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Akureyri

Iceland, Akureyri
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|subdivision_name1 = Northeast
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|area_total_sq_mi = 48.26
|area_total_km2 = 125
|population_as_of = 2009
|population_total = 17481
|population_urban =
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|footnotes = Postal Codes: 600–603
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"Akureyri" () is a city in the northern part of the Republic of Iceland (Lýðveldið Ísland). Nicknamed "the Capital of North Iceland," Akureyri is an important port and fisheries centre, with a population of 17,304. It is Iceland"s second largest urban area (after the Greater Reykjavík area) and fourth largest municipality (after Reykjavík, Hafnarfjörður, and Kópavogur).

The area where Akureyri is located was settled in the 9th century but did not receive a municipal charter until 1786.}} The city was the site of Allied units during World War II. Further growth occurred after the war as the Icelandic population increasingly moved to urban areas.

The area has a relatively warm climate due to geographical factors, and the city"s ice-free harbor has played a significant role in its history. At present, Akureyri has the world"s northernmost botanical gardens and 18-hole golf course.

History
Akureyri in the late 19th century.
The Norse Viking Helgi "magri" (the slim) Eyvindarson originally settled the area in the 9th century. The first mention of Akureyri are in court records from 1562 when a woman was sentenced there for adultery. In the 17th century, Danish merchants based their camps on the actual Akureyri, which was one of the numerous spits of land in Pollurinn. The main reasons for choosing this spot for trading operations were the outstanding natural harbour and the fertility of the area. The merchants did not live at Akureyri year round but returned home in the winter.

Permanent settlement at Akureyri started in 1778, and eight years later, the town was granted its municipal charter by the king of Denmark (and at the time Iceland also) along with five other towns in Iceland. The king hoped to improve the living conditions of Icelanders by this action because at the time, Iceland had never had urban areas. As far as the king was concerned Akureyri was unsuccessful, because it did not grow from its population of 12. It lost its municipal status in 1836 but regained it in 1862. From then on Akureyri started to grow because of the excellent port conditions and perhaps more because of the productive agricultural region around it. Agricultural products became an important sector of the economy.

During World War II, Akureyri was one of three air bases used by the Norwegian-British No. 330 Squadron RNoAF.Olsen, Bjorn (1981). "Norwegian Northrop". In "After The Battle", No. 31, pages 43–50. The squadron, which was formed on 25 April 1941, flew Northrop N-3PB bombers: "A" flight was based at Reykjavik, "B" flight at Akureyri and "C" flight at Budareyri. On 1 December 1940, "A" and "B" flights ceased operating from Norwegian bases, but "C" flight continued to fly Northrop N-3PBs from Akureyri until 5 April 1943. No. 330 Squadron RNoAF also operated Catalina flying boats from Akureyri, which protected convoys from the United States to the United Kingdom and Murmansk from attack by German submarines.Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE, BA, RAF (Retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.

In the 20th century, Iceland experienced a mass exodus from the countryside to the towns. Commerce and service industries grew to be the primary employers in Akureyri in the 1990s. Jón Sveinsson, a popular author of children"s books, was born in Akureyri and died in 1944.

In the early 21st century, fishing industries have become more important in Akureyri as two of the major fishing companies of Iceland have become a more important source of revenue and are expected to grow further in coming years. The University of Akureyri was founded in 1987 and is growing rapidly. Akureyri is also the home of RES - The School for Renewable Energy Science.

Since 2004, the former municipality of Hrísey, an island 35 km to the north, has been a part of Akureyri. Hrisey, which has a population of 210 is the second largest island off Iceland and is a site for pet and livestock quarantine. The town was previously the site of fishing processing.}} The town is located on the southern part of the island. The northern part consists on privately owned land that requires passes to enter.

Geography
The Glerá River.
Akureyri is located at and positioned on the west side of the inland end of the fjord Eyjafjörður.

It is surrounded by mountains, the highest being Súlur 1213 m (3980 ft) and Hlíðarfjall 1116 m (3661 ft). There is a narrow coastal strip of flat land; inland is a steep but low hill. In earlier times a few spits of land (Icelandic: "eyri", thus Akur-eyri) jutted from the narrow coast, but a lot of land has since been reclaimed from the sea so that today the coastline is more even except for the largest, Oddeyri, which was formed by the river Glerá which runs through the town. It is thought that the name of the city is derived possibly from the name of a field which may have been situated near some of the sheltered locations by the river.

Air temperatures in Akureyri, 1882 to 2008 (source: NASA)
The body of sea between Oddeyri and the end of the fjord is known as Pollurinn and is known for calm winds and a good natural harbour. Akureyri today is centered on Ráðhústorg (Town Hall Square) near the north-west corner of Pollurinn. The districts of Akureyri are: Innbær, the oldest part of town on the strip of land between the hill and Pollurinn south of the central area; Brekkan, on top of the hill; Oddeyri on the peninsula with the same name; and Glerárhverfi on the north bank of the Glerá (also referred to colloquially as Þorpið, "the Village"). Because of the town"s position at the end of a long fjord surrounded by high mountains, the climate is actually more inland than coastal, meaning greater variations in temperature (warmer summers, colder winters) than in many other inhabited parts of Iceland. However, the mountains shield the town from strong winds. The relatively warm climate allows the Botanical Gardens to flourish without need of a greenhouse. The area around Akureyri has one of the warmest climates in Iceland even though it is merely 100 km (60 miles) from the Arctic Circle.

