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Adana

Turkey, Adana
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"Adana" is a city in Turkey and a major agricultural and commercial center. The city is situated on Seyhan River, 30 km. inland from Mediterranean Sea, in south-central Anatolia. It is the administrative seat of Adana Province and has a population of over 1.5 million, making it the fifth most populous city in Turkey.

Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area, with a population of 2.75 million, stretches over 100 kilometres from east to west and 25 kilometres from north to south; encompassing the cities of Mersin, Tarsus, Adana and Ceyhan. It is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Turkey and one of the country"s leading centres of commerce and culture.

Adana lies in the heart of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.

tymolog
According to numerous sources, the name Adana is derived from the Hittite URU"Adaniya" of Kizzuwatna,See, e.g., . while others contend that it is related to the legendary character Danaus, or to the Danaoi (Achaeans), a mythological Greek tribe. In the "Iliad" of Homer, the city is called "Adana". In Hellenistic times, it was known as "Antiochia in Cilicia" () or "Antiochia ad Sarum" (Greek: Αντιόχεια η προς Σάρον; "Antiochia on the Sarus"). The editors of "The Helsinki Atlas" tentatively identify Adana as "Quwê" (as contained in cuneiform tablets), the Neo-Assyrian capital of Quwê province. The name also appears as "Coa", and may be the place referred to in the Bible, where King Solomon obtained horses. (I Kings 10:28; II Chron. 1:16). The Armenian name of the city is Ատանա "Atana".

According to an ancient Greco-Roman legend, the name has its origins in Adanus and Sarus, the two sons of Uranus, who came to a place near the Seyhan (Sarus) River, where they built Adana. An older legend relates the city"s name to Adad (also known as Tesup or Ishkur), the Thunder God in the Akkadian, Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian and Hittite mythologies, who was believed to live in the nearby forest, and whose name was given to the region. The Hittites" names and writings have been found in the area, evidencing this possibility. The theory goes that since the Thunder God brought so much rain and this rain in turn brought such great abundance in this particular region, this god was loved and respected by its inhabitants and, in his honor, the region was called the "Uru Adaniyya;" in other words "The Region of Ada."

Adana"s name has had many different versions over the centuries: Adanos, Ta Adana, Uru Adaniya, Erdene, Edene, Ezene, Batana, Atana, Azana, Addane.

eograph
Aerial view of Adana-North and the Seyhan Reservoir.
Adana is located at the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea, where it serves as the gateway to the Çukurova plain, which has historically been known in the West as the Cilician plain. This large stretch of flat, fertile land lies southeast of the Taurus Mountains, and is among the most agriculturally productive areas of the world.

From Adana, crossing the Çukurova westwards, the road from Tarsus enters the foothills of the Taurus Mountains. The temperature decreases with every foot of ascent, as the road reaches an altitude of nearly . It goes through the famous Cilician Gates, the rocky pass through which armies have coursed since the dawn of history, and continues to the Anatolian plain.

The north of the city is surrounded by the Seyhan reservoir and HEP, which was completed in 1956. The dam was constructed for hydroelectric power (HEP) and to irrigate the lower Çukurova plain. Two irrigation channels in the city flow to the plain, passing through the city center from east to west. There is another canal for irrigating the Yüreğir plain to the southeast of the city.

limat
Adana has a typical Mediterranean climate. Winters are warm and summers are hot and dry. Winters are about 13° to 15°C, and very humid and summers are 34° to 39°C.





istor
The history of Adana goes back more than 3000 years; archaeological finds in the region have revealed human settlements dating from the Paleolithic Age.

Tepebağ Tumulus, where archaeologists found a stone wall and a city center, was built in the Neolithic Age; it is considered to be the oldest city of the Cilicia region.

A place called "Adana" is mentioned by name in a Sumerian epic, the Epic of Gilgamesh, but the geography of this work is too imprecise to identify its location.

According to the Hittite inscription of Kava, found in Hattusa (Boğazkale), Kizzuwatna was the first kingdom that ruled Adana, under the protection of the Hittites by 1335 BC. At that time, the name of the city was "Uru Adaniyya", and the inhabitants were called Danuna. Beginning with the collapse of the Hittite Empire, c. 1191-1189 BC, invasions from the west caused a number of small kingdoms to take control of the plain, as follows: Kue Assyrians, 9th century BC; Cilician Kingdom, Persians, 6th century BC; Alexander the Great in 333 BC; Seleucids; the pirates of Cilicia; and Roman statesman Pompey the Great.

The history of Adana is intrinsically linked to the history of Tarsus; they often seem to be the same city, moving as the neighbouring Seyhan River changed its position, and the name changed too over the course of centuries. Adana was of relatively minor importance during the Roman period, while nearby Tarsus was the metropolis of the area. During the era of Pompey, the city was used as a prison for the pirates of Cilicia. For several centuries thereafter, it was a waystation on a Roman military road leading to the East. After the permanent split of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, the area became a part of the Byzantine Empire, and was probably developed during the time of Julian the Apostate. With the construction of large bridges, roads, government buildings, irrigation and plantation, Adana and Cilicia became the most developed and important trade centers of the region. Ayas (today Yumurtalık), and Kozan (formerly Sis) were the other major urban and administrative centers in the area, especially during the period of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.

iddle Age
Adana Castle and Muhammad Ali Paşa"s troops entering the city from Taşköprü
In the mid 7th century, the city was captured by the Arab Abbasids. According to an Arab historian of that era, the name of the city was derived from Ezene, the prophet Yazene"s grandson.

