means anchor. Likewise, the anchor is also related with the Spanish name of the mall, Armada, which means naval fleet.

As Ankara started expanding westward in the 1970s, several modern, suburbia-style developments and mini-cities began to rise along the western highway, also known as the Eskişehir Road. The "Armada" and "CEPA" malls on the highway, the "Galleria" in Ümitköy, and a huge mall, "Real" in Bilkent Center, offer North American and European style shopping opportunities (these places can be reached through the Eskişehir Highway.) There is also the newly expanded "Ankamall" at the outskirts, on the Istanbul Highway, which houses most of the well-known international brands. This mall is the largest throughout the Ankara region.

ulture and educatio
Ankara Opera House of the Turkish State Opera and Ballet.
The historical Evkaf Apartmanı in which the Head Office of the Turkish State Theaters is situated. The building also houses the Küçük Tiyatro and Oda Tiyatrosu.

Turkish State Opera and Ballet, the national directorate of opera and ballet companies of Turkey, has its headquarters in Ankara, and serves the city with three venues:

* Ankara Opera House ("Opera Sahnesi", also known as "Büyük Tiyatro")
* Leyla Gencer Sahnesi (named after world-famous soprano Leyla Gencer)
* Operet Sahnesi (also known as the "Türkocağı Binası")

The Turkish State Theatres also has its head office in Ankara and runs the following stages in the city:
* 125. Yıl Çayyolu Sahnesi
* Büyük Tiyatro (also doubling as the Ankara Opera House)
* Küçük Tiyatro,
* Şinasi Sahnesi,
* Akün Sahnesi,
* Altındağ Tiyatrosu,
* İrfan Şahinbaş Atölye Sahnesi,
* Oda Tiyatrosu,
* Mahir Canova Sahnesi,
* Muhsin Ertuğrul Sahnesi.

In addition the city is served by several private theatre companies among which Ankara Sanat Tiyatrosu who have their own stage in the city centre is a notable example.

Ankara is host to five classical music orchestras:
* Cumhurbaşkanlığı Senfoni Orkestrası (Turkish Presidential Symphony Orchestra)
* Bilkent Senfoni Orkestrası
* Hacettepe Senfoni Orkestrası
* Orkestra Akademik Başkent
* Başkent Oda Orkestrası (Chamber Orchestra of the Capital)

There are four concert halls in the city:
* CSO Konser Salonu
* Bilkent Konser Salonu
* MEB Şura Salonu (also known as the Festival Hall)
* Çankaya Çağdaş Sanatlar Merkezi Konser Salonu

The city has been host to several well-established, annual theatre, music, film festivals:
* Ankara Film Festivali (Ankara Film Festival)
* Ankara Uluslararası Müzik Festivali (International Ankara Music Festival)
* Ankara Tiyatro Festivali (Ankara Theatre Festival)
* Ankara Caz Festivali (Ankara Jazz Festival)

niversitie
METU campus, as seen from its MM Building.

Ankara is noted, within Turkey, for the multitude of universities it is home to. These include the following, several of them being among the most reputable in the country:



ransportatio
Ankara rapid transit network.

Esenboğa International Airport, located in the north-east of the city, is the main airport of Ankara.

() is an important part of the bus network which covers every neighbourhood in the city.

The central train station, "Ankara Garı" of the Turkish State Railways (), is an important hub connecting the western and eastern parts of the country. High-speed rail services are to be operated between Ankara and Istanbul, beginning in 2009.

The "Electricity, Gas, Bus General Directorate" (EGO) operates the Ankara Metro and other forms of public transportation. Ankara is currently served by suburban rail and two subway lines with about 300,000 total daily commuters, and three additional subway lines are under construction.

port
Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium.
As with all other cities of Turkey, football is the most popular sport in Ankara. The city has four football clubs currently competing in the Turkcell Super League: Ankaragücü founded in 1910 is the oldest club in Ankara and associated with Ankara"s military arsenal manufacturing company MKE. They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1972 and 1981. Their rival is Gençlerbirliği founded in 1923 known as Ankara Wind or the Poppies because of their colours: red and black. They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1987 and 2001. Gençler"s B team, Hacettepe SK (formerly known as Gençlerbirliği OFTAŞ) has been allowed to ascend to the Super League along with its A team as long as they have 2 different chairmen. All these three teams have their home at the Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium in Ulus, which has a capacity of 21,250 (all-seater). The fourth team is owned by the Municipality, Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor who are nicknamed the Leopards. Their home is the Yenikent Asaş Stadium in the Sincan district of Yenikent, outside the city center.