Demographics
Akureyri has a population of 17,304 based on the 1 April 2008 census. The population in 1910 was 2,239, increasing to 7,711 in 1950 and 16,756 in 2005. 20% of the working population is employed in the service industry. The January 1, 2008 population of the 600 postal code of Iceland (Akureyri) was 9,759. The January 1, 2008 population of the 601 postal code of Iceland (Akureyri) was 2,213. The January 1, 2008 population of the 603 postal code of Iceland (Akureyri) was 7,375. Postal code 602 is used for post office boxes and does not have any population. There were 8,541 males and 8,779 females in Akureyri on 1 January 2008. Deaths that year in Akureyri totaled 44 males and 79 females. In 2008, 1,098 moved from Akureyri but this migration was offset with a net migration into Akureyri of 78 people.

rim
Crime statistics have been published by the Iceland national police for 2000. Akureyri had a reported 726 non-traffic offenses per 10,000 population compared with a national average of 891.6. 2,890.7 traffic offenses per 10,000 population were recorded compared with a national average of 2,397.2. Akureyri has five police officers on call. There have been incidents when there were insufficient police officers on duty to respond to criminal activity in progress as confirmed by the mayor.

Economy
Shopping street in Akureyri
Cruise ship in the harbor
The fishing industry has historically been a large and important part of the local economy. In recent years, other industry and business services have also begun. Higher education is also a growing sector in the local economy. Twenty percent of the work force is in the service industry.

Two of the five largest fishing companies in Iceland are headquartered in Akureyri. The ice-free port is a contributing factor. Other large companies in Akureyri include Samherji, Norðurmjólk, Brim hf, and Vífilfell, the largest brewery in Iceland. Sjúkrahús Akureyrar (FSA/Akureyri Hospital) is a major employer in the area and is one of two major hospitals in Iceland.

Corporations pay a tax rate of 18% to the national government, which is one of the lowest in the world. There are no additional local corporate taxes. Property tax, at 1.99%, accounts for most of the tax base. A local government deficit of ISK 1 billion (US$ 9 million) was anticipated in 2009 prompting a cut in salaries of the mayor, town councilors, and committee members by 10% and increases in local taxes and property taxes.

Culture
Akureyri has a robust cultural scene, with several bars and reputable restaurants (such as "Greifinn", "Bautinn", "rub 23" and "friðrik v"). The Icelandic folk dance ensemble "Vefarinn" comes from Akureyri. Folk culture in general is more prevalent in Akureyri than in Reykjavík. During the summer there are several festivals in Akureyri and its surroundings. One example is the medieval festival held every summer at Gásir. The Akureyri International Music Festival, a concert series by bands, was held for the fourth time in 2009. The city has one of the largest libraries in the country. The Arctic Open Golf Championship is an international event that is held in Akureyri.

Media
The "Vikudagur" newspaper is published in Akureyri. Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (Ríkisútvarpið) operates two radio channels nationwide. There are several radio stations in Akureyri, including FM Akureyri and Voice FM 98.7. Several television stations that can be watched in Akureyri. N4 is a station whose studios are located in Akeureyri. Initially a local channel, it began to broadcast nationwide in 2008.

Cityscape

Rainbow over Akureyri, August 2009
Akureyri cityscape
The town centre of Akureyri.
Akureyri viewed from the wharf. The Akureyrarkirkja is illuminated.
Botanical gardens
Sites that have been cited as areas of interest include various museums, churches, and the Botanical Gardens.
Local museums include the Minjasafnið á Akureyri (Akureyri Museum), Listasafnið á Akureyri (Akureyri Art Museum), Nonnahús (Nonni house or Jón Sveinsson Memorial Museum, for the writer), Davíðshús (David"s house or Davíð Stefánsson Memorial Museum, for the poet), Akureyri Museum of Industry, a motorcycle museum, and Flugsafn Íslands (Aviation Museum). The most northerly botanical gardens and the most northerly 18 hole golf course in the world are in the city. The Náttúrufræðistofnun Norðurlands (Nature Museum) was opened in 1957 and is in the grounds of the Botanical Gardens. The Botanical Gardens (Lystigarður Akureyrar) are located in Spítalavegur. Large churches include the Akureyrarkirkja (The church of Akureyri) and Glerárkirkja (The church of Glerá). Sundlaug Akureyrar is a swimming pool in Akureyri.

New residential and commercial growth has required an extension of electricity and water distribution as well as new water drilling. Much of the city is heated geothermically.

Law and government
Akureyri is governed by the town council, directly elected by anyone over 18 with registered domicile in the city. The council has 11 members who are elected for four-year terms. The mayor is appointed by the council; usually one of the council members is chosen, but they may also appoint a mayor who is not a member of the council.