The Byzantines recaptured Adana in 964. After the victory of Alp Arslan at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuk Turks overran much of the Byzantine Empire. They had reached and captured Adana sometime before 1071 and continued to hold the place until Tancred, a leader of the First Crusade, captured the city in 1097.

In 1132, it was captured by the forces of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, under its king, Leo I. It was taken by Byzantine forces in 1137, but the Armenians regained it around 1170. In 1268 there was a terrible earthquake which destroyed much of the city. Adana was rebuilt and remained a part of the Kingdom of Cilician Armenia until 1375, when the city was ceded by Constantine III to the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt in return for obtaining a peace treaty. The Mamluks" capture of the city allowed many Turkish families to settle in it. The Ramazanoğlu family, one of the Turkish families brought by the Mamluks, ruled Adana until the Ottomans captured the city.

odern er
A view after Adana massacre.
İnönü - Churchill meeting in Adana
From the end of the Renaissance to the modern era (1517–1918), the Ottoman Empire ruled the area.

In the 1830s, in order to secure Egypt"s independence for the Ottoman Empire, the army of Muhammad Ali Pasha, the vali of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan, invaded Syria on two occasions, and reached the Adana plain. The soldiers of Muhammad Ali Pasha destroyed Adana Castle and the Walls, a major hit to city"s history. The subsequent peace treaty secured Egypt"s independence, but (at the insistence of Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) required the evacuation of all Egyptian forces from Syria, and its return to Ottoman sovereignty. In the aftermath, Adana was established as a province in its own right.

The Adana massacre occurred in the Ottoman Vilayet of Adana in April 1909. A religious-ethnic clash in the province amidst governmental upheaval resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district. Reports estimated that the massacres in the entire Vilayet of Adana resulted in 15,000 to 30,000 deaths. In 1915 Ottoman troops rounded up all Armenians (approx. 20,000) living in the city of Adana and marched them out into the Syrian dessert in the course of the Armenian Genocide, resulting in the complete eradication of the Armenian communities in and around the city.

After World War I, the Ottoman government surrendered control of the city to French troops, and the French Armenian Legion was sent to occupy Adana, which then went on a killing spree in the region, adding to the historical animosities.Dikran Boyadjian, Haygakan Lekeone, Badmagan Hushakrutiun (The Armenian Legion: A Historical Memoir) (Watertown: Baykar Printing, 1965), pp.195-198 The French commander had to disband the unit in embarrassment. In May 1919, the Armenians declared a short-lived independent state in Cilicia. During the Turkish War of Independence, Adana was strategically important. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk came to the city on October 31, 1918, and stayed there for eleven days. As a result, he decided to fight against the Allies, and the idea of "Kuvayi Milliye" was born.

Turkish nationalists fought against the Allied forces, and on October 20, 1921, the Treaty of Ankara was signed between France and the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Based on the terms of the agreement, France recognized the end of the Cilicia War, and French troops together with the Armenian volunteers withdrew from the city on January 5, 1922.

On 30 January 1943, British prime minister Winston Churchill secretly met with Turkish president İsmet İnönü inside a train wagon at the Yenice Station, 23 kilometres outside of Adana. Churchill wanted Turkey to join the Second World War on the side of the Allies; the details of which were later discussed at the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943, which was attended by İnönü, Churchill and Roosevelt.

The city was hit by a 5.9 magnitude earthquake (1998 Adana-Ceyhan earthquake) on June 27, 1998. The event killed 145 and left 1,500 people wounded and many thousand homeless in the city. The total economic loss was estimated about US$ 1 billion.

hronolog
Luvi Kingdom (1900 BC ), Arzava Kingdom (1500-1333 BC), Hittite Empire (1900-1200 BC), Assyrian Empire (713-663 BC), Persian Empire (550-333 BC), Hellenistic (333-323 BC), Seleucid Empire (312-133 BC), Pirates of Cilicia (178-112 BC), Romans (112 BC-395 AD), Byzantines(395-638; 964-1071), Abbasids, Great Seljuk Sultanate, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (1078-1375), Mamluks, Principality of Ramazanoğlu, Ottoman State, Republic of Turkey (current)

overnanc
Old City Hall during a National Day
Aerial view of Central Adana
Adana by night

The national government in Ankara still holds majority of power in city administration. Health, education, police and many other city related services are administered by Ankara, through an appointed Governor. Locally elected municipal governments are left with urban planning and infrastructure. With Greater Municipality Law introduced in 1989, the power was split between greater municipality and district municipality. Greater municipality takes care of construction and maintenance of major roads and parks, operating local transit and fire services. District municipality is responsible from neighborhood streets and parks, and operating garbage collection and cemetery services. Greater Municipality administers the entire city of Adana, whereas district municipalities administer their own district.

The City of Adana is made up of 5 districts; Seyhan, Yüreğir,Çukurova, Sarıçam and Karaisalı. Seyhan District, on the west bank of Seyhan River, is the cultural and business center of the city. D-400 state road (also called Turhan Cemal Beriker Boulevard within the city limits) is like an economical border dividing the district into north and south. Seyhan"s north of D-400, is economically the most developed part of the city. Along D-400, hotels, cultural centers, commercial and public buildings line up. Old town, located south of D-400, is the market place where traditional and modern shops serve the residents. South of the old town, is a low-income residential area.