Ankara has a large number of minor teams, playing at regional levels: Bugsaşspor in Sincan; Etimesgut Şekerspor in Etimesgut; Türk Telekom owned by the phone company in Yenimahalle; Demirspor in Çankaya; Keçiörengücü, Keçiörenspor, Pursaklarspor, Bağlumspor in Keçiören; and Petrol Ofisi Spor.

In the Turkish Basketball League, Ankara is represented by Türk Telekom, whose home is the ASKI Sport Hall, and CASA TED Kolejliler, whose home is the TOBB Sports Hall.

Ankara Buz Pateni Sarayı is where the ice skating and ice hockey competitions take place in the city.

There are many popular spots for skateboarding which is active in the city since the 1980s. Skaters in Ankara usually meet in the park near the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.

aun
ngora ca


Angora cat

Ankara is home to a world famous cat breed — the Turkish Angora, called "Ankara kedisi" (Ankara cat) in Turkish. It is a breed of domestic cat. Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, naturally-occurring cat breeds, having originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia.

They mostly have a white, silky, medium to long length coat, no undercoat and a fine bone structure. There seems to be a connection between the Angora Cats and Persians, and the Turkish Angora is also a distant cousin of the Turkish Van. Although they are known for their shimmery white coat, currently there are more than twenty varieties including black, blue and reddish fur. They come in tabby and tabby-white, along with smoke varieties, and are in every color other than pointed, lavender, and cinnamon (all of which would indicate breeding to an outcross.)

Eyes may be blue, green, or amber, or even one blue and one amber or green. The W gene which is responsible for the white coat and blue eye is closely related to the hearing ability, and the presence of a blue eye can indicate that the cat is deaf to the side the blue eye is located. However, a great many blue and odd-eyed white cats have normal hearing, and even deaf cats lead a very normal life if kept indoors.

Ears are pointed and large, eyes are almond shaped and the head is massive with a two plane profile. Another characteristic is the tail, which is often kept parallel to the back.

ngora rabbi


Angora rabbit

The Angora rabbit () is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft hair. The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, originating in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia, along with the Angora cat and Angora goat. The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid 1700s, and spread to other parts of Europe by the end of the century. They first appeared in the United States in the early 1900s. They are bred largely for their long Angora wool, which may be removed by shearing, combing, or plucking (gently pulling loose wool.)

Angoras are bred mainly for their wool because it is silky and soft. They have a humorous appearance, as they oddly resemble a fur ball. Most are calm and docile but should be handled carefully. Grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit. A condition called "wool block" is common in Angora rabbits and should be treated quickly. Sometimes they are shorn in the summer as the long fur can cause the rabbits to overheat.

ngora goa


Angora goat

The Angora goat () is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia.

This breed was first mentioned in the time of Moses, roughly in 1500 BC. The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, about 1554, but, like later imports, were not very successful. Angora goats were first introduced in the United States in 1849 by Dr. James P. Davis. Seven adult goats were a gift from Sultan Abdülmecid I in appreciation for his services and advice on the raising of cotton.

The fleece taken from an Angora goat is called mohair. A single goat produces between five and eight kilograms of hair per year. Angoras are shorn twice a year, unlike sheep, which are shorn only once. Angoras have high nutritional requirements due to their rapid hair growth. A poor quality diet will curtail mohair development. The United States, Turkey, and South Africa are the top producers of mohair.

For a long period of time, Angora goats were bred for their white coat. In 1998, the Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras. Now Angora goats produce white, black (deep black to greys and silver), red (the color fades significantly as the goat gets older), and brownish fiber.