The last elections to the town council were held on May 27, 2006. The Independence Party (Sjálfstæðisflokkurinn) received the most votes followed by the
Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin) and Left-Green Movement (Vinstri hreyfingin grænt framboð). Following the elections the Independence Party and the Alliance formed a coalition government in the council. The current mayor is Sigrún Björk Jakobsdóttir, member of the Independence Party.

Timeline of mayors
* 1919–1934 - Jón Sveinsson
* 1934–1958 - Steinn Steinsen
* 1958–1967 - Magnús Guðjónsson
* 1967–1976 - Bjarni Einarsson
* 1976–1986 - Harðth Aúrföensson
* 1986–1990 - Sigfús Jónsson
* 1990–1994 - Halldór Jónsson
* 1994–1998 - Jakob Björnsson
* 1998–2007 - Kristján Þór Júlíusson
* 2007-2009 - Sigrún Björk Jakobsdóttir
* 2009-        - Hermann Jón Tómasson

ducatio
Akureyri Catholic Church
There are two high schools (gymnasiums) in Akureyri, one of them being the second oldest in Iceland. The Menntaskólinn á Akureyri is a junior college in Akureyri.
Háskólinn á Akureyri (University of Akureyri) is a university located in Akureyri that was founded in 1987. There are 3 faculties or colleges, the Faculty of Business and Science, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences.
The RES - The School for Renewable Energy Science, established in 2006, is also located in the city. This school offers graduate degrees in cooperation with two Icelandic universities.

Infrastructure


Transport
Akureyri Airport
Akureyri Airport, one of four international airports in Iceland and the only international airport in the north of the country, was constructed in 1955 replacing the airstrip at Melgerdismelar further to the south. The current airport is mostly used for domestic flights, with seasonal scheduled international flights. Air Iceland flies several times a day to Reykjavík, and there are also flights to Grimsey, Vopnafjörður, and Þórshöfn. Since 2006, Iceland Express has operated scheduled flights from Akureyri to Copenhagen during the summer.

In 2007, Akureyri Airport had a passenger traffic level of 221,200 and 19,778 aircraft movements.

Akureyri, viewed from the eastern shore of Eyjafjörður
The port of Akureyri is vital to the town, which largely bases its livelihood on fisheries. It is the site of large fish processing plants and has docking facilities for trawlers. It is also important for freight handling and for tourism, as cruise ships stop in Akureyri during the summer months. The ice free nature of the port has been important in the city"s establishment.

SBA-Norðurleið (Icelandic Bus Company) is a Akureyri based company that provides bus service to the city. The bus service within Akureyri is provided by the SVA (Akureyri Bus Company), which does not charge fares for bus journeys. The discontinuation of fares in 2008 resulted in a bus ridership increase of 130 percent compared to the previous year when fares were charged.

Roads
Route 1 or the Ring Road (Þjóðvegur 1 or Hringvegur) connects the city with the other parts of the country, including Reykjavik, which is 390 km away. Although the road is mostly one lane in each direction, it is paved and open year round. There are no long distance roads from Akureyri to the interior of the island. However, the F821 4WD road ascends from the head of the fjord and connects to the trans-Interior route F35.
Parking in the central area requires use of a parking disc indicating the time that parking has commenced. Parking is free but is limited in certain areas to a maximum period ranging from 15 minutes to 2 hours.

Utilities
Akureyri has been heated geothermally since the late 1970s. Starting in 1928, there were unsuccessful attempts to institute geothermal energy. During this period, electricity and oil were used for heating. Construction of a geothermal distribution system was begun in 1976 after a discovery of a commercially viable source in 1975. Distribution was widespread by 1979.

The Laugaland field near Akureyri was the first geothermal source commercially developed. The Ytri-Tjarnir field followed. With insufficient water flow, additional fields were developed at Botn in 1980, Glerardalur 2 km west of the city in 1981, and Thelamork 10 km north of the city in 1992. Water temperature is generally 65–75 C but can drop to 45 C during hot summer days. The costs of geothermal production is, at 32 mill/kwh, higher than the Icelandic national average of 11, but slightly less than the costs of home heating oil importation. There is diminishing excess capacity but known and untapped resources near the city. Furthermore, there have been proposals to reinject water to extend the life of the sources.

win cite
The following cities or towns have been designated twin cities with Akureyri:

* Ålesund, Norway
* Lahti, Finland
* Murmansk, Russia
* Randers, Denmark
* Västerås, Sweden

In 2007, a friendship and fisheries agreement was signed with Grimsby, United Kingdom which, according to Ice News, might lead to a twin cities designation in the future.

ote


eference
* .
* .
* .
* (In Icelandic and English.)
* (In Icelandic and English.)
* (In English.)
* (In English.)

External links

*
*
* , based in Akureyri




Category:Cities, towns and villages in Iceland
Category:
Category:Icelandic settlements on the Ring Road



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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 10.12.2018 14:56 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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