The Çukurova District, not to be confused with the Çukurova region, lies north of the Seyhan District and south of the Seyhan Reservoir. It came into being in the last 30 years as city expanded towards north. Çukurova is a modern residential district with many amenities along the wide Turgut Özal Boulevard. Yüreğir District, located on the east bank of the river, consists of low-income residential areas and large scale industries. An extensive urban redevelopment plan is under effect in Sinanpaşa, which will convert the neighborhood into a modern residential area . District of Sarıçam lies north of Yüreğir and consists of former townships that are amalgamated to the City of Adana in 2008. Karaisalı, a rural area, although within the city limits, is not counted part of the urban zone.

Aytaç Durak is the mayor of Adana and the longest serving locally elected city mayor in Turkey; currently serving his 5th term: 1984 - 1989, and 1994 - present. He revolutionized the cityscape by revitalizing Seyhan River and building large recreation areas around it.

conom
Seyhan River
HiltonSA Hotel and Taşköprü
Adana is one of the first industrialized city and currently one of the economically developed cities of Turkey. With the construction of Seyhan Dam and improvements in agricultural techniques, there was an explosive growth in agricultural production during 1950"s. Large-scale industries were built along D-400 state road and Karataş road. Service industry, especially banking, also developed during this period.

Adana is the marketing and distribution center for Çukurova agricultural region, where cotton, wheat, corn, soy bean, barley, grapes and citrus fruits are produced in great quantities. Farmers of Adana produce half of the corn and soy bean in Turkey. 34% of Turkey"s peanut and 29% of Turkey"s orange is harvested in Adana. Most of the farming and agricultural-based companies of the region have their offices in Adana.

Adana is an industrialized city where large-scale industry is based mostly on agriculture. Textile and leather are the major industry constituting 29% of Adana"s manufacturing, plant oil and processed food manufacturing plants are also numerous. As of 2008, Adana has 11 companies in Turkey"s top 500 industrial firms. The largest company of Adana, TEMSA, in automotive manufacturing, has more than 2500 employees and manufactures 4000 buses annually. Marsan-Adana is the largest margarine and plant oil factory in Turkey. Advansa SASA is Europe"s largest polyester manufacturer employing 2650. Organized Industrial Region of Adana has an area of 1225 hectar and hosts almost 300 plants, mostly medium-scale.

A leading commercial center in southern Turkey, city hosts regional headquarters of many corporates and public institutions. TÜYAP Exhibition and Congress Center hosts fairs, business conferences and currently it is the main meeting point for businesses in Çukurova. Academic oriented 2000-seater Congress Center is expected to open in 2010 at Çukurova University campus. Tourism industry is developing as luxury hotels are built on the banks of Seyhan River and along D-400 state road. HiltonSA, Seyhan and Çukurova Sürmeli hotels are the 5-star hotels of the city. Sheraton hotel on the east bank of Seyhan River is currently under construction.

Media in Adana runs by national and local agencies. Yeni Adana is the oldest living newspaper in Adana dating back to 1918. Ekspres, Toros and Bölge are other local newspapers who serve not only to Adana, but to Çukurova in general. Çukurova TV is the largest broadcasting company.Kanal A, Akdeniz TV and Kent TV are the other major broadcasters. Many national newspapers have their regional publishing centers in Adana. Hürriyet publishes a supplement paper, Hürriyet Çukurova, the most popular regional newspaper that has circulation of 48,000.

Owing to the warm climate that residents can be outdoors all year long, Adana faces less of the shopping mall boom that is hitting Turkey in the last 20 years. CarrefourSA and M1 Tepe at the west end of the city are the two American-style shopping malls. Galleria Shopping Mall has been decided to be demolished by Greater Municipal Council due to being built on the river bank; an area zoned for recreation. Residents of Adana enjoy shopping from the shops along the streets. Çakmak Street is the historical shopping street of Adana.

Adana was named among the 25 "European Regions of the Future" for 2006/2007 by Foreign Direct Investment Magazine. Chosen alongside Kocaeli for Turkey, Adana scored the highest points for cost effectiveness against Kocaeli"s points for infrastructure development, while Adana and Kocaeli tied on points for the categories of human resources and quality of life.

emographic
In 2008, City of Adana borders are expanded by addition of rural Karaisalı district and the rural areas of Çukurova(district), Yüreğir and Sarıçam. Thus, 2008 population of the City of Adana is 1,572,583. However, Adana Urban Area is made up of the urban populations of the four metropolis districts; Seyhan, Çukurova(district), Yüreğir and Sarıçam. Population of Adana Urban Area as of 2008 is;



Two-thirds of the residents of Adana live on the west bank of Seyhan River on where the city was first founded. Seyhan is the most diverse district. Çukurova district has a good community of seniors from all over Turkey who prefer to enjoy their retirement in the warm climate of Çukurova region.

The major ethnic groups in Adana are the Turks, Arabs and Kurds. New generations of Arabs do not speak Arabic as they are mostly assimilated into Turkish culture. Arab community is concentrated in Yüreğir on the east bank of Seyhan River. Kurds, once a small community in Adana, with the massive migration during 1990"s, now form almost one third of Adana. Kurds mostly live in southern neighborhoods of the city. Conos, a tribe of Roma people of Romania, settled in Adana during Balkan Wars. Conos mainly live around Sinanpaşa neighborhood. Around eight-thousand Romani people live in Adana Province including Conos. There"s also a sizeable community of migrants from Balkans and Caucasia who also settled in Adana during Balkan Wars and before.