Angora goats were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 lira banknotes of 1938-1952.. Banknote Museum:2. Emission Group - Fifty Turkish Lira - ;3. Emission Group - Fifty Turkish Lira - & . – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.

nkara image galler


File:Ankara Atakule Tower.jpg|View of the Atakule Tower and central Ankara.
File:Ankara_City_Center.jpg|View of central Ankara from the Atakule Tower.
File:Ankara.jpg|View of central Ankara from the Botanical Garden.
File:Musem Of Anatolian Civilisations Ankara.JPG|Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.
File:067 Etnografya.05.2006 resize.JPG|State Art and Sculpture Museum.
File:Esenboga_airport.jpg|Esenboğa International Airport.
File:Armada Mall Ankara 3.jpg|Armada Tower & Shopping Center (2002).
File:Akman Tower Ankara.jpg|Akman Tower (1999).
File:Sheraton Hotel & Convention Center Ankara.jpg|Sheraton Hotel & Convention Center (1991).
File:Atakule Ankara.jpg|Atakule Tower (1989).
File:BDDK Building Ankara.jpg|BDDK Building (1975), formerly the Türkiye İş Bankası headquarters.
File:Kizilay Business Center Ankara.jpg|Emek Business Center (1962) on Kızılay Square.
File:Kizilay Square.jpg|Buildings on Kızılay Square.
File:Sheraton and Beymen.jpg|Sheraton Hotel and Beymen Building.
File:Ankara Park Botanik.jpg|Botanik Park in central Ankara.
File:Ankara Park Cemre Demetevler.jpg|Cemre Park in Demetevler.
File:Ankara Park Kugulu.jpg|Kuğulu Park, famous for its swans, geese and ducks.
File:Ankara Park Kuğulu.jpg|Kuğulu Park, famous for its swans, geese and ducks.
File:Ankara Park Kurtuluş Panorama.jpg|Kurtuluş Park in central Ankara.
File:Ankara Park Kurtuluş.jpg|Kurtuluş Park in central Ankara.
File:Ankara Park Segmenler.jpg|Seğmenler Park in central Ankara.
File:Ankara Park Seğmenler.jpg|Seğmenler Park in central Ankara.
File:Ankara Park Keçiören Evcil.jpg|Evcil Hayvanlar Park in Keçiören.
File:Dikmen Valley Ankara Turkey.jpg|Dikmen Valley Park.



nternational relation

win towns — sister citie
Ankara is twinned with: of Ankara are listed below:


;Africa
* "Addis Ababa", Ethiopia (2006)
* "Cairo", Egypt (2004)
* "Khartoum", Sudan (1992)
* "Kinshasa", Democratic Republic of the Congo (2005)
* "Mogadishu", Somalia (2000)
;Americas
* "Havana", Cuba (1993)
* "Santiago", Chile (2000)
* "San Diego", US (2009)
;Asia
* "Ashgabat", Turkmenistan (1994)
* "Astana", Kazakhstan (2001)
* "Beijing", China(1990)
* "Bishkek", Kyrgyzstan (1992)
* "Dushanbe", Tajikistan (2002)
* "Hanoi", Vietnam (1998)
* "Islamabad", Pakistan (1982)
* "Shiraz", Iran
* "Kabul", Afghanistan (2003)
* "Kuala Lumpur", Malaysia (1984)
* "Kuwait City", Kuwait (1994)
* "Manama", Bahrain (2000)
* "Sana"a", Yemen (2006)
* "Seoul", South Korea (1971)
* "Tashkent", Uzbekistan (2004)
* "Ulan Bator", Mongolia (2003)

;Europe
* "Baku", Azerbaijan
* "Bucharest", Romania (1998)
* "Budapest", Hungary (1992)
* "Chişinău", Moldova (2001)
* "Dipkarpaz", Northern Cyprus (1986)
* "Kazan", Tatarstan, Russia (2005)
* "Kiev", Ukraine (1993)
* "Minsk", Belarus (2007)
* "Moscow", Russia (1992)
* "Pristina", Kosovo (2005)
* "Sarajevo", Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994)
* "Skopje", Macedonia (1995)
* "Sofia", Bulgaria (1992)
* "Tbilisi", Georgia (1996)
* "Tirana", Albania (1995)
* "Ufa", Bashkortostan, Russia (1997)