An estimated two-thousand families of Crypto-Armenians live in Adana, identifying themselves as Arabs, Kurds or Alevis for the last one century. There is also a good number of descendents of Armenian children who were given to Muslim families to foster in 1915, either by their Armenian parents or by the Ottoman officials. Armenians and Greeks were to constitute half of the population of Adana before 1915.

Adana is home to a community of around two-thousand British and Americans serving to the Incirlik NATO Air Base; some of them residing at the base, many of them residing in the city. Before 2003, the community numbered up to 22,000, but declined after, when many troops stationed to Iraq.

Majority of Adana residents adhere to Sunni Islam. Majority of Turks, most of the Kurds and some of the Arabs are Sunni Muslim. Adana is also a stronghold of Alevi Muslim community, many Alevis moving to the city from Kahramanmaraş after the massacre of 1978. Arabs of Adana are mostly Alawi which is often confused with Alevis. Nusayri and "Fellah" terms are also used for Alawi Arabs who are currently the oldest community of Adana. Arabs that migrate to Adana from Şanlıurfa Province are Sunni Muslims. There is a tiny community of Roman Catholics and few Jewish families.

ityscap
rchitectur
Büyüksaat
Sabancı Merkez Camii
Ulu Camii

The golden age for the architecture of Adana was the late 15th and the 16th century when Ramazanoğlu Dynasty chose Adana as their capital. City grow rapidly during that period with many new neighborhoods had been built. Most of the historical landmarks of Adana are built during this period, thus Mamluk and Seljukid architecture are dominant in Adana"s architectural history. Taşköprü is the only remaining landmark from Roman-Byzantine era, and few public buildings were built during the Ottoman rule.

At the historical neighborhood of "Tepebağ" (), the first developments dates back to neolithic age. Once surrounded by walls, Tepebağ is steps away from Taşköprü and in between there used to stand a castle. A wealthy Armenian neighborhood back in the Ottoman Era, Tepebağ reflects the Armenian architecture of the city with fine houses, stone made schools and churches; the most striking structure being the old American High School for Girls. Tepebağ is currently being converted into an archeological park, in which the houses and the public buildings from the 18th century will be restored and converted into boutique hotels, cafes and restaurants, besides the archeological excavations.

"Taşköprü" ("Stone Bridge"), a Roman bridge, was built in the 4th century by architect Auxentios. It is 319 metres long and 13 metres high, and was built on 21 arches which get larger towards the center. Today, 14 of the arches remain. There are two lion artworks on the largest arch. Until 2007, Taşköprü was the oldest bridge in the world to be open to motorized vehicles. It was then set for pedestrians only and now hosting social and cultural events.

"Büyük Saat Kulesi" ("The Great Clock Tower"), built by the local governor of Adana in 1882, is the tallest clock tower in Turkey rising 32m high. It was damaged during French occupation, but was rebuilt in 1935, and its image can be found in the city"s coat of arms. "Kazancılar Çarşısı" (Bazaar of Kazancilar), founded around the "Büyük Saat".

"Ramazanoğlu Hall" was built in 1495 during the reign of Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey. A three-storey building, made of stone, it is one of the oldest sample of a house in Turkey. This hall is the Harem section, where Ramazanoğlu family lived. Selamlık section, where the government offices were, do not exist today.

"Çarşı Hamamı" ("Turkish bath of the Bazaar") was built in 1529 by Ramazanoğlu Piri Paşa and it is the largest hamam in Adana. It is built with 5 domes and inside is covered with marbles. During the time it was built, water was brought from Seyhan River by water wheels and canals.

"Irmak Hamamı" ("Turkish bath of the River"), located next to Seyhan District Hall, was built in 1494 by Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey on the ruins of an ancient Roman bath. It"s water comes from the river. Other historical hamams in the city are Mestenzade Bath and Yeni Bath.

"Mosques"

Sabancı Merkez Camii, though not being historical, is the most visited mosque in Adana, as it being one of the largest mosques in the Middle East. The mosque was opened in 1998 and can accommodate 28500 prayers. It is built in loyalty to Ottoman Architecture. The mosque possesses six minarets, four of them having height of 99 meters. Dome has a diameter of 32 meters and it is 54 meters high from praying area. It is located on the west bank of Seyhan River at the corner of Seyhan Bridge and can be seen from a wide area.

Ulu Camii, a külliye built in 1541 during Ramazanoğlu era, is the most interesting medieval structure of Adana with its mosque, madrasah and türbe. The mosque has black and white marble with decorative window surrounds and it is famous for the 16th century Iznik tiling used in its inner space. The minaret is a unique sample with the Mamluk effects it bears and with its orthogonal plan scheme.

Yağ Camii was originally built as Church of St.James, then converted into a mosque by Ramazanoğlu Halil Bey in 1501. Later, his successor Piri Mehmet Paşa added it"s minaret in 1525 and its madrasah in 1558. It is in the Seljukid Grand Mosque style and has an attractive gate made of yellow stone.

" Yeni Cami (New Mosque)" was built in 1724 by Abdülrezzak Antaki, and still known as Antaki Mosque by some. The influence of Mamluk architecture is visible. It is built in rectangular order and has an interesting stonework on south walls.

Alemdar Mescidi, Şeyh Zülfi Mescidi, Kızıldağ Ramazanoğlu Mosque, Hasan Aga Camii (16th Century Wooden Architecture constructed without nails) are some other mosques with historical value.

"Churches"

In the 19th century, city had 4 churches; 2 Armenian, 1 Greek and 1 Latin. Saint Paul Catholic Church ("Bebekli Kilise") was built in 1870 and used as an Armenian Church until 1915. It is currently serving to Roman Catholic community of the city. It is located in old town, close to 5 Ocak Square. On Abidinpaşa Street, there used to stand a larger Armenian Church. During the republic period, the church was demolished and Central Bank (Merkez Bankası) regional headquarters was built instead. Latin Church was built in 1845 at Kuruköprü area and converted into a museum in 1924.

arks and Garden

Dilberler Sekisi
Merkez Park
Adana has plenty of parks and gardens, mostly well maintained. Owing to the warm climate, parks and gardens are open all year long without the need of winter maintenance.

Recreational pathways on both banks of Seyhan River cross the entire city from south end to Seyhan Reservoir. Pathway then connects to Adnan Menderes Boulevard which goes all the way along the southern shores of Seyhan Reservoir, and the wide sidewalks of the boulevard extend the pathway to the west end of the reservoir. "Dilberler Sekisi" is the most scenic part of the pathway which is along the west bank, in between the old and the new dam.Recreational pathway along the north side of the irrigation canal goes from east end to west end of the city, crossing Seyhan River from old dam"s pathway. Some sections of this pathway has not completed yet. Once completed, within the city there will be almost 30 km of continuous recreational pathway connecting several parks along.

Merkez Park is a 33-hectar urban park that is located on both banks of Seyhan River, just north of Sabancı Mosque. It has a magnificent landscaping, carrying wide variety of trees and plants in an open concept. With 2100-seater amphitheatre, a Chinese Garden, and two cafes, it is the main recreational area of the city. In the park, there is a Rowing Club which serves recreational rowers.

"Atatürk Park" is a 4.7-hectar city park built during the first years of Republic. It is centrally located at the commercial district. The park holds a statue of Atatürk and hosts Public Ceremonies.

"Süleyman Demirel Arboretum" is a large botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended partly for the scientific study of Çukurova University researchers. Arboretum is also used for educational and recreational purposes by city residents. 512 species of plants exists in the arboretum.

"İnönü Botanical Garden" exhibits the rich variety of Çukurova flowers, located next to Adana Court of Justice.

"Çobandede Park" is a 16.5-hectar park at the west shore of Seyhan Reservoir. It is situated on a hill and has a nice scenery of Reservoir and around. The park hosts the tomb of Çoban Dede, a wiseman from Karslı Village. Many people visit the tomb every year to pray and wish for him.

"Yaşar Kemal Woods" is a hiking area on the east bank of Seyhan River across Dilberler Sekisi. It is dedicated to Çukurova native writer Yaşar Kemal.

"Çatalan Woods" is a large recreational area in between Çatalan and Seyhan Reservoirs, north of the city, in Karaisalı district.

ociety and Culture
erforming Art
Adana Center for Arts & Culture
Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra performed its first concert in 1992 and since then, the orchestra is performing twice a week from October to May at Greater Municipality Theater Hall. The orchestra consists of 39 musicians and conduct regular tours in Turkey and abroad.

Adana State Theater opened its stage in 1981 at Sabancı Cultural Center. It performs regularly from October to May.

"Adana Town Theater" was founded in 1880 to be the first theater in Adana by governor Ziya Paşa. In 1926, the theater moved to the newly built Community Center. Town Theater currently performs weekly at Greater Municipality Theater Hall. Greater Municipality Theater Hall also hosts Town Chorus and community theater, folklor and concert performances.

Seyhan Town Theater and Seyhan Folkloric Dances stage weekly at the 1000-seater Theater Hall of Seyhan Cultural Center.

Amphitheaters in Adana host performances from April to November. Mimar Sinan Amphitheater, the largest in Adana, can accommodate 8000 guests and hosts concerts and movies. It is located at the west bank of Seyhan River. 2100-seater Merkez Park Amphitheater, 3000-seater Çukurova University Amphitheater and Doğal Park Amphitheater in Çukurova District also hosts theaters, concerts and cinemas.

Recently, historical buildings are restored and converted into cultural centers. 515 year old Ramazanoğlu Hall and 130 year old former High School for Girls (now called Adana Center for Arts & Culture) serve as cultural centers hosting art exhibitions and cultural events.

useums & Art Gallerie
Emperor Hadrian, 2nd century CE
Atatürk Museum
"Adana Archeological Museum" was opened in 1924; one of the oldest museums in Turkey. It moved to its current location at the west corner of Seyhan Bridge in 1972. The museum exhibits archeological works from all over Çukurova. Notable works are; two Augustus statues from Hittites, Achilles Sarcophagus depicting Trojan War and statues from Magarsus and Augusta ancient cities.

"Adana Ethnography Museum" was opened in 1983 after Archeological Museum moved to its new location. At the front and back yard there are epitaph and gravestones of Adana"s leading figures of 17th century. On the west yard, there are inscriptions of Stone Bridge, Misis Bridge, old City Hall and Bahripaşa Fountain. Inside, there are clothings, jewellery and weaponry of Yörük villagemen.

"Atatürk Museum" exhibits War of Independence and first years of Republic at the mansion, Atatürk stayed during his trips to Adana.

"Misis Mosaic Museum", on city"s far east end at the west bank of Ceyhan River, exhibits mosaics that were on the basement of a 4th century temple in the ancient city of Misis. Mosaic depicts Noah and 23 birds and poultry that he took to his ship during the flood. Museum also exhibits the works that were excavated from Misis Tumulus.