otable people from Ankar
* Filiz Akın, actress
* Mazhar Alanson, musician
* Huseyin Bahri Alptekin, artist, writer, educator and curator
* Emre Araci, music historian, composer, conductor
* Funda Arar, musician
* Bülent Atalay, author, scientist and artist
* Bedri Baykam, artist
* Bülent Bezdüz, tenor
* İdil Biret, concert pianist, recording artist
* André Couteaux, writer and scenarist
* Emin Çölaşan, journalist
* Hande Dalkılıç, musician
* Yasemin Dalkılıç, free diver
* Vedat Dalokay, architect
* Ordal Demokan, physicist
* Can Dündar, journalist
* Moris Farhi, writer
* Gizem Girişmen, archer
* Erdal İnönü, politician and physicist
* Nil Karaibrahimgil, musician
* Vehbi Koç, pioneer industrialist
* Yasemin Mori, musician
* Peter Murphy, musician
* Aydın Örs, basketball coach
* Zerrin Özer, musician
* Eren Ozker, Puppeteer (Jim Henson"s Muppets), Actress and founder of SAG Puppeteers" Caucus
* Yağmur Sarıgül, musician
* Fazil Say, concert pianist, composer
* Joe Strummer, lead singer, guitarist and lyricist of the English band The Clash
* Özlem Tekin, musician
* Kartal Tibet, actor
* Buket Uzuner, writer

eligious figure
* Hacı Bektaş Veli, Islamic mystic, humanist and philosopher
* St. Theodotus of Ancyra, Christian martyr and saint
* St. Nilus of Ancyra, Christian saint
* Clement of Ancyra, Christian hieromartyr and bishop
* Theodotus of Ancyra, Christian saint and bishop
* Marcellus of Ancyra, Christian bishop
* Basil of Ancyra, Christian priest

ee als
* Synod of Ancyra
* State Art and Sculpture Museum
* Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
* Ankara Ethnography Museum
* Turkish Angora

eferences and note


xternal link

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* source

ublication














Category:Capitals in Europe
Category:Capitals in Asia

Category:Ankara Province
Category:Cities, towns and villages in Ankara Province


ace:Ankara
af:Ankara
am:አንካራ
ar:أنقرة
an:Ankara
arc:ܐܢܩܪܐ
roa-rup:Ancara
frp:Ankara
az:Ankara
bn:আঙ্কারা
zh-min-nan:Ankara
be:Горад Анкара
be-x-old:Анкара
bo:ཨན་ཁ་ར
bs:Ankara
br:Ankara
bg:Анкара
ca:Ankara
cs:Ankara
cy:Ankara
da:Ankara
de:Ankara
et:Ankara
el:Άγκυρα
es:Ankara
eo:Ankaro
eu:Ankara
fa:آنکارا
fo:Ankara
fr:Ankara
ga:Ancara
gv:Ankara
gl:Ancara - Ankara
ko:앙카라
haw:Ankara
hy:Անկարա
hi:अंकारा
hr:Ankara
io:Ankara
id:Ankara
ia:Ankara
os:Анкара
is:Ankara
it:Ankara
he:אנקרה
jv:Ankara
kn:ಅಂಕಾರಾ
ka:ანკარა (თურქეთი)
ky:Анкара
sw:Ankara
ht:Ankara
ku:Enqere
lad:Ankara
la:Ancyra
lv:Ankara
lb:Ankara
lt:Ankara
lij:Ankara
ln:Ankara
lmo:Ankara
hu:Ankara
mk:Анкара
ml:അങ്കാറ
mr:अंकारा
arz:انقره
mzn:آنکارا
fj:Ankara
nl:Ankara
ja:アンカラ
no:Ankara
nn:Ankara
nov:Ankara
oc:Ankara
pap:Ankara
pms:Ankara
nds:Ankara
pl:Ankara
pt:Ancara
crh:Ankara
ro:Ankara
qu:Ankara
ru:Анкара
sah:Анкара
sq:Ankara
simple:Ankara
sk:Ankara
sl:Ankara
sr:Анкара
sh:Ankara
fi:Ankara
sv:Ankara
tl:Ankara
ta:அங்காரா
tt:Анкара
te:అంకారా
tet:Ankara
th:อังการา
tg:Анкара
tr:Ankara
uk:Анкара
ur:انقرہ
ug:Enqere
vi:Ankara
vo:Ankara
war:Ankara
wo:Ankara
wuu:安卡拉
yi:אנקארא
yo:Ankara
diq:Anqara (bacar)
zh:安卡拉
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