"State Fine Arts Gallery" was opened in Sabancı Cultural Center in 1982. It carries 59 plastic piece of art. 75.Yıl Art Gallery in Atatürk Park, Adana City Hall Art Gallery and Art Gallery in Seyhan Cultural Center are the other public art galleries.

estival
Art Exhibition at Taşköprü during Sabancı Theatre Festival
Altın Koza International Film Festival is one of the top film festivals in Turkey, taking place every year in June since 1969. During Altın Koza of 2009, 212 international films were shown in 11 movie theatres across the city. Long Film Contest, International Student Film Contest and Mediterrenean Cultures Film Contest are held during the festival.

"International Sabancı Theater Festival" is held every year in April since 1999. In 2009 festival hosted 16 theatre groups who performed 20 plays. 6 of the theater groups attended from Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Egypt and Kyrgyzistan. Opening ceremony of the festival was held at Taşköprü with a Dimonis Show by Spanish Comediants Group.

"International Çukurova Instrumental Music Festival" is a 2-week long festival held annually in Adana, Antakya and Gaziantep. In 2009, the festival took place for the 5th time with an opening concert from Çukurova State Symphony Orchestra. Bariton Marcin Bronikowski, pianist Vania Batchvarova, guitarist Peter Finger, cello Ozan Tunca and pianist Zöhrap Adıgüzelzade were some of the musicians performed at the festival.

"Çukurova Art Days" is a regional festival that takes place every April since 2007. 115 poets, painters, musicians and caricaturists from 10 different countries attended festival in 2009, which took place in Adana, Mersin, Gaziantep, Antakya, İskenderun, Tarsus and Aleppo. 77 talks, 13 concerts, 13 exhibitions, 4 panels and 23 film showing were held during the 4 days of the festival.

"13 Kare Arts Festival" began in 1999 as a festival of photography dedicated to 13 photographers of Adana who died in an accident during an AFAD (Adana Photography Amateurs Association) trip. Festival then extended to other arts. During the festival, exhibitions of nature, under-sea and architecture photography, puppet shows, shadow theater and several concerts are held. Festival takes place every December.

"Adana Literature Festival" held every April at Adana Center for Arts & Culture. Around 100 writers, poets and critics attend the festival and performing several talks, panels and presentations.

"Seyhan Cultural Events" is a month long festival during Ramadan. During the festival, theater plays, sufi music concerts, folkloric dances and children shows held at Seyhan Cultural Center.

port
Adanademirspor - Adanaspor game at 5 Ocak Stadium.
Sailing competition at Seyhan Reservoir
Football is the most popular sports in Adana. Adanaspor and Adanademirspor are two well-known clubs of Adana that appear in Turkish Professional Football League. Both clubs were highly successful, performing at the top division (now called Super Lig), from late 60"s to mid 90"s, but relegated to lower divisions since then. Adanaspor was the runner up at the top division in 1980-81 season and competed there for 21 years. Adanaspor also performed at the UEFA Cup for three years. Adanademirspor was the runner up at the Turkish Cup in 1977-1978 season and performed at the top division for 17 years. Both teams have almost equal number of passionate fans in every district of the city, creating an archrival atmosphere second to İstanbul. Both teams share 5 Ocak Stadium as their venue.

Basketball is also popular in Adana as Botaşspor being one of the top clubs in Women"s Pro-Basketball, currently performing at the top division. The team has won the Turkish Women"s Basketball League(TBBL) top division title in 2000-01 and 2002-03 and the Turkish Cup title in 2001-02 and 2002-03. Botaşspor was the runner up at the Euro Cup Women in 2000-01 season and played the quarter final in 1999-00. The venue of Botaşspor is Adnan Menderes Sports Center.

Rowing became a popular sports in Adana in the last 20 years. Rowing competitions are held all year long on Seyhan River and Seyhan Reservoir. Adana Greater Municipality Rowing Club and Çukurova University Rowing Club compete at the national and international level. Sailing competitions are also held at Seyhan Reservoir all year long. Recreational sailors and sailing competitions can be watched all along the shores of the reservoir, from parks, cafes and buildings around. Adana Sailing & Watersports Club is the only sailing club of Adana.

Waterpolo team of Adanademirspor is a legend in the watersports community of Turkey. The team has the record 22 years of straight championship title in Turkish Men"s Waterpolo League, 17 years of it without losing a game and thus given the name, "Unbeatables". Adanademirspor joined Waterpolo league in 1942 after the modernest watersports complex of Turkey opened in Adana in 1938. The team had total of 29 championship titles.

Swimming has been recreationally and competitively the traditional sports of Adana. Erdal Acet of Adanademirspor is one of the top figures in Adana"s swimming history, who brake the record of swimming Canal La Manche (English Channel) in 9 hours and 2 minutes in 1976. Recreationally, the lack of swimming pools made Seyhan River and the irrigation canals attractive for swimmers who want to chill out from the hot and humid summers. Due to almost 100 people suffocating every year, the Greater Municipality built 35 public swimming pools, mostly at the low-income neighborhoods, only within the last 10 years.

Adana is one of the cities of Turkey that Horse racing is highly popular. Adana Hippodrome is traditionally one of the four hippodromes of Turkey, hosting Horse racing competitions from October to May.

uisin
Adana kebab
Cuisine of Adana and Çukurova influenced mainly from Yörük, Arabic and Armenian cuisine, and the city kept to its traditions tightly. Spicy, sour and fatty dishes made of meat and bulghur are common. Bulghur and flour are found at all the kitchens in Çukurova. In almost every home, red pepper, spices, tahini, chopping block and pastry board can be found. The bulghur used in cooking is specific to Adana, made from dark colored hard wheat species. Bulghur that is made of other species of wheat is not used in area, because of the missing flavor.

Adana Kebab, called "Kıyma Kebabı" locally, is a kebab made from minced meat. Since it can be found at all kebab restaurants in Turkey and at most Turkish restaurants around the world, Adana name still bears kebab to many people. Adana Kebab is the most popular dining choice in Adana, although foods from other cultures are getting increasingly popular. Besides many kebab restaurants, there are also many kebab serving vendors on the older streets of Adana.

Adana Kebab is usually served with onion salad, green salad or with well-chopped tomato salad and Rakı, Şalgam is usually accompanied with it as a drink. There are many varieties of salads typical to the city. Radish salad with tahini is popular and it is found only in the Çukurova region. Şalgam and pickle juice are the drinks of the winter and aşlama (licorice juice) is the choice of drink in summer.

Vegetable dishes are also popular in the city. Besides the tomato paste, pepper paste is used in almost every dish. The city is also famous for its "Şırdan" a kind of home-made sausage stuffed with rice, and eaten with cumin; "paça", boiled sheep"s feet; "bicibici" (pronounced as bee-jee-bee-jee) made from diced semolina, rose water and sugar, and served with crushed ice, consumed especially in summer time. Furthermore, the city has a number of famous desserts, such as "Halka Tatlı", a round-shaped dessert, and "Taş Kadayıf", a bow-shaped dessert. Several types of fruit, including the apricot, are native to this area.

ducatio
Çukurova University
Public, private and not-for profit foundation institutions conduct education in Adana. There are 282 public and 12 private primary schools which pupils attend from grade 1 to 8. From grade 9 to 11, pupils go to one of the 85 public and 26 private high schools. Notable high schools of the city that require examination to enter are; Adana Fen Lisesi (Lycee for Science), Adana Anadolu Lisesi (Anatolian Lycee) and Bilfen Lisesi (Private). There are also 6 public and 6 private schools for pupils with special needs. 9 Community Training Centers serve adult residents to improve their skills.

"Higher Education"

Çukurova University is a state university located at the east shores of Seyhan Reservoir. University was founded in 1973 with the union of the colleges of Agriculture and Medicine. It has a beautiful campus overlooking to the reservoir and the forests around. The university is one of the well developed universities of Turkey with many cultural, social and athletic facilities, currently holding 40,000 students.

"Çağ University" is a not-for-profit tuition-based university founded in 1997. The university is located just outside of City of Adana, midway to Tarsus. University holds around 2500 students, most of them commuting from Adana, Tarsus and Mersin. Faculty of Management is the most popular school in the university.

ransportatio
Adana Train Station

As being on the major route that is connecting Europe to Middle East, Adana is well served by many forms of transportation. Until the 16th century, Adana was a port city where ships could navigate on Seyhan River to the port just south of Taşköprü.

"International":

Direct flights to London, Düsseldorf, Munich and Nicosia (Cyprus-North) from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport runs by Turkish Airlines and Cyprus Turkish Airlines.

Mersin-Aleppo Train connects Adana and the rest of Çukurova region to Aleppo, the largest metropolitan area of Syria. This train service started in 2008, but did not get popular, as the ride from Adana to Aleppo takes 8 hours. Hatay-based buses take this distance in 3-3.5 hours.

"National":

Turkish Airlines, Pegasus Airlines, Onur Air and SunExpress provide daily flights to Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Antalya and Trabzon from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport.

Varda railway bridge on the Taurus Mountains.

Turkish State Railways(TCDD) provides trips to most of the cities in Turkey from Adana"s historical Train Station. Trains are very slow, as it takes 12 hours to get from Adana to Ankara, but for scenery the trip is worth. One can enjoy seeing the bridges and tunnels built by German Engineers in the late 19th century while crossing Taurus Mountains. Varda Bridge is one of this route"s many engineering wonders. Konya-Mersin-Adana High-Speed Rail, which is expected to start running by 2015, will drop trip time between Adana and Ankara to 3 hours.

Numerous bus companies provide service to almost all the cities in Turkey. Although lost its popularity as private airlines introduced inexpensive flights to major cities, bus is still the major form of transportation to and from Adana. Adana has two intercity bus terminals. Bus companies that serve transportation to cities west of Adana, departs from Central Bus Terminal, whereas the buses that serve to cities east of Adana depart from Yüreğir Bus Terminal. There is shuttle service between two terminals.

"Regional":

Mersin-Adana Train runs as a commuter train serving every 20 minutes between Mersin, Tarsus and Adana. With the new railbuses, train trip between Adana and Mersin takes 45 minutes. Train service from Adana to Ceyhan, Osmaniye, Iskenderun and Gaziantep run only once or twice per day. Regional bus services from Adana to other cities of Çukurova are plentiful and carried by bus and minibus co-operatives. Seasonal Bus Services to high plains of Tekir, Bürücek and Kızıldağ run in summer, due to high demand of Adana residents escaping the heat.

"Driving":

Adana Metro Map
There is an extensive highway network (O50-O59) in the region, connecting Adana to as far as Erdemli at the west, Niğde at the north, Şanlıurfa at the east and Iskenderun at the south. Traffic runs smooth at anytime of the day, driving can take as short as 30 minutes to Mersin and 1.5 hours to Gaziantep. Adana boasts having wide streets and less traffic jams when comparing to other large cities of Turkey. Driving gets difficult in the old town where it is still the commercial center of the city.

ocal Transi
Local Transit, as in other cities in Turkey, served separately by Greater Municipality (through buses and future metro) and by Dolmuş (Minibus) and Bus Co-operatives.

"Adana Greater Municipality Bus Department (ABBO)" serves the city with 229 buses, 8 of them designed specifically for the disabled residents. Payments are collected by Kentkart Smartcard system; one of the most advanced in Turkey. Most of the bus drivers are women.

"Adana Metro" is a Rapid Transit system that is scheduled to open in January 2010. The construction started in 1997, but stopped for 6 years due to financial reasons. Adana Metro is 13.5 km long and has 13 stations which 3 of them are underground. The line starts at the very north of the city in Çukurova district and goes all the way south, crossing Seyhan River just south of the old town and turning north in Yüreğir District and ending at Akıncılar, next to Yüreğir Bus Terminal. Second Line of Adana Metro will be running from Akıncılar to Çukurova University in Sarıçam District. Second line will be 9 km. long and will have 7 stations. Construction of the second line will start in December 2009.

6 Bus Co-operatives (known as Can buses) serve with 411 buses. Kentkart and cash are accepted at these buses. 18 Dolmuş Co-operatives with total of 1086 minibuses serve even to the secondary streets. The only form of payment is by cash.

otable native

* Abidin Dino - Painter, Sculptor, Author
* Ali Erdemir - Scientist in metallurgy
* Ali Özgentürk - Director
* Ali Sabancı - Businessman, member of the Sabancı family in 3rd generation
* Arzu Özyiğit - Female basketball player
* Ayşe Arman - Leading journalist
* Aytaç Arman - Actor
* Bedri Baykam - Painter
* Bilge Kösebalaban - Rock music guitarist and vocalist
* Cenk Koray - Talkshow Host
* Can Kozanoğlu - Author, Editor
* Demir Demirkan - Rock musician and songwriter
* Demir Karahan - Actor
* Emrah Efe Aslaner - Musician, Plastic surgeon
* Erol Büyükburç - Pop Music Singer - Turkish pop music
* Eyüp Can - Journalist
* Faruk Loğoğlu - Former Ambassador
* Fatih Terim - Former football player, ex-manager of Galatasaray S.K., ACF Fiorentina and AC Milan, and present-day Coach of the Turkish national football team
* Feridun Düzağaç - Musician, Columnist
* Ferdi Tayfur - Singer, composer and actor
* Haluk Levent - Rock singer
* Hasan Şaş - Galatasaray footballer
* İrfan Mavruk - Nuclear Scientist, Inventor, Missile Design Engineer
* İsmail Safa Özler - Former Politician and Minister of Education
* İsmet Atlı - Olympic medalist wrestler

* Kasım Gülek - Statesman
* Kıvanç Tatlıtuğ - Actor and male supermodel
* Mehmet Sabancı - Businessman, member of the Sabancı family in 3rd generation
* Murat Kekilli - Rock singer
* Rock Singer
* Mustafa Cihan — Mount Everest summiter
* Mustafa İnan - Physicist
* Muzaffer İzgü - Writer
* Nebil Özgentürk - Journalist, Editor
* Orhan Kemal - Novelist
* Ozan Çolakoğlu - Composer, songwriter, music producer
* Ömer Sabancı - Businessman, member of the Sabancı family in 3rd generation
* Özdemir Sabancı - Businessman, member of the Sabancı family in 2nd generation
* Özgür Peştimalci - Rock music drummer
* Ramazan Sarıboğa - Educationist, writer
* Serra Sabancı — Businesswoman, member of the Sabancı family in 3rd generation
* Suna Kan - Classical music violinist
* Suphi Baykam - Statesman
* Şaziye İvegin - Female basketball player
* Şener Şen - Actor
* Tayyibe Gülek - Economist and politician
* Turgut Aykaç - Olympic medalist boxer
* Yaşar Kemal - Writer
* Yılmaz Güney - Actor and film director
* Yılmaz Köksal - Actor


nternational relation

win towns — sister citie
Adana is twinned with:

*20px Córdoba, Spain
* Beer Sheba, Israel
* Schymkent, Kazakhstan
* Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
* Bremerhaven, Germany
* Skopje, Macedonia
* Saint Petersburg, Russia
*20px Livorno, Italy

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Category:Çukurova

Category:Archaeological sites in Turkey
Category:Cilicia
Category:Cities along the Silk Road
Category:Ancient Greek sites in Turkey
Category:Ancient Greek cities
Category:Hellenistic colonies
Category:Hittite cities
Category:Roman sites in Turkey
Category:Cities, towns and villages in Adana Province

ar:أضنة
bs:Adana
br:Adana
bg:Адана
ca:Adana
cs:Adana
da:Adana
de:Adana
et:Adana
el:Άδανα
es:Adana
eo:Adana
eu:Adana (Turkia)
fa:آدانا
fr:Adana
gl:Adana
ko:아다나
hy:Ադանա
hr:Adana
id:Adana
it:Adana
he:אדנה
ka:ადანა (ქალაქი)
sw:Adana
ku:Edene
lv:Adana
lt:Adana
hu:Adana
mk:Адана
mn:Адана
nl:Adana (stad)
ja:アダナ
no:Adana
pl:Adana
pt:Adana
ro:Adana
ru:Адана
sq:Adana
simple:Adana
sl:Adana
sr:Адана
fi:Adana
sv:Adana
tl:Adana
tr:Adana
tk:Adana
uk:Адана
ug:Adana
war:Adana
diq:Adana
zh:阿达纳